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QUALITY CONTROL AND

ASSURANCE OF
MILK AND ITS PRODUCTS

Jagjit Singh
B.Tech. Biotech.
1040070095

INTRODUCTION OF PLANT


THE PUNJAB STATE COOPERATIVE MILK PRODUCERS
FEDRATION LIMITED.




The Punjab Co-operative milk producers federation limited (MILKFED) was
established in 1973 by Punjab diary development cooperation under the
Punjab state co-operative act 1967 to safeguard commercial interest of milk
producers farmers to save them from exploitation of middleman with their
participation in its management and to provide quality milk and milk
products to consumers at competitive rates.
Verka Plant Mohali
It was registered on 05.07.1978 under Punjab
Cooperative Societies Act, 1961.
It was established in 1980 by Punjab dairy
development Cooperation.
The capacity of plant was 1.00 lac Litre per day in
the beginning, but now the capacity is about 4 lac
Litre per day.
It has 3 tier system:-
Cooperative Societies at village level
Milk Union at District level
Federation as an Apex Body at State level


About Milk
Milk is a white liquid produced by the
mammary glands of mammals.

It provides the primary source
of nutrition for young mammals before
they are able to digest other types of
food.


A glass of cow's milk containing 100 ml
contains 69 calories of energy; 5.2 grams
carbohydrates; 3.7 grams of fat; 3.3
grams protein; vitamin A, vitamin D, and
125 mg of calcium.


Composition of Milk


Characterstic

Cow milk Buffalo milk
Fat

4.0-4.5 % 6.5-7.0%
Carbohydrates

4.5 % 4.7 %
SNF

8-8.5 % 8.5- 9.0%
Proteins

3.3 % 3.6 %
Minerals 0.6 % 0.7 %
Water 87-88 % 84-85 %
Objective
The objective of my project is to check the quality
control of milk and milk product and also to know the
processing.
Quality control objective is:
To maintain the shelf life of the product
Ensures the maintenance and standards of specification and
standard of products within prescribe tolerance limit.
To prevent the transmission of communicable diseases from
milk to man.
To check the presence of adultarants.
The consumer expects to pay a fair price for milk and milk
products of acceptable to excellent quality.
Different Sections in Verka
Quality control section
Main lab
Dock lab
Bacteriological lab
Milk processing section
Processing
Filling
Curd section
Kheer section
Lassi section
Paneer section
Butter Section
Ghee section
ETP


Raw Milk Reception Dock
Verka follows a strict system of quality
assurance to maintain a high quality of milk
provided to the consumer.

The milk is received from local societies at
Village level, where chilling centres are
installed.

On the basis of some main tests the milk is
graded into categories.
Grading of Raw Milk
On the basis of physical condition and some tests
the milk is graded into four categories :

Types of Raw Milk Grades
Fresh raw Milk 1
Sour Raw Milk 2
Curd 3
Dirty Milk 4
After that
Raw milk is sucked by means of vacuum from the
truck and collected in dump tank.

Send to chillers to drop down the temperature of the
raw milk.

Every batch of incoming milk is tested for Fat, SNF,
Acidity and bacteriological quality, adulterants and
presence of any preservative.


In the Plant there are three main
labs:

Dock Lab

Quality Control (Q.C.) Lab

Microbiological Lab

Dock Lab
In Dock Lab raw milk, pasteurized milk,
butter milk, Skim milk, are checked
w.r.t. the chemical quality.
Various tests are performed over milk
in this lab.
Acidity Test
Fat and SNF Test
MBRT Test
Adulteration Test


Acidity Test
Bacteria that normally develop in raw milk produce
more or less of lactic acid. In the acidity test the acid is
neutralised with Sodium hydroxide and the amount of
alkaline is measured. From this, the percentage of lactic acid
can be calculated.
Procedure
Take 10 ml milk in 10 ml conical flask.
Hold the flask against white surface.
Add 5 drops of phenolphthalein to the milk sample and stir
gently
Titrate against N/9 NaOH using phenolphthalein indicator to
check acidity.
Continue until the appearance of a light pink colouring
which persists for 10-20 seconds.

Result






The milk with acidity 0.15 is the
best milk.

Sample No. Acidity
1. 0.19
2. 0.15
3. 0.17



Fat and SNF Test

Fat & SNF can be determined using Gerbers method or using a
milcoscan.

Gerbers Method Procedure
Take about 10 ml of H
2
SO
4
in Butyrometer.
Add slowly 10.75 ml milk in it.
Add 1 ml isoamyl alcohol and adjust level with distilled water.
Cap butyrometer with lock stopper.
Centrifuge for about 5 minutes.
Take reading of the % fat in butyrometer.
Warm milk in lactometer jar at about 40C then cool at 15.5C.
Immerse lactometer in jar and take C.L.R.



Calculations/Formula Used
SNF is determined using lactometer reading
and Fat value and putting the formula
% SNF = CLR/4+0.2fat+0.29

Observations







Sample 1 and 2 are of Packaged milk and Sample 3 is Raw milk

Sample
No.
Fat CLR SNF(%)
1. 4.25 29.4 8.49
2. 3.5 26.4 7.59
3. 6.7 31 9.38

Milkoscan is the latest technology machine for
scanning of milk and uses infra red rays to
analyze the milk for Fat, SNF.

Test used to detect pasteurization of milk

Phosphatase Test

Take 1 ml of milk sample.
Put 5 ml of nitrate Phosphate buffer solution.
Incubate it in water bath at temperature of about
37C.
Check for colour change after 15 minutes.
If colour changes then the milk is not pasteurized.
Conclusion : In the image Test tube on left side with
pale yellow colour is showing test of Raw milk confirms
alkaline phosphate activity and test tube on right side
is showing no colour change in case of packed milk
confirming Pasteurization.


MBRT Test
It is indirect method of estimation of total bacterial content of milk. Instead of
counting bacteria directly, a correlation is made between the time required to reduce
dye to colourless in milk.
Procedure
To 10 ml of milk in a sterilized MBR tube add 1 ml of MBR dye Plug with a
sterilized cork, invert the tube to mix the contents.
Incubate at 37C in a water bath.
Check the tube for decolorization just after 10 minutes Next time after 30 minutes
and subsequently every hour.

Time Required for Reduction(in
hrs)
Quality of Milk
5 and above Very Good
3 and 4 Good
1 and 2 Fair
0.5 and below Poor
Detection of major adultrants in milk
To overcome the increasing
need of milk and milk
products and to make
maximum profit there is
increase in adulteration
cases
In adullteration test we
used raw milk in 2 test
tubes for each test, one of
them containing only raw
milk and the other one was
added with the tested
material.

Adulteration Test
Sugar Test

Take 15 ml milk in test tube.
Add 1 ml concentrated HCL and shake well.
Add 0.1 gm resorcinol.
Put the test tube in boiling water bath for 5 min.

Conclusion : Left Test tube contains raw milk and
right contains pasteurized milk. Reddish colour
would indicates presence of sugar. So here in both
samples sugar is absent.


Salt Test

Take 5 ml silver nitrate in a test tube.
Add 2-3 drops of potassium dichromate
solution which will give brick red colour.
Add 1 ml of milk.

Conclusion : In the test tube on left side
containing only raw milk, the brown colour
shows absence of salt but in test tube on right
side in which raw milk and salt were added, the
yellow colour confirms the presence of salt.


Urea test

Procedure
Take 2 ml milk in a test tube.
Add 2 ml DMAB solution and mix the contents.

Observations
Yellow Colour is observed.

Result
Appearance of yellow color indicates the presence of urea.


Ammonium Compound Test

Take 1 ml milk in test tube.

Add 2 ml Nesslars reagent

Result and conclusion: Test tube on the left
side contains only raw milk but right test tube
contains both raw milk and ammonia. So in the
right side test tube brown colour confirms the
presence of ammonia.

Quality Control Lab

In Q.C. lab sensory evaluation of milk and milk products is done, in which
there is testing of shelf life.

A check is put over cleanliness of dairy equipments and overall sanitization
of plant.

The products produced in the plant are checked for their quality and Shelf
life before they are sent to the market.

Some of the main tests done in the lab are:

1. Hardness of Water
2. Curd acidity test
3. Moisture Test for Paneer
4. Fat Test for Paneer
5. Total Solid Test for Kheer
6. Ghee Test/Free fat acidity




Hardness of Water
This test is performed to check the hardness of water i.e.
whether the water used in various production units is suitable to
use or not.
Procedure
Take 100ml water sample in a flask.
Add 1-2ml NH buffer.
Add 2-3 drops of indicator(Phenolphthalein) to it.
Titrate it against 0.02N EDTA solution.
Blue colour marks the end.
Calculations
Hardness = T.V. 10
When T.V. = 21.5 Hardness= 21.5 x 10 = 215 ppm



Curd acidity test

Curd acidity test is a test to check the acidity in packed
form of curd i.e. with increasing time the acidity of curd
increases and it becomes unfit to consume. So to check it
the test is performed. Curd Acidity test is same as in case
of milk.

Procedure
Take 10 ml of curd sample in a china dish.
Put about 5-10 ml of water in the dish.
Mix it properly.
Add few drops of Phenolphthalein indicator in it.
Titrate it with NaOH.
Light Pink colour marks the end.


Sample No. Acidity
1. 6.0
2. 7.3
3. 6.3
Result
Sample no.2 is acidic in nature and sample no. 3 is with
optimum acidity 6.3.
Observations

Moisture Test for Paneer

This test is done to check the presence of moisture in paneer in
packed form, as more moisture may lead to microbial activity.

Procedure
Take an empty dish and take its weight as W
1
.
Put about 3g of crushed paneer in it, weigh it and mark it as W
2
.
Put the dish in oven for about 4 hrs.
Measure the weight and mark it as W
3
.

Calculations
W
2
-W
1
=A
W
3
-W
2
=B
B/A100= Moisture


Sample
No.
W
1
W
2
W
3
A B Moisture
(%)
1. 27.739 30.338 29.534 2.599 0.804 30.95
2. 33.966 38.864 36.189 4.898 2.676 54.61
3. 10.028 13.648 11.921 3.620 1.726 47.69
Observation
s




Fat Test for Paneer
Fat test is carried out to determine the amount of fat in
paneer.
Procedure
Take a butyrometer and tear it.
Take paneer sample and mesh it.
Put 3g sample into butyrometer.
Put 10ml Sulphuric acid and 1ml amyl alcohol and to maintain its level
we have to add hot water.
Then centrifuge it for 5mins for 12000rpm
Note the fat reading.

Calculations
Fat% =Fat11.26/W



Observations
Sample No. Weight of
Sample(g)
Fat Fat %
1. 1.6 3.9 27.45
2. 1.5 4.3 32.27
3. 1.6 3.5 26.27



Total Solid Test for Kheer
This test is done to check the presence of total solids in Kheer
in packed form.
Procedure
Take an empty dish and take its weight as W
1
.
Put about 3g of Kheer in it, and mark it as W
2
.
Put the dish in oven (30C) for about 4 hrs.
Measure the weight and mark it as W
3
.
Calculations
W
2
-W
1
=A
W
3
-W
1
=B
%T.S. =B/A100




Observations
Sample
No.
W
1
W
2
W
3
A B T.S.
1. 26.8056 31.0029 27.9556 4.1973 1.1500 27.4
2. 23.2825 27.8048 24.5351 4.5223 1.2526 27.7
3. 12.7029 16.7761 13.8230 4.0732 1.1201 27.5





Ghee Test/Free fat acidity
This is the test to check the quality of ghee/fat in terms of acidity.
Procedure
Take the sample butter to be tested.
Heat the sample until it gives brown golden shade.
Prepare a solution by adding 50 ml ethanol and 2-3 drops of
phenolphthalein.
Now neutralize it with N/9 NaOH.
Take about 10 g of ghee.
Mix the solution prepared in 10 g of ghee
Heat to boil.
Then add NaOH to that for titration




Observations





Result
The normal value of acidity is 0.3 %, which indicates the good
quality of ghee, whereas the increased acidity means the rancid
ghee.

Sample No. Acidity(%)
1. 0.27
2. 0.44
3. 0.30
Milk Processing Section

Equipments used in milk processing

Pasteurizer
It is device used to pasteurize the milk i.e.
heating at 63C for 30 min or 70C for 15
mins in approved and properly operated
equipment. At one end of the device the
temperature is 75-80C and at the other
end it is 4-5C, i.e. instant cooling of milk
is done after exposure to high
temperature which kills almost all germs in
milk


Homogenizer
Homogenization is a process wherein fat
globules are broken down to 2 microns or
less under high pressure.
It consists of a high-pressure piston
pump that forces the milk and thereby
subdivided into smaller particles of more
uniform size.
Equipments
Cream separator
It is a device which separates cream
from the milk by means of a set of
plates which rotate around a central
axis using centrifugal force
There are 135 plates in each cream
separator.
Cream and skim milk are obtained.
After extraction cream is chilled to 4-
6C through plate chiller.

Storage Tanks
To store the milk in different states
like raw, chilled, pasteurized and
standardized.
They have capacity of 10000-20000
litres.

Standardization of Milk

Full Cream
Milk (GOLD
Skimmed
Milk
(LIGHT)

Standard Milk
(SHAKTI)

Double
Toned Milk
(SMART)
Milk Packaging

10 machines of packing are used
each of which has two packing
sections.

Each machine has capacity to pack
1000 litres of milk per hour i.e. 2000
pouches of 500 ml / hour


















Curd

Curd or Dahi is obtained by adding a culture either
natural or artificial into the heated milk.
There are two types of curd produced in the plant:
Traditional
Premium
In Traditional curd indigenous cultures of lactobacillus,
S.lactis, S.cremoris, S.diacetylactis are used for curd
making.
In Premium curd cultures from other countries are used,
like SACCO from Italy, CHR HANSEIN from England, and
DANISCO from France etc.

Curd Production Images


Curd Incubation Requirements

Traditional
Temperature upto 37C and for 3-4 hr.
Premium
Temperature upto 45C and for 4-5 hr.
The composition of curd is:

Fat 3.1 %
SNF 9.0 %
pH 6-7


Curd Production Process
Heat the milk
at 90C-95C
Cool it at 35-
38C
Again heat it at
40C

Put the culture
1.5%
Put the
cultured milk in
cups
Seal the cups
Put the cups in
incubation
room
Store in cold
storage
Packaging



Paneer
Paneer is a coagulated product of milk. It may contain as high as
70% moisture.
Processed Milk
Standardization of milk
(fat 4.8%and SNF 8.8%)
Heating to 90-95C/5
mins
Cooling to 72-75C Citric Acid Solution
Coagulation(Coagulants
at temp 72-75C)
Pressing 40 kg Weight
on each hoop for 15 min
Dipping in water for 1-2
hr(temp<15C)
Shifting to packaging
and holding for some
time to drain excess
water
Packing and sealing
Storage at <5C and
dispatched in insulated
box.

Kheer is concentrated heat desiccated
indigenous dairy product.

Taking milk in double jacketed
vat
Heating milk to desirable
reached with consistency with
continuous stirring
Addition of basmati rice in
boiling milk and stirring
Heating it till desired
consistency reached with
stirring
Addition of sugar
Addition of mixture of sodium
benzoate and Elaichi powder
Stirring for some time and
filling in cups(200 g)
Storing in cold room(below 8C)
LASSI : Lassi is a drink made of standardized milk with 50:50
dilutions with water.

Receiving
milk

Standardization
(4.5%fat and 8.5%snf)
Heating of milk
85c /5min
Cooling down to 40c
Inoculation with culture at 1% at 40 c
Inoculation at 40 c
(till acidity reach 0.67%)
Addition of pasteurized
chilled water 2%
Breaking of coagulum
( acidity o.54%)
Packaging
Cold storage less than 5c

Butter
Receiving of Raw Milk
Pre heating and Filtration
Centrifugal Separation
Cooling of Cream
Ageing of Cream
Cream Feeding into Churn.
Churning of Cream into Butter
Removal of Butter Milk

Receiving of butter in
butter melting vat.
Melting of butter
Melted butter pumped to
ghee kettle
Heating of butter at 80-85 C.
Pre Stratification And Draining of butter
milk
Separation of ghee residue &
Filtration
Clarification
Pumping of ghee into setting vat
Cooling of ghee for overnight
Packaging and
Storing

GHEE SECTION

Ghee is a clarified butter fat.
Ghee Composition: FAT - 99.9%
Whey
Whey is nutritious byproduct from cheese
containing valuable nutrients like lactase,
protein, minerals and vitamin etc. which have
great value as human food.
Whey consists :
45-50% of total milk solid
70% of milk sugar
20% of milk protein
70-90% of milk minerals
And almost all the water soluble vitamins originally present in
milk
Development and shelf life study of whey based banana
herbal juice
Amount of banana juice :10ml
Sugar :8gm resp. per 100ml
Pudina or menthe arvensis : 0-2%
Shelf life at 7 degree calcius is
20days.
The organoleptic scores and overall
acceptability of beverage improved
with increase in menthe extract.
Addition of 3 or 4% menthe extract
decreased the beverage quality as
beverage scored lower organoleptic
scores.


Storage days Po P1 P2 P3 P4
O 5.23 5.50 5.37 5.60 5.67
5 5.20 5.40 5.30 5.50 5.50
10 5.27 5.40 5.20 5.30 5.20
15 4.23 5.30 5.20 5.13 5.10
20 4.90 5.10 5.07 5.07 4.90
PH of the beverage after storage. Acidity is increasing as
the days are increasing.



Effluent Treatment Process(E.T.P.)

Effluent treatment is the process of treating effluent
released from the plant.
It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to
remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants.
Its objective is to produce an environmentally safe
treated effluent and a solid waste or treated sludge
suitable for disposal or reuse.
According to government regulations waste water should
be treated to certain standards before they are disposed
off.
After treatment this water can be used for irrigation
purpose.


The effluent treatment facility consists
of the following units
Effluent collection sump
Sludge removal chamber
Chemical solution dosing systems
Aeration Tanks
Secondary clarifier
Sludge drying beds


Raw effluent collection
Sump
Sludge trapping unit
Equalization tank


Parallel arrangement of two aeration tanks
Secondary clarifier
Sludge drying beds
Results after E.T.P.
Parameter Waste Water Treated Water
pH 4.0-9.6 7.5
Suspended Solids 500 mg/l 6-10 mg/l
COD 60,000 mg/l 30-80 mg/l
BOD 4000 mg/l 40-50 mg/l
Treated water



Result and Discussion
The results of various quality tests performed
under training program are summarised below.


No. Parameter Optimum Value
1. Acidity of Milk 0.15
2. Fat of Milk 4.5-6.5 %
3. Hardness of water 215
4. Curd acidity 6.3
5.

Paneer Moisture 45-55%

6. Paneer Fat

26-28 %
7 T.S. Kheer

27.5

8. Ghee Test 0.3 %