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THE 5 Ps

PROPER
PREPARATION
PREVENTS
POOR
PERFORMANCE
WHAT IS FOOD?
is any substance consumed to
provide nutritional support for the
body.
NUTRIENTS- are chemical substances
in foods that act as a team to provide
energy, to support growth,
maintenance and repair of tissues,
and to regulate body processes.
WHAT IS FOOD QUALITY?
A composite of several criteria
determined by the stimuli coming
from the food itself as well as
attitudes attached by the consumer
to the food; includes nutritional
quality, digestibility, palatability,
economy and sanitary quality.


ASPECTS OF FOOD QUALITY
NUTRITIONAL QUALITY- food are sources
of nutrients grouped as water, proteins, fats, vitamins
and minerals
DIGESTIBILITY- refers to completeness of
digestion and absorption; general feeling and after-
effect feeling of food
PALATABILITY FACTORS- eating quality of a
food as judged by the human senses


ECONOMY IN THE USE OF
RESOURCES- considers food cost, amount of
time, equipment and labor utilized for cooking,
serving and storing the food
SANITARY QUALITY- free from any other
forms of contamination that are hazardous to human
health, ex. microbiological, biological, chemical,
physical and radiological


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
OF FOOD
WATER- The most common dispersing agent or the
universal solvent
CARBOHYDRATES- synthesized by photosynthesis.
The two main groups are sugars and polysaccharides
PROTEINS- organic compounds composed of amino
acids. Amino acids may be essential (those which the
body cannot produce to meet the amount needed by
the body)or non-essential (those that the body can
produce enough to meet the needs of the body)



FATS- organic compounds belonging to water
soluble substances called lipids. Fatty acids are
either saturated or unsaturated
VITAMINS- organic compounds classified as either
water soluble (B-complex vitamins and vitamin C or
ascorbic acid) or fat soluble (vitamins A D E K)
MINERALS- inorganic constituents collectively called
ash



SPECIALIZED ROLES OF THE
NUTRIENTS TEAM
COMPOSITION OF
CARBOHYDRATES
FUNCTIONS OF
CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY
NON-NUTRITIONAL
COMPONENTS OF FOOD

PIGMENTS- are naturally occurring colorant in
foods. In plants includes chlorophyll, carotenoids
anthocyanins and anthoxanthins WHILE in animals,
hemoglobin in the blood and myoglobin in the muscle.
FLAVOR COMPONENTS- Sugars, acids,
alcohols, sulfuric compounds and tannins
ENZYMES- organic catalysts that are protein in
nature

Fruits and Veggies
The Color Way
RED
Betalaines water-soluble pigments found
in red beets and certain berries
Lycopene- is responsible for the red color
of tomatoes, pink grapefruit and
watermelon

YELLOW/ORANGE
Carotenoids are yellow, orange pigments
found in plant materials
Carotene- major pigment in carrots
Cryptoxanthin- major pigment in yellow
corn
Xanthophylls are present in oranges
Oxycarotenoids in pineapple
Carotenoids are insoluble in water. They
are not affected by acids and alkalis.
WHITE
Anthoxanthins white, creamy or almost colorless
or pale yellow pigments in fruits and vegetables
seen in garlic, turnips, raddish
It is water soluble, and become whiter in the
presence of acid.
Alkalis convert these pigments to orange or
yellow.

GREEN
Chlorophylls the green or bright blue green
color of fruits, flowers and vegetables. It is Not
soluble in water.
Examples are the leafy vegetables like spinach,
pechay and kangkong. Sigarilyas, broccoli and
other foods like seaweed contain this pigment.
BLUE/PURPLE
Anthocyanins- are responsible for the red, blue
and purple color of flowers, fruits, leaves and
stems of plants. Some are found in root crops like
ube or yams and sweet potatoes.
Anthocyanin become redder upon the addition of
acids, and bluish upon the addition of alkalis.

PLANT PIGMENTS
PIGMENTS SHADES SOURCES
CAROTENOIDS YELLOW
ORANGE- RED
CARROT EGGYOLK
TOMATO SQUASH
CHLOROPHYLLS GREEN OLIVES LETTUCE
ANTHOCYANINS RED BLUE PURPLE EGGPLANT UBE APPLE
ANTHOXANTINS WHITE YELLOW POTATO BANANA
BETALAINES RED SUGAR BEET
TANNINS BROWN SANTOL CHICO
COCOA
ANIMAL PIGMENTS
PIGMENT SHADES SOURCES
HEMOGLOBIN RED RED BLOOD CELLS

MYOGLOBIN RED-BROWN RED MEAT
RIBOFLAVIN GREEN MILK WHEY
SEPIA BLACK SQUID
FLAVOR COMPONENTS
Compounds attributed to flavor in fruits and vegetables are:
1. Sugars fruit flavor is a balance between sugars and acids. Sugars present
in fruits are sucrose, fructose and glucose. Starches stored in unripe fruits are
converted to glucose and fructose during ripening.
2. Acids present in fruits and vegetables are organic acids which are found in
the cell sap. Other acids present are malic and citric.
3. Sulfur Compounds these are responsible for the unique characteristics and
aroma of fruits and vegetables.
a. Dimethyl sulfide and trimethyl sulfide are responsible for the aroma
of cooked cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli.
b. Sinigrin the pungent factor in mustard seed and cabbage.
c. Alliin which gives the typical odor in garlic.
4. Tannins responsible for the mapakla or astringent or puckery flavor of
some fruits like santol and underripe bananas.
ENZYMES
Useful applications of enzymes in foods includes:
meat tenderizers enzymes like bromelin from
pineapple and papain from papaya
fermentation of sugars necessary for the increase
in volume in bread-making
softening of fruits by pectinases during ripening
fermentation by the presence of microbial enzymes
in patis, bagoong, vinegar and winemaking and
cheese ripening

CHANGES ON THE NUTRIENT CONTENT

1. Carbohydrates through
GELATINIZATION (boiled rice)
DEXTRINIZATION (toasted pinipig)
CARAMELIZATION (candies)
2. Protein becomes more soluble and
digestible. (coagulation)
3. Vitamins may be destroyed like the
heat labile vitamins C and thiamin.
4. Minerals are leached into the cooking
liquid or oxidized.


SUMMARY OF THE FUNCTIONS
OF SUGAR IN COOKING
SUMMARY OF THE FUNCTIONS
OF STARCH IN COOKING
SUMMARY OF THE FUNCTIONS
OF PROTEIN IN COOKING
SUMMARY OF THE FUNCTIONS
OF FATS IN COOKING
Varying our colors
Important to eat a variety each day
The different colors provide us with
different nutrients
Helps maintain a healthy weight, if
used as part of a low fat diet
Protects against aging
Reduces the risk of cancer and heart
disease.
Nutrients in Fruits and
Vegetables
Low in fat and sodium
High in carbohydrates
High in antioxidants
Vitamin C: citrus fruits, but also kiwi,
strawberries, cantaloupe, cabbage, and potatoes
Vitamin E: apples and warm-weather fruits-
apricots, nectarines, peaches, and cruciferous
vegetables (in the cabbage family- help reduce
risk of cancer)
Beta Carotene (makes Vitamin A): yellow or
orange vegetables, cruciferous vegetables
Is it a fruit or vegetable?
Botanically speaking
Fruits are the fleshy, juicy products of plants that
are seed-containing.
Vegetables are plant or parts of plants such as
roots, tubers, bulbs, stems, shoots, leaves, fruits,
and flowers used raw or cooked.
Since vegetable is not a botanical term,
vegetables can also include,
stems (asparagus)
leaves (lettuce)
roots (carrots)
flowers (broccoli)
bulbs (garlic)
seeds (peas & beans)
botanical fruits such as cucumbers,
squash, pumpkins, & peppers
Is it a fruit or vegetable?
Culinary-perspective
Here is where it gets tricky
If it is the fruit of the
plant & has seeds, it is a
fruit.
However, fruits, such as
tomatoes & cucumbers,
used in savoury cooking
are generally referred to
as vegetables.
Types of Vegetables
Fruits: fruit of the plant
Cucumbers, eggplant,
tomatoes
Roots: underground
plant parts
Carrots, beets, turnips
Types of Vegetables
Stems: edible main
structure of plants
Celery, asparagus
Tubers: large underground
stem that stores nutrients
Potatoes
Types of Vegetables
Leaves: plants manufacturing
areas
Spinach, lettuce, and kale
Bulbs: layers or fleshy leaves
surround part of the stem
Onions and garlic

Types of Vegetables
Seeds: a small embryonic
plant enclosed in a seed coat
Corns, beans, and peas
Flowers: flower of the
plant, with stem, where
seeds are made.
Broccoli and cauliflower

Buying and Storing
buying
Inspect carefully
Look for bright color and
crispness
Test for ripeness: press
gently, if it gives slightly,
it is ripe
For best quality buy in
season
Avoid decay and bruising


storing
Unripe fruits: place in
a paper bag at room
temperature
Do not line bottom of
drawers with paper
towels!!!! It causes
molding.
Potatoes and onions:
cool, dark, dry place
Refrigerate in crisper
of fridge
Punch holes in plastic
bags

Convenience Fruits and Veggies
Canned, Frozen, and Dried
Challenges Solutions
Canned fruits are often
high in added sugar.
Look for fruits packed in natural
juice instead of sugar syrup.
Canned vegetables are
often high in sodium.
Look for low-sodium varieties.
Drain the liquid from the
vegetables before heating.
Some frozen vegetable are
relatively expensive.
Buy frozen vegetables in bags.
Buy plain vegetables without
sauces and other extras. Add
your own special touches, such
as a sprinkling of herbs.
Washing produce
Wash to remove dirt,
pesticides, and
pathogens
Wash just before use
Wash, even if you are
going to peel
Cutting Fresh Produce
Chiffonade: Finely cut strips or
ribbons or leafy vegetables or herbs.
Cutting Fresh Produce
Julienne: To cut into narrow, match-
like sticks
Cutting Fresh Produce
Mince: to cut into tiny pieces (garlic)
Cutting Fresh Produce
Chop: to cut foods into pieces; a
larger cut than dice or mince and not
uniform
Cutting Fresh Produce
Dice: a cube, usually of a vegetable,
that ranges from inch to inch
square
Cutting Fresh Produce
Slice: a thin, flat piece cut from
something

Cooking Fruits
Poaching or Stewing: cooking fruit
in enough liquid to cover it- aims to
keep the shape of the fruit
Fruit Sauces: cooking fruit into a
liquid (apples, plums, pears)
Cooking Fruits
Baking: Most often apples, need to
be cored, often seasoned before
baking
Microwaving: cooks quickly, keeps
fresh flavor and shape, be careful not
to overcook
Cooking Vegetables
Blanche: to
slightly precook
vegetables to kill
enzymes before
freezing
Saute: to cook in a
pan with a small
amount of hot fat.
Cooking Vegetables
Boil: To cook in
water or liquid at a
bubbling point
Simmer: to cook in
a liquid just below
boiling point
Cooking Vegetables
Steam: to cook over
boiling water-
minimizes vitamin
loss. Healthiest way to
cook vegetables.
Shock: Place cooked
vegetable in ice-cold
water to keep the
bright color and
crispness