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Section four

Regulation of respiratory

movement
Question
 Your respiratory rate changes. for example When
active, your respiratory rate goes up; when less
active, or sleeping, the rate goes down. Also, even
though the respiratory muscles are voluntary, you
can't consciously control them when you're
sleeping. So, how is respiratory rate altered & how
is respiration controlled when you're not
consciously thinking about respiration?
一 . Formation of respiratory
center and respiratory rhythm
(一) respiratory center
Respiratory center is
composed of several
groups of nerve cells which
produce and regulate
respiratory movement in
central nervous system.
Brainstem Section With and
without Vagal Afferent Feedback
1. Section above the pons
causes no significant
alteration of normal
respiratory rhythm.
 Vagotomy removes
afferent input from
stretch receptors.
Inspiration is enhanced
because the Hering-
Breuer Response is
abolished.
Brainstem Section With and
without Vagal Afferent Feedback
2. Section at midpontine level
increases the depth of
breathing because signals from
the pneumotaxi center in upper
pons normally terminate
inspiration.
 When vagotomy is added,
apneuses (sustained inspiratory
effort,) results.
长吸
Brainstem Section With and
without Vagal Afferent Feedback
3. Section between
medulla and pons.
Respiration is rhythmic
(gasping) if somewhat
irregular. Vagotomy
has little effect. This
shows that basic
respiratory rhythm
generator is at
medullary levels or
below
summary
Superior part of pons
--Pneumotaxic center
Middle and bottom part of
pon-- apneustic center
medulla oblongata--basical
respiratory center
spinal cord-- primary
respiratory center
Found by Electrostimulating brain stem, recording the
discharging of brain stem nerve cells.
Central Nervous Svstem :
Inspiration neuron--discharging before inspiration, ending at
the end of inspiration.
Expiration neuron-- discharging after inspiration, lasting until
the end of expiration.
Inspiration– expiration neuron ( IEN )- discharging from
inspiratory to expiratory phase. The frequency
of discharging is highest when changing phases.
Expiration --Inspiration neuron ( EIN ) --discharging from
expiratory to inspiratory phase. The frequency
of discharging is highest when changing phases.
Inspiration neuron (divided by property )
Iα (motor neuron)— controlling diaphragm muscle
motor neuron of the other side. the discharging
is inhibited when enlarging lung.
Iβ ( sensory neuron)—accepting impulse of Iα
and pulmonary stretch receptor. liminal value
is moderate high.
Iγ (motor neuron)— controlling the External
intercostal muscle motor neuron of the
other side
Iδ (motor neuron)—discharging only at the
earlier period of inspiration, inhibiting
the activity of expiration neuron.
二 . Respiratory “Rhythm
Generation”
 Breathing is rhythmic, and depends on
“pacemaker like” activity in brain stem
neurons that alternately turn the
inspiratory neurons on and on
 Expiratory neurons are generally silent
at rest, but are activated when breathing
activity must be increased
NPBM , KF nucleus
+

Central inspiratory – Inspiratory off-


activity generator switch mechanism
+ (ISO)
Inspiratory neurons +
+
Motor neurons of
inspiratory muscle Vagal nerve
+
Inspiration→expand
lung→stimulate
stretch receptors of
lung
the nocleus parabrachialis medialis ( NPBM )
c. respiratory reflexes

1 Pulmonary stretch reflex


(Hering- Breuer reflex)
2 Chemoreceptivity
respiration reflex
(一) Pulmonary stretch reflex (Hering-Breuer reflex)

Charge gas Lobe of lung expands Draw gas Lobe of lung diminish strongly
Inspiration neurs inhibited Inspiration neurs excited
Expiration neurs excited Expiration neurs inhibited
Cease at expiratory phase Cease at inspiratory phase

pulmonary dilataltion reflex pulmonary diminution reflex


(inspiration inhibition reflex ) (inspiration excitation reflex)
Pulmonary Stretch Reflex
Inspiration Inflate lung Stretched airway

↑ Inspiratory neurons activity Stretch receptor excited

↑Vagal input
↓ Inhibition for
inspiratory neurons
↑ IOS activity

Deflate lung Expiration Off-switch inspiration


(二) Chemoreceptivity respiration reflex
1 . Chemoreceptor
( 1 ) peripheral chemoreceptor Carotid body and aortic
body: stimulated when PCO2 in blood increases, PO2 in blood decrease,
H+ Concentration in blood increase.
The stimulation to carotid body is about 7 times of
aortic body.
Central Chemoreceptors
 Receptors are located just beneath the
ventral surface of the medulla
 They respond to increased hydrogen ion
concentration in the cerebral spinal fluid
(CSF).
 The increased hydrogen ion concentration in
the CSF is the result of CO2 that diffuses into
the CSF from the blood and forms hydrogen
ions.
 This is why the central chemoreceptors are
said to be “CO2 sensitive receptors” .
central chemoreceptor

Sensitive to pH in
cerebrospinal fluid.
Determined by blood
PCO2
CO2 diffuses across
blood-brain
barrier
Increasing PaCO2
leads to decreasing
pH in CSF
2. Regulation of CO2 , H+ and
O2 to respiration
( 1 ) Influence of CO2 to respiration
a. Act indirectly to central chemoreceptor
(main pathway)
When PCO2 of arterial blood increase
2mmHg, it can induce reaction reflect.
b. Act directly to peripheral chemoreceptor.
When PCO2 of arterial blood increase
10mmHg, it can induce reaction .
The sensibitity of central chemoreceptor to H+ is about 25 times of that of peripheral chemoreceptor.
( 2 ) Effect of O2 to respiration
1 ) character
a. Hypoxia stimulation act through peripheral
chemoreceptor. if the inputing of peripheral
chemoreceptor is cut, the stimulation effect
disappear.
b. The direct effect of hypoxia to center is light
inhibition.
c. Mild hypoxia ( PO2 > 80mmHg ) has no
obvious effect to respiration.
2 ) The pathway of hypoxia regulating
respiration
The main pathway is acting directly on
peripheral chemoreceptor and inputting
impulse . respiration center is excited.
( 3 ) Effect of H+ to respiration
1 ) Increasing H+ or decreasing PH can faster
respiration. It is the effective stimulator to
chemoreceptor.
2 ) Pathway of H+ regulating respiration
a. H+ in blood increases—excites peripheral
chemoreceptor mainly
b. H+ in Spinal Fluid increases-- excites central
chemoreceptor
Summary

 CO2 is a physiological stimulator for


breath control via central
chemoreceptor mainly.
 Decrease of PO2 causes deep and fast
breath via peripheral chemoreceptor.
 Decrease of pH results deep and fast
breath via either central or
peripheral chemoreceptor.