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MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS
Fifth SI Edition
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf
David F. Mazurek

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University
CHAPTER
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
6
Shearing Stresses in
Beams and Thin-
Walled Members
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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6- 2
Contents
Introduction
Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element
Example 6.01
Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam
Shearing Stresses t
xy
in Common Types of Beams
Further Discussion of the Distribution of Stresses in a ...
Sample Problem 6.2
Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element of Arbitrary Shape
Example 6.04
Example 6.04
Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members
Plastic Deformations
Sample Problem 6.3
Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members
Example 6.05
Example 6.06
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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6- 3
Introduction
( )
( ) M y M dA F
dA z M V dA F
dA z y M dA F
x z xz z
x y xy y
xy xz x x x
= = = =
= = = =
= = = =
} }
} }
} }
o t
o t
t t o
0
0
0 0
Distribution of normal and shearing
stresses satisfies
Transverse loading applied to a beam
results in normal and shearing stresses in
transverse sections.
Longitudinal shearing stresses must exist
in any member subjected to transverse
loading.
When shearing stresses are exerted on the
vertical faces of an element, equal stresses
must be exerted on the horizontal faces
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6- 4
Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element
Consider prismatic beam
For equilibrium of beam element
( )
}

=
+ = =
A
C D
A
C D x
dA y
I
M M
H
dA H F
A
o o A 0
x V x
dx
dM
M M
dA y Q
C D
A
A = A =
}
=
Note,
flow shear
I
VQ
x
H
q
x
I
VQ
H
= =
A
A
=
A = A
Substituting,
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6- 5
Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element
where
section cross full of moment second
above area of moment first
'
2
1
=
}
=
=
}
=
+A A
A
dA y I
y
dA y Q
Same result found for lower area
H H
Q Q
q
I
Q V
x
H
q
A = ' A
=
= ' +
' =
'
=
A
' A
= '
axis neutral to
respect h moment wit first
0
flow shear
I
VQ
x
H
q = =
A
A
=
Shear flow,
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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6- 6
Example 6.01
A beam is made of three planks,
nailed together. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 25 mm and
that the vertical shear in the beam is
V = 500 N, determine the shear force
in each nail.
SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.
Calculate the corresponding shear
force in each nail.
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6- 7
Example 6.01
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
4 6
2
3
12
1
3
12
1
3 6
m 10 20 . 16
] m 060 . 0 m 100 . 0 m 020 . 0
m 020 . 0 m 100 . 0 [ 2
m 100 . 0 m 020 . 0
m 10 120
m 060 . 0 m 100 . 0 m 020 . 0

=
+
+
=
=
=
=
I
y A Q
SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.
m
N
3704
m 10 16.20
) m 10 120 )( N 500 (
4 6 -
3 6
=


= =

I
VQ
q
Calculate the corresponding shear
force in each nail for a nail spacing of
25 mm.
m N q F 3704 )( m 025 . 0 ( ) m 025 . 0 ( = =
N 6 . 92 = F
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6- 8
Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam
The average shearing stress on the horizontal
face of the element is obtained by dividing the
shearing force on the element by the area of
the face.
It
VQ
x t
x
I
VQ
A
x q
A
H
ave
=
A
A
=
A
A
=
A
A
= t
If the width of the beam is comparable or large
relative to its depth, the shearing stresses at D
1

and D
2
are significantly higher than at D.
On the upper and lower surfaces of the beam,
t
yx
= 0. It follows that t
xy
= 0 on the upper and
lower edges of the transverse sections.
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6- 9
Shearing Stresses t
xy
in Common Types of Beams
For a narrow rectangular beam,
A
V
c
y
A
V
Ib
VQ
xy
2
3
1
2
3
max
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
t
t
For American Standard (S-beam)
and wide-flange (W-beam) beams
web
ave
A
V
It
VQ
=
=
max
t
t
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6- 15
Sample Problem 6.2
A timber beam is to support the three
concentrated loads shown. Knowing
that for the grade of timber used,
MPa 8 . 0 MPa 12 = =
all all
t o
determine the minimum required depth
d of the beam.
SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.
Determine the beam depth based on
allowable normal stress.
Determine the beam depth based on
allowable shear stress.
Required beam depth is equal to the
larger of the two depths found.
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6- 16
Sample Problem 6.2
SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.
kNm 95 . 10
kN 5 . 14
max
max
=
=
M
V
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6- 17
Sample Problem 6.2
( )
( )
2
2
6
1
2
6
1
3
12
1
m 015 . 0
m 09 . 0
d
d
d b
c
I
S
d b I
=
=
= =
=
Determine the beam depth based on allowable
normal stress.
( )
mm 246 m 246 . 0
m 015 . 0
Nm 10 95 . 10
Pa 10 12
2
3
6
max
= =

=
=
d
d
S
M
all
o
Determine the beam depth based on allowable
shear stress.
( )
mm 322 m 322 . 0
m 0.09
14500
2
3
Pa 10 8 . 0
2
3
6
max
= =
=
=
d
d
A
V
all
t
Required beam depth is equal to the larger of the two.
mm 322 = d