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HSDPA Theory Course
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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Module 1 About HSDPA
Module 2 Air Interface
Module 3 Effect of HSDPA Power on Throughput
Module 4 Setting HSDPA Parameters
Module 5 BTS
Module 6 IUB
Module 7 RNC

Training modules
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Module 1 About HSDPA

After the module the participant will be able to:

Explain what HSDPA is

Explain the benefits of HSDPA

Explain how HSDPA works on a high level
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Operator Benefits

Improved packet data capacity of NW, enhanced spectral efficiency

Better usage of the radio network HW

Increased revenues through more users and usage

Improved Iub efficiency

Large scale resource reuse: License, Core NW, RNC, transmission, NodeB,
sites (DL cell size), feeders, antennas
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Increased bit rates

Shorter service response times

Improved quality of end user experience

Better availability of services
User Benefits
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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Introduction
HSDPA = High Speed Downlink Packet Access

Part of 3GPP release 5 specifications

System of new physical channels for UTRAN

Downlink data rates up to 14.4 Mbit/s per user

Backwards compatible with earlier 3GPP releases


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HSDPA
HSDPA increases data capacity with the introduction of
optimised features that are only available to packet data
services

Why Downlink?
Data service is normally asymmetric in nature
Downlink demand for resources is normally higher than in the uplink
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Introduction


Fixed SF16 multicode transmission

Adaptive modulation and coding with QPSK and 16QAM

Shorter and static TTI length = 2 ms

NodeB based packet scheduling and H-ARQ retransmission

MAC-hs protocol in NodeB




Whats New in HSDPA 1/2:
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Introduction






Whats New in HSDPA 2/2:
Parameter Improvement action Design features
Peak data rate Allocate more resources to
one user
Use excess link budget
Improve retransmission
Multicode transmission

Higher modulation (16QAM)
Hybrid ARQ
Cell throughput Use wasted power
Make the pipe bigger
Improve retransmission
Exploit multiuser diversity
Adapt rate to power
Higher modulation (16QAM)
Hybrid ARQ
Clever scheduling algorithm (optional)
Round trip time Make smaller packets
Retransmit faster
TTI reduction
NodeB-based retransmission
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HSDPA Usage
NRT traffic RT traffic
Conversational Streaming Interactive Background
AM
RLC
AM
RLC
TM
RLC
DCH
UM
RLC
DCH
TM
RLC
DCH
UM
RLC
DCH
AM
RLC
DCH RACH/FACH DCH/DCH DCH/HS-DSCH
PS domain CS domain
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Cell
Broadcast
Centre
HSDPA General Functional Division
Iur
Iu-CS
M
G
W
MSC

VLR
HL
R
S
G
S
N
G
G
S
N
GMSC
Iu-PS
Iu-PS
Core Network
RAN
Iu-CS
UE
NodeB
Iub
Iub
Iub
RNC
RNC
Iu-BC
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UE Terminal 1
UE Terminal 2
L1 Feedback
CQI, Ack/Nack, TPC
L1 Feedback
Data
Data
Fast scheduling done
directly by Node B (BTS)
based on knowledge of:
- UE's channel quality -
CQI
- UE's capability
- QoS demands
- Power and code resource
availability
HARQ retransmissions
Modulation/Coding
selection
Users may be time and/or code multiplexed
HSDPA General Principle
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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HSDPA Protocol Model
TNL
MAC-d
DCH
FP
DCH
FP
MAC-d
TNL
NodeB Iub RNC
RLC RLC
MAC-hs
PHY PHY TNL
MAC-d
MAC-hs HS-DSCH FP HS-DSCH FP
MAC-d
TNL
UE Uu NodeB Iub RNC
RLC RLC
MAC-d flow
HS-DSCH
PHY PHY
UE Uu
DCH
DPCH
HS-PDSCH
R99
R5
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NodeB
RNC
Rel99 DCH/DSCH Rel5 HS-DSCH
Packet
Retransmission
RLC ACK/NACK
First Phase
Retransmission
L1 ACK/NACK
Packet
In previous RNC releases
the retransmission has
always occurred from the
RNC RLC.
Retransmission has been
based on the RLC
Sequence Numbers
Second Phase
Retransmission
Two phase retransmission
concept
First phase retransmission
from BTS => HARQ
Second phase
retransmission from RNC if
the first phase turned out to
be unsuccessful.
R99 vs. R5
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Server RNC Node-B
UE
RLC retransmissions
TCP retransmissions
MAC-hs retransmissions
Retransmissions in HSDPA
HSDPA introduces L1 H-ARQ
as the first step retransmission
along with the existing RLC
ARQ.
For TCP traffic additional
retransmissions (TCP
retransmissions) occur on the
application level
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Channels Allocated to One HSDPA User
UE
NodeB
A
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
d

D
P
C
H

A
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
d

D
P
C
H

1
-
1
5

x

H
S
-
P
D
S
C
H

1
-

4

x

H
S
-
S
C
C
H

H
S
-
D
P
C
C
H

Associated DPCH: Associated Dedicated
Physical Channel (UL/DL)
1 DPCH is required for each HSDPA UE
Signalling, Uplink data
HS-PDSCH: High-Speed Physical
Downlink Shared Channel (DL)
Actual HSDPA data for HS-DSCH
transport channels
1-15 codes per channel
QPSK or 16QAM modulation
HS-SCCH: High Speed Shared Control
Channel (DL)
Informs the UE how and when to
receive the HS-PDSCH
HS-DPCCH: High Speed Dedicated
Physical Control Channel (UL)
MAC-hs ACK/NACK information
Channel Quality Information (CQI)
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HS-SCCH Information (DL)
CCS - Channelisation Code Set - spreading factor codes and code offset
MT - Modulation Type QPSK or 16QAM
TBS - Transport Block Size size of transport block being sent to UE
HAP - Hybrid-ARQ Parameters - H-ARQ process number that the data belongs to
RV/CV - Redundancy or Constellation Version - RV starts at zero
NDI - New Data Indicator - toggled for a new transmission. Same if retransmission
H-RNTI High Speed Radio Network Temporary Identity. Identifies UE data meant for
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check Error detection
2ms (after coding and puncturing)
H-RNTI mask
MT
1 bit
CCS
7bits
SF128,1
NDI
1 bit
RV/CV
3 bits
HAP
3 bits
TBS
6 bits
CRC
16 bits
H-RNTI mask
2nd and 3rd subframe
1st subframe
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HS-DPCCH Information (UL)
CQI information for Downlink
20 Bits
H-ARQ
10 Bits
Channel
coder
H-ARQ
Ack/Nack
Ack: All 1s
Nack: All 0s
10 bits
Channel
coder
CQI value
0-30
5 bits
CQI + Parity
20 Bits
30 Bits
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Timing Relationships.
14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
HS-SCCH
DL Tx
Pkt 5 Pkt 4 Pkt 3 Pkt 2 Pkt 1
HS-PDSCH
Received at UE
Propagation delay over the Air Interface
Pkt 1 Ack/Nack
HS-DPCCH
UL Tx from UE
7.5 Slots = 5ms = 19200 chips
14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
P-CCPCH
Broadcast DL Tx
3 slots = 2ms
10ms
2ms = 1 TTI
Pkt 5 Pkt 4 Pkt 3 Pkt 2 Pkt 1
HS-PDSCH
DL Tx
2 slots
1 TTI = 2ms
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HARQ &
Coding
Flow Control
New NodeB HSDPA Functionality
User Equipment Node B
RNC
Buffer & Scheduler : Buffering of data, Terminal scheduling, Coding &
Modulation selection QPSK is still used and a new modulation type
16QAM introduced
HARQ, Retransmission Handling and coding
Uplink Feedback Decoding
Flow Control towards the SRNC
Packets
Buffer &
Scheduler
ACK/NACK &
Feedback
Decoding
16QAM
modul.
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User equipment Node B RNC
Packets
Flow Control
New terminal functions:
16 QAM demodulation
HARQ decoding and Retransmissions Handling
Soft buffer & combining
Fast Uplink Feedback Generation & encoding
New UE HSDPA Functionality
Soft buffer
&
combining
ACK/NACK
&
Feedback
generation
QPSK/16QAM
demodulation
HARQ
decoding
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Modulation
QPSK
2 bits / symbol
480 kbit/s / HS-PDSCH
max. 7.2 Mbit/s
10 00
01 11
Q
I
Q
1011 1001
1000 1010
0001 0011
0010 0000
0100 0110
0111 0101
1110 1100
1101 1111
I
16QAM
4 bits / symbol
960 kbit/s / HS-
PDSCH
max. 14.4 Mbit/s
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Adaptive Modulation
Node B
3) Adjust modulation
scheme according
to feedback received
from the UE

Good radio conditions use higher order modulation Increased throughput
UE
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Hybrid ARQ (HARQ)
Hybrid ARQ is an implicit link adaptation technique using
adaptive modulation techniques
Adaptive Modulation uses C/I or similar measurements to set
the modulation scheme
Physical layer acknowledgements are used to make
retransmission decisions
Hybrid ARQ adapts independently to the instantaneous
channel conditions
1/7
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2/7
Hybrid ARQ (HARQ)
Adaptive modulation (QPSK or 16QAM) provides coarse data
rate selection
Hybrid ARQ provides fine data rate adjustment based on the
channel conditions (codes and TBS)
HARQ is implemented in the UE by using Chase Combining or
Incremental Redundancy

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Hybrid ARQ (HARQ)
3/7
Node B
Ack
P1
Nack
P2
Ack
P5
Ack
P2
Ack
P3
Ack
P4
P1
P3
P4
P5
P2
There is a delay of 7,5 slots or 2.5 TTIs between the UE receiving
the data packet and the Ack/Nack response message from the UE
P2
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Turbo Coding
Turbo interleaving
Convolutional
coder
P
u
n
c
t
u
r
i
n
g
Convolutional
coder
bits in
S
P1
P2

S1
S
P1
P2

1:2
1:1
1:2
3:2
Turbo Coding is best suited to delay tolerant non real time
applications
Turbo Coding Rate = 1:3
4/7
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Turbo encoder coding rate = 1/3.
Rate Matching is used to adapt to
the desired coding rate either by
using puncturing or repetition.
In the example, RM punctures into
rate 3/4.
Data to be
transmitted
Rate Matching
System bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Turbo Encoder
Parity bits
are added
Rate Matching (Puncturing)
System bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Data is rate
matched 3:4
(3 System bits
plus 1 parity bit)
5/7
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System bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Turbo Encoding of data
Hybrid ARQ (HARQ): Chase Combining
Rate Matching (Puncturing)
System bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Original transmission
Chase Combining at Receiver (info retained in mobile receive buffers)
System bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Recovered Data
System bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
System bits recovered successfully
Retransmission
Retransmitted
data is exactly
the same as
The original
transmission
6/7
Note: Recovery of the
system bits is more
important than the
parity bits as system
bits are the user data
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Hybrid ARQ (HARQ): Incremental Redundancy
System bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Turbo Encoder
Rate Matching (Puncturing)
System bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Original transmission Retransmission
Incremental Redundancy Combining at Receiver (info retained in mobile receive buffers)
System bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Recovered Data
System bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
System bits recovered successfully
7/7
Note: Recovery of the
system bits is more
important than the
parity bits as system
bits are the user data
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Link Adaptation and Power Control
HS-DSCH link adaptation has two loops
A) Inner loop based on CQI reports from UE (NodeB UE)
B) Outer loop in Node-B to control the BLER of the inner loop (RNC UE)
HS-SCCH power control has two loops
A) Inner loop based on the fast power control commands from UE (NodeB UE)
B) Outer loop in Node-B to control the BLER of the inner loop (RNC UE)
These algorithms are not standardized
HS-DSCH link adaptation
HS-SCCH power control
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Downlink HSDPA Code Allocations
15 Codes assigned to the HS-PDSCHs from SF16,1...SF16,15 (3GPP)
SF 128 assigned to the HS-SCCH (3GPP)
Maximum of 5 codes/user is supported in RAS05/RN2.1
HS-PDSCH code resources are assigned to one user at a time

HS-PDSCH
SF=1
SF=2
SF=4
SF=8
SF=16
SF=32
SF=64
SF=128
SF=256
CPICH P-CCPCH
S-CCPCH
HS-SCCH
S-CCPCH
Free code that can be
allocated to e.g. DPCH,
HS-PDSCH (SF16) or HS-
SCCH (SF128).

Code that cannot be
allocated due to allocations
lower in the code-tree /
branch.

Code reserved for a
common channel.
Legend:
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UMTS - 3GPP R99
Transmit
Power
Time
Maximum Allowed Transmit Power = PtxTarget
Overhead Channels
Power Controlled User Traffic Channels
Unused/Available Power
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HSDPA 3GPP R5
Transmit
Power
Time
Maximum Allowed Transmit Power = PtxTarget
Overhead Channels
Power Controlled User Traffic Channels
Unused Power available for HSDPA use
Not all this unused power will
be used for HSDPA. The power
that may be used is operator
configurable
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HSDPA (TDM Mode)
Transmit
Power
Time
Maximum AllowedTransmit Power = PtxTarget
Overhead Channels
Power Controlled User Traffic Channels
UE-1 UE-2 UE-3 UE-4 UE-1 UE-3 UE-2 UE-1
UE-4
1-TTI
2ms
2ms
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HSDPA (CDM Mode)
Transmit
Power
Time
Maximum AllowedTransmit Power = PtxTarget
Overhead Channels
Power Controlled User Traffic Channels
UE-1
UE-2
UE-3
UE-4
UE-1
UE-2
UE-3

UE-4
UE-1 UE-2
UE-3
UE-4
UE-1
UE-2
UE-3
UE-4
UE-1
UE-2
UE-3
UE-4
1-TTI
2ms
2ms
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Schedulers
The scheduler schedules the information that will be sent from the Node B to the UE.
The scheduler requires important information from the uplink HS-DPCCH and other sources
Scheduler algorithm implementation is vendor specific
Scheduler
QoS and Subscriber Profile
Who is the subscriber? Platinum, Gold,
Silver, Normal.
What type of service is the
subscriber allowed? High priority, Best
effort
Uplink Feedback
CQI and Ack/Nack
information
Node B buffer status
How much data is in buffer
How fast is the data arriving
User History
How long has user
been waiting
Traffic Model
What type of traffic model should
be used - according to period
of the day Peak/Off Peak
Available Radio Resources
Power
Codes
UE Capability
See UE categories
Users are scheduled according to the
requirements for transmission by the
Node B over the air interface
Example - not specific to
Nokia implementation
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Simplest form of scheduler
First in First out principle
Advantages:
Easy to implement
Minimises waiting
time
Increases effective
throughput
Disadvantage:
Throughput not
optimised therefore
throughput is less
than maximum
possible throughput
UE 1 Data
sent
UE 2 Data
sent
UE 1
UE 6
UE 5
UE 4
UE3
UE 2
UE 3 Data
sent
UE 4 Data
sent
UE 5 Data
sent
UE 6 Data
sent
UE 1 Data
Request
UE 2 Data
Request
UE 3 data
Request
UE 4 Data
Request
UE 5 Data
Request
UE 6 Data
Request
NodeB Packet
Scheduler
Round Robin Scheduler
NodeB Buffers
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Proportional Fair Resource Scheduler
CQI
information
UE1
3
CQI
information
UE3
2
1
Increases system throughput by
serving the user above their
average data rate requested
Advantage:
Higher throughput than round
robin
Disadvantage:
Very complex to design
Scheduler calculates possible
data rate according to CQI
reports
Moving average for each user
calculated over a period of time.
Check history allocate credits
Combine with MA
UE1
PDR1
MA1
UE2
PDR2
MA2
UE3
PDR3
MA3
Compute new data rate
User with best ratio is
scheduled first
Method of Operation
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Module 2 Air Interface
Explain the effect of power on HSDPA overall

Explain the relationship between the parameters PtxTargetHSDPA and
PtxOffsetHSDPA

Explain HSDPA priority

Explain the initial bit rate for the HSDPA uplink

Explain HSDPA connection release

Explain SHO parameters in HSDPA
After the module the participant will be able to:
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The HSDPA Air Interface
In RAS05 the air interface does not have any direct impact on the
dimensioning of the network elements
The air interface parameters will however have an impact on how
the end user will experience the HSDPA service
There is no recommended set of parameters that should be used


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RRM
HSDPA Associated Uplink DPCH
Scheduling

64, 128 or 384 kbit/s uplink
.

HSDPA Channel Switching
HSDPA Mobility Handling with DCH
Switching
HSDPA Physical Channel, Transport
Channel and Radio Bearer Configuration
HSDPA Resource Allocation
HSDPA with Additional RAB Initiation
Telecom
Basic HSDPA with QPSK and 5 Codes
1 HS-SCCH, 5 HS-PDSCHs.
16 HSDPA users / NodeB.
1 HSDPA WSPC / NodeB.
3 HSDPA cells / NodeB.
Encoding, decoding.
Link Adaptation.
HARQ, Incremental Redundancy.
Data rates up to 1.8 Mbit/s
HSDPA NodeB Packet Scheduler
HSDPA Flow Control
HSDPA RRC State Handling
HSDPA Shared Control Channel Power
Control
HSDPA Features in: RAS05 (RN2.1)
Transport
HSDPA Transport with Best Effort AAL2
QoS
Operability
HSDPA Local Management for PM
RNC Site
RNC HSDPA Node B Connectivity (288
NodeBs)

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Directed RRC Connection Setup for HSDPA:
RAN964
HSDPA Enabled Cell
Sector ID = 1
non-HSDPA enabled Cell
Sector ID = 1
R5 Mobile
HSDPA capable
Connection request
1
Mobile is R5 mobile
Supports HSDPA
Resources are available.
Call type is IA/BG service class.
Re-direct to HSDPA layer.
2
Mobile is R99/R4 mobile.
Does not support HSDPA
Resources are available.
Re-direct to non-HSDPA layer.
4
R99/R4 Mobile
non HSDPA
3
Connection request
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HSDPA Flow Control: RAN871
NodeB algorithm calculates flow control credits and feeds back buffer status to the RNC
NodeB flow control
monitors the
NodeB buffers and
measures the UE
throughput for each
queue
S
c
h
e
d
u
l
e
r
P
a
c
k
e
t
111011
000001
010010
101001
001111
111011
000011
101111
001110
011001
101110
101010
110011
010101
BTS Buffers
User data
from RNC
RNC
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HSDPA Local Performance Management: RAN870
The practical performance of the HSDPA solution can be
monitored
Achieved using RNC and BTS element managers
HSDPA performance indicator data collected in the RNC and
NodeB
HSDPA performance indicator data collected in the RNC can
be reported to NetAct
NetAct support for HSDPA will be implemented on top of OSS4
with a change delivery
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UE 1
UE 6
UE 5
UE 4
UE3
UE 2
UE 1 Data
UE 2 Data
UE 3 data
UE 4 Data
UE 5 Data
UE 6 Data
NodeB Packet
Scheduler
NodeB Buffers
UE 1
UE 2
UE 3
UE 4
UE 5
UE 6
WBTS Sector 1
WBTS Sector 3
WBTS
Sector 2
HSDPA Packet scheduler Round Robin: RAN869
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HSDPA Physical Channel, Transport Channel and
Radio Bearer Configuration: RAN822
Physical and Transport Channels have several parameters that need to be
configured
Done on the fly by the system
Parameters are received from the RNC
The NodeB sets the radio parameters to correspond to the supported UE
categories
The parameters signalled to the UE using the RRC signalling and to the
NodeB using NBAP signalling (3GPP defined)
Most of the parameters are static in all cells of the network e.g. Number of
HARQ processes, Ack/Nack parameters, CQI values etc.
Parameters such as HS-SCCH code are cell specific and implemented with
recommended default values
The operator cannot adjust these parameters
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49 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Resource Allocation: RAN821
The code and power resources to be used for HSDPA are allocated to the
NodeB by the RNC
HSDPA power allocation cell specific (WCEL) parameters
HS-PDSCH codes (SF 16 is used; RAS05 code use fixed to 5)
HS-SCCH code (RAS05 is fixed to 1)
Operators can define a separate power level threshold below which HSDPA
can be allocated
Operators can define a separate power level threshold above which HSDPA
resources should be released
HSDPA can be allocated a priority higher or lower than NRT on the DCH
New counters for the HSDPA power levels in each WCELL
New alarms BTS WSPC for HSDPA is out of use and RNC DMPG for
HSDPA is out of use when the HSDPA service related to the BTS HSDPA or
RNC HSDPA processing capacity is out of use
1/3
Customer Confidential Non Binding
50 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Resource Allocation: RAN821
Max power
Ptx_offset_HSDPA
Ptx_target_HSDPA
A B
Node-B Tx power
PtxnonHSDPA
PtxNC
Ptxtotal
Ptx_target
C
2/3
HSDPAPriority = 1
HSDPA has priority
Over DCHs
PtxNC PtxTarget HSDPA
PtxNonHSDPA PtxTarget HSDPA + PtxOffsetHSDPA
PtxNonHSDPA PtxTargetHSDPA + PtxOffsetHSDPA
PtxMaxHSDPA
Customer Confidential Non Binding
51 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Resource Allocation: RAN821
A B
Max power
Node-B Tx power
Ptx_offset_HSDPA
PtxnonHSDPA
PtxNC
Ptx_target_HSDPA
Ptxtotal
Ptx_target
C
Ptx_offset
3/3
HSDPAPriority = 2
DCHs have priority
Over HSDPA
PtxTotal PtxTarget HSDPA
PtxMaxHSDPA
PtxNonHSDPA PtxTarget HSDPA + PtxOffsetHSDPA
PtxNonHSDPA PtxTarget + PtxOffset
Customer Confidential Non Binding
52 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA with Additional RAB Initiation: RAN820

HSDPA is suspended when
another RAB setup is
initiated (e.g. Video call)
Multicall combinations on
dedicated channels can be
used
bit rate
time
HS-DSCH
DCH
VIDEO CALL ON DCH
After HSDPA is suspended,
DCH packet scheduling
procedures can be applied -> if
there is still enough data in the
buffer a DCH is allocated
Video call is initiated ->
HSDPA is suspended
Customer Confidential Non Binding
53 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Shared Control Channel Power Control:
RAN766
The HS-SCCH power is adjusted according to the power level
required at the UE
The HS-SCCH power is adjusted every TTI
This is based on the Ack/Nack/DTXs received from the UE on
the UL HS-DPCCH
This reduces the average power overhead
Increases cell throughput gain by between 5 and 20% due to
power not being wasted by transmitting a fixed power level
The HS-SCCH power levels in each WCELL can be followed
up through new counters
Customer Confidential Non Binding
54 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Basic HSDPA with QPSK and 5 Codes: RAN763
Provides the basic HSDPA functionality
Allows 1.8 Mbps DL data rate over the air interface using QPSK modulation
Maximum number of 16 HSDPA users per NodeB
Maximum number of 5 HSDPA codes per user (SF16,11 to SF16,15 )
Maximum number of 5 HS-PDSCH codes per cell (SF16)
Maximum number of 1 HS-SCCH codes per cell (SF128)
3 cells per NodeB can be enabled for HSDPA
RNC DMCU/DMPG pooling NodeB WSP-C
New counters for the number of QPSK capable UEs per WCELL
New alarm for HSDPA physical channel reconfiguration failures when the
HSDPA service related to air interface is out of use
Customer Confidential Non Binding
55 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA RRC State Handling: RAN246
Necessary to enable state transitions from Cell_DCH to Cell_FACH state for
HSDPA users
Feature provides efficient radio and DSP resource usage in the RAN
Helps to conserves UE battery power
HSDPA resources are more efficiently utilised as inactive HSDPA users are
moved out of Cell_DCH state so that other users can use the resources
Timers and triggers to move the HSDPA users from Cell_DCH to Cell_PCH
due to DL/UL inactivity or utilisation status are available to the operators.
Please see addendum RNC, WBTS, WCEL Parameters Related to HSDPA
Customer Confidential Non Binding
56 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Channel Switching: RAN235
Determines whether a user in a cell is allocated to a HS-DSCH or not
based on
UE capability
Cell resource availability
UE handover status
UE multi-RAB configuration
User inactivity determines how long to keep the HS-DSCH reserved for a
specific user
Specific priority classes can be configured for NRT interactive so that
HSDPA will not be used.
Whether background class will be allocated HSDPA or not can be defined
separately
HS-DSCH setup requests and setup success vs. failures can be followed
up through new RAN Level KPIs and counters.
2/2
Customer Confidential Non Binding
57 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Channel Switching: RAN235
1/2
PS channel type
downlink selection
Selection
between FACH
and
DCH or HS-DSCH
Selection
between DCH
HS-DSCH
Data transfer
using FACH
Data transfer
using DCH
Data transfer
using HS-DSCH
Customer Confidential Non Binding
58 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Associated Uplink DPCH Scheduling:
RAN233
HS-DSCH up to 1.8 Mbps (DL)
DCH 64, 128 or 384 Kbps (UL)
HSDPAinitialBitrateUL Initial bit rate that will be allocated.
HSDPAminAllowedBitrateUL Min allowed bitrate when
the bit rate is downgraded. Must be equal to or smaller than
HSDPAinitialBitrateUL
Customer Confidential Non Binding
59 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Mobility Handling with DCH Switching:
RAN230
Scheduled data
continues to
download using
DCH X/Y. Scheduled
data ends DCH
dropped. New
capacity request
Active set=1
allocate HS-DSCH
SHO Region
HS-DSCH
Service Area
HS-DSCH
Service Area
UE is allocated DCH 0/0.
A capacity request is
received and DCHX/Y is
allocated to support
data transfer
Data scheduled to
UE. Active set=1 so
User can be allocated
HS-DSCH. Active set>1
implement mobility
procedure and HO to
DCH 0/0
Customer Confidential Non Binding
60 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Data scheduled to
UE. Active set=1 can
be allocated HS-DSCH.
Active set>1
implement mobility
procedure and HO to
DCH 0/0
Cell_DCH 0/0
Cell_DCH X/Y
Capacity_request
SHO Region
HS-DSCH
Service Area
HS-DSCH
Service Area
Cell_FACH/P
CH
low/no data rate
Allocate
HS-DSCH
Active Set =1
Capacity_request
HSDPA Mobility Handling with DCH Switching:
RAN230
Customer Confidential Non Binding
61 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Mobility improvements in RAS05
Change in RAS05 E5/pilot software
Available in pilot CD 3.0 (most likely)

Change in channel switching due to event 1a:
New functionality
HS-DSCH => FACH =>HS-DSCH
Original functionality
HS-DSCH => DCH0/0 => DCH_initial_bitrate




Customer Confidential Non Binding
64 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
RAS05 Mobility with DCH switching
Once the session is in DCH, it
remains there until the buffers
are empty. After that, HSDPA
can be selected
HS-DSCH coverage
RAS05 trial
HS-DSCH coverage
Service in
HSDPA
Switching to
DCH within the
SHO area
Cell A Cell B
HSDPA
DCH
0
Throughput
128kbps or 384kbps according to settings
64kbps
Upgrade to
initial bitrate
(e.g. 64 kbps)
Time
Upgrade to 128
/ 384 kbps
Customer Confidential Non Binding
65 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
RAS05 Mobility with DCH switching + Resumption
timer
HSDPA resumption timer
switches the user from DCH to
HS-DSCH, when UE exits SHO
area

HS-DSCH coverage
RAS05+CD
HS-DSCH coverage
Service in
HSDPA
Switch
to DCH
0/0
Cell A Cell B
HSDPA
DCH
0
Throughput
64kbps
128kbps or 384kbps according to settings
Upgrade
to e.g.
64 kbps
Upgrade
to 128 /
384 kbps
Switch
to HS-
DSCH
UE on
HS-
DSCH
Customer Confidential Non Binding
66 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Serving Cell Change via cell_FACH
Serving Cell Change switches
the user from HS-DSCH to
Cell_FACH then back to HS-
DSCH

HS-DSCH coverage
RAS05 E5/pilot
HS-DSCH coverage
Service in
HSDPA
Switching to
Cell_FACH
within the SHO
area
UE on HS-
DSCH
Cell A Cell B
HSDPA
DCH
0
Throughput
64kbps
128kbps or 384kbps according to parameter settings
Customer Confidential Non Binding
67 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Details on Cell Change via cell-FACH
The same parameter settings apply for this feature as for the DCH switching
no need for re-planning
HSDPA Serving Cell Change via Cell-FACH feature is used only in intra
frequency handover cases, in case of IFHO or ISHO the original DCH switching
procedures are used
If the user was moved to Cell-FACH because of intra frequency handover no
HSDPA user penalty timers are used on Cell-FACH, the user will be immediately
switched to a new HSDPA connection when there is a data volume request either
from the UE or RNC
If the user was moved to Cell-FACH because of low utilization or low throughput
then the HSDPA user penalty timers are used on Cell-FACH
If the HSDPA user moves to non-HSDPA cell, the user in HO area will be moved
to Cell-FACH. The user will be immediately switched to the DCH of the
requested bit rate when there is a data volume request either from the UE or
RNC (no need for first DCH 0x0 DCH Initial bit rate DCH Final bit rate)

RAS05 E5/pilot
Customer Confidential Non Binding
68 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Measurement results
Initial mobility method New mobility proposal
1 Mbps
Customer Confidential Non Binding
69 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Conclusions
Improvement to HSDPA mobility in RAS05 greatly improves long download
performance on HSDPA
The benefits are significant even after HSDPA resumption timer, and even larger
prior to that
Changing the cell via cell_FACH is faster than doing channel type switching to
DCH
Additionally with cell_FACH method, the user is back on HS-DSCH with good
download speeds
With DCH switch method it takes time for the user to actually get e.g. 384 kbps,
and with resumption timer configuration to HS-DSCH cause a break again
New method would replace the existing DCH switching method as a mobility
solution in RAS05 E5
Customer Confidential Non Binding
70 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HS-DPA Mobility Handling with DCH Switching:
RAN230
Separate parameters sets for HSDPA UE is implemented by
including a HSDPA specific identifier in the WCEL parameters
The following object classes can be defined for each cell
Intra Frequency Measurement Control FMCS
Inter Frequency Measurement Control FMCI
Inter System Measurement Control FMCG
Intra Frequency Handover Path HOPS
Fallbacks from the HS-DSCH to the DCH can be followed up
through new counters
Customer Confidential Non Binding
71 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Initial Up Link Bit Rate
This is set by the RNC parameter HSDPAinitialBitrateUL and
defines the initial bit rate for the scheduling of the associated
UL DCH 64Kbps (default value), 128Kbps or 384Kbps
Required to be equal to or greater than RNC parameter
HSDPAminAllowedBitrateUL. 64Kbps (default) 128Kbps or
384Kbps
The bit rate is subject to normal DCH bit rate rescheduling
according to current load and incoming RT connections

Customer Confidential Non Binding
72 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Connection Release
L3 begins the release procedures to release the UL NRT DCH
and MAC-d flow if:
The MAC-d flow is under utilised and the UL NRT DCH can be released
as specified for other than HSDPA related UL NRT DCHs
The MAC-d flow has low throughput and the UL NRT DCH can be
released as specified for other than HSDPA related UL NRT DCH. The
operator configurable timer HsdschGuardTimerLowThroughput is
started for this case
L2 inactivity supervision and the L3 inactivity timer are not used
for the MAC-d flow. They are only used for NRT DCHs
Customer Confidential Non Binding
73 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
SHO Parameters
Can be set differently for HSDPA
Smaller SHO areas can be used for UEs using the HS-DSCH
No SHO for HS-SCCH
If the SHO area is smaller the UL DCH will need to use higher
power
Setting these parameters requires careful consideration
Customer Confidential Non Binding
74 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Module 3 Effect of HSDPA Power on Throughput
After the module the participant will be able to:

Explain the effects of average cell throughput

Explain Bit Rate Distribution within a cell
Customer Confidential Non Binding
75 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Effect of Power on HSDPA Throughput, shared carrier
Customer Confidential Non Binding
76 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Bit Rate Distribution in a Cell
Customer Confidential Non Binding
77 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Power
HSDPA power parameters are probably the single most
important parameters that need to be considered in the network
The power parameter settings will determine the average bit
rates that are available for the users
Customer Confidential Non Binding
78 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
HSDPA Strategy
Probability of receiving HSDPA service can be controlled per cell
with PtxTargetHSDPA, PtxOffsetHSDPA and HSDPAPriority
PtxTargetHSDPA = high value close to PtxTarget, HSDPAPriority
=1 - high availability for HSDPA users even if the DCH usage in
the cell is high
High HSDPA availability will mean lower service availability for
R99 users especially NRT users.
These parameters should be very carefully considered before
deciding on values
Customer Confidential Non Binding
80 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Module 4 - Setting HSDPA Parameters
Can be set based on bit rate requirements
Requirements with one scheduler/NodeB lower than for one scheduler per cell
Alternative approach to setting HSDPA power is to evaluate the spare power
after DCH usage
Low DCH usage High HSDPA power allocation
High DCH usage Lower HSDPA power allocation
When HSDPA taken into use power control will increase DL transmission power
for DCH users to keep BLER in targets
Increase in DCH power must be considered when setting PtxTargetHSDPA and
PTXOffsetHSDPA to prevent power possibly being taken away from HSDPA
soon after allocation

Customer Confidential Non Binding
81 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Planning parameters in RAN05
General
HSDPAenabled
Enables/disables the use of the HSDPA in the cell.
MaxBitRateNRTMACdflow
Defines the maximum bit rate of the NRT MAC-d flow.
Default, 1664 kbps
Power allocation
HSDPAPriority
Defines priority between NRT DCHs and MAC-d flows.
PtxTargetHSDPA
Used instead of PtxTraget.
Default, 38.5 dBm
PtxOffsetHSDPA
Used instead of PtxOffset.
Default, 0.8 dB
PtxMaxHSDPA
Defines maximum HSDPA transmission power.
WinLCHSDPA
Defines window size used for averaging PtxnonHSDPA measurements in load control purposes.
Default, 5
Customer Confidential Non Binding
82 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Planning parameters in RAN05
MAC-d flow utilization and throughput measurement
MACdflowutilRelThr
Defines the low utilization threshold of the throughput measurement of the MAC-d flow.
Default 256 bps.
MACdflowutilTimetoTrigger
Defines the low utilization time to trigger timer
Default, 0s.
MACdflowthrouhgputRelThr
Defines the low throughput threshold of the throughput measurement of the MAC-d flow.
Default 0 bps.
MACdflowthroughputTimetoTrigger
Defines the low throughput time to trigger timer
Default, 5s
MACdflowthroughputAveWin
Defines the averaging window size of the MAC-d throughput measurement.
HsdschGuardTimeLowThroughput
Defines time when HS-DSCH allocation is not allowed for a UE, after the MAC-d flow is realease due to
low throughput.

Customer Confidential Non Binding
83 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Planning parameters in RAN05
Mobility control
HSDPAFMCS/I/Gidentifier
Identifies parameter set for inter-/intra-frequency and inter-system measurements of a user having HS-
DSCH allocated.
HSDPAHOPSidentifier
Identifies parameter set for intra-frequency HOs of a user having HS-DSCH allocated.
HsdschGuardTimerHO
Defines time when HS-DSCH allocation is not allowed for a UE, after successful channel type switching
to DCH due to any HO reasons.
Default, 5s.
HSDPARRCdiversity
Enables/disables diversity HO of the stand-alone signalling link after successful RRC connection setup
for the HSDPA capable UE.
(In RAN05, max. active set size is 1 and HS-DSCH serving cell change is not supported.
SHO and HO parameters effects only on triggering of channel type switching to DCH 0/0
kbps.)


Customer Confidential Non Binding
84 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Planning parameters in RAN05
UL return channel
HSDPAinitialBitrateUL
Defines the initial bit rate for scheduling of the HSDPA associated UL DCH.
Default, 64
HSDPAminAllowedBitrateUL
Defines the minimum allowed bit rate in UL that can be allocated by the PS to the HSDPA associated UL
DCH when downgrading bit rate.


Customer Confidential Non Binding
85 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Module 5 Node B
After the module the participant will be able to:

Explain the BTS structure for HSDPA
Explain the requirements and how to enable HSDPA on a BTS
Explain HSDPA and the WSPC card
Explain dimensioning of the WSPC cards
Explain the WSP card types and their support of Common Channels

Customer Confidential Non Binding
86 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
NodeB Structure
R-bus
DSC-BUS
Iub
WAF
WTR WSM
WPA
W
S
P

W
S
P

W
S
P

DSC-BUS
WAF
WTR WSM
WPA
W
S
P

W
S
P

W
S
P

DSC-BUS
WAF
WTR WSM
WPA
W
S
P

W
S
P

R-bus
T-bus
RT-bus
RR-bus
ST-bus SR-bus
W
S
P

WSP-C
assigned for
HSDPA use.
handles L1,
MAC-hs and FP
IFU
IFU
AXU
IFU
WSC
Carrier
InterFace
W
A
M

W
A
M

W
A
M

R-bus
WAM unit
handles Control
and AAL2
functions
Customer Confidential Non Binding
87 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Requirements to Enable HSDPA on a NodeB
WN3.0 Software installed on the NodeB
At least one WSP-C need to be installed in the NodeB to support
HSDPA using 5 codes
A software update for the WSP-C is required to support HSDPA
No changes are required to any other units for HSDPA to be
taken into operation and their dimensioning can be done
according to the normal guidelines
All types of WSP units can be combined in one cabinet
All NodeB types that can support the WSP-C unit will be able to
support HSDPA
Customer Confidential Non Binding
88 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
WSPC Allocation
HSDPA not supported by WSPA,
WSPD or WSPE units.
When HSDPA is enabled in a cell, the
WSPC unit is allocated dynamically.
All HSDPA channels for a cell are
processed on the same WSPC.
The HSDPA WSPC can also handle
DCHs for any cell but with reduced
capacity.
The HSDPA WSPC can also handle
common channels, but that will further
reduce DCH capacity.
RAS05: One to three HSDPA cells
supported on one WSPC, capacity is
shared between the cells within the
WSPC.
RAS05.1: HSDPA WSPC either per
BTS or per cell.
WSPC Capacity
Without HSDPA:
64 DCHs at 16 kbit/s OR
48 DCHs + common channels
HSDPA 5 codes:
1.8/3.6 Mbit HSDPA downlink
(5 HS-PDSCH codes) AND
16 uplink HS-DPCCHs AND
30 DCHs at 16 kbit/s or
14 DCHs + common channels
Associated DCHs for the HSDPA
users will consume DCH capacity.


HSDPA on an UltraSite WCDMA BTS Platform
Customer Confidential Non Binding
89 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
The WSP Channel Element and Common Channels
WSP Type CEs
WSPA 32
WSPC 64
WSPD 32
WSPE 16
Bearer (Kbps) CEs required
AMR voice 1
16 1
32 2
64 4
128 4
384 16
WSP
Type
Cells CEs required
for CCHs
WSPA 8 per cell
WSPC 1 - 3 16
WSPD CEs not
reduced for
CCHs
WSPE CEs not
reduced for
CCHs
If all types of WSP units were installed in the same
NodeB the CCH allocation would follow this
priority:
1) All CCHs to WSPA
2) WSPC if WSPA fully loaded or does not exist
3) WSPD if WSPA/C fully loaded or does not exist
4) WSPE if WSPA/C/D fully loaded or does not
exist
Customer Confidential Non Binding
90 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
The WSP-C Unit and HSDPA
Processing power on the WSP = Channel Elements
32 CEs reserved from one WSP-C are required to handle the 5
code HSDPA implementation (HS-DSCH, HS-SCCH and HS-
DPCCH)
Reservation of the CEs for HSDPA is static and made at NodeB
start up if the flag is set (HSDPAenabled=1)
1 to 3 cells are supported For RAS05, 1 WSP-C will support
HSDPA for the whole NodeB
The associated channels are distributed across all the available
WSP cards in the NodeB regardless of association to WAM.
The CEs used for the associated channel must be on the same
WSP card

Customer Confidential Non Binding
91 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Baseband Capacity with 5 Code HSDPA (RAS05)
An UL DCH at 64/128Kbps requires 4 CEs from the WSP
unit
An UL DCH at 384Kbps requires 16 CEs from the WSP unit
This UL DCH is not the HS-DPCCH
Site
Configuration
HSDPA active
No HSDPA users
Max. AMR users
HSDPA active
HSDPA with UL 64or
128Kbps
+ max AMR users
HSDPAactive
HSDPA with UL 384Kbps
+ max AMR users
Omni directional
1 WSPC
64 (32+16)=16 4 HSDPA + 0 AMR 1 HSDPA + 0 AMR
Omni directional
1 WSPC + 1 WSPA
(64+32) - (32+8)=56 14 HSDPA + 0 AMR 3 HSDPA + 8 AMR
Sectorised 1+1+1
1 WSPC
64 - (32+16)=16 4 HSDPA + 0 AMR 1 HSDPA + 0 AMR

Sectorised 1+1+1
2 WSPC
64*2-(32+16)=80 16 HSDPA + 16 AMR 5 HSDPA + 0 AMR
1+1+1
3 WSPC
64*3-(32+16)=144 16 HSDPA + 80 AMR 9 HSDPA + 0 AMR
Sectorised 1+1+1
2 WSPA + 1 WSPC
(32x2)+64-(32+24)=72 16 HSDPA + 8 AMR 4 HSDPA + 8 AMR
Customer Confidential Non Binding
92 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Example Baseband Calculations 1
Refer to slides WSP Channel Elements and common channels
and baseband Capacity with 5 Code HSDPA (RAS05)
Omni directional 1 WSPC
WSPC has 64 CEs 32 CEs for HSDPA -16 CEs for CCHS = 16 CEs left for associated and AMR channels
Using associated channel 16/128 for HSDPA requires 4 CEs from same WSP
16/4 = 4 rem 0
so support for 4 HSDPA users + 0 AMR users
Using associated channel 384 requires 16 CEs from same WSP
16/16 =1 rem 0
so support for 1 HSDPA users and 0 AMR users
Omni directional 1 WSPC + 1 WSPA
WSPC has 64 CEs 32 CEs for HSDPA = 32 CEs left for associated and AMR channels
WSPA has 32 CEs. According to rule CCHs should be assigned from WSPA and 8 CES required/cell for CCHs so 32 8 = 24 left
for use by associated channels and AMR channels
Using associated channel of 64/128 for HSDPA requires 4 CEs from same WSP
WSPC = 32/4 = 8 r 0 WSPA = 24/4 = 6 r 0
8 + 6 = 14
so support for 14 HSDPA users and 0 AMR users
Using associated channel 384 requires 16 CEs from same WSP
WSPA = 24/16 = 1 r 8 WSPC = 32/16 = 2 r 0
1 + 2 = 3 and 8 remaining
So support for 3 HSDPA users and 8 AMR users

Customer Confidential Non Binding
93 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Example Baseband Calculations 2
Sectorised 1 + 1+ 1 with 1 WSPC
WSPC has 64 CEs 32 CEs for HSDPA -16 CEs for CCHS = 16 CEs left for use by associated channels and AMR channels
Using associated channel 16/128 for HSDPA requires 4 CEs from same WSP
16/4 = 4 rem 0
so support for 4 HSDPA users + 0 AMR users
Using associated channel 384 requires 16 CEs from same WSP
16/16 =1 rem 0
so support for 1 HSDPA user and 0 AMR users

Sectorised 1 + 1+ 1 with 2 WSPC
WSPC 1has 64 CEs - 32CEs for HSDPA 16 CEs for CCH s= 16 CEs left for use by associated channels and AMR channels
WSPC 2 has 64 CEs by associated channels and AMR channels
Using associated channel of 64/128 for HSDPA requires 4 CEs from same WSP
WSPC 1 = 16/4 = 4 r 0 WSPC 2 = 64/4 = 16 r 0
RAS05 only supports 16 HSDPA users/NodeB (WSPC 2 fulfills this) and therefore all remaining WSPC 1 CEs must be used for
AMR
so support for 16 HSDPA users and 16 AMR users
Using associated channel 384 requires 16 CEs from same WSP
WSPC 1 = 16/16 = 1 r 0 WSPC 2 = 64/16 = 4
so support for 5 HSDPA users and 0 AMR users

Customer Confidential Non Binding
94 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Example Baseband Calculations 3
Sectorised 1 + 1+ 1 with 3 WSPC
WSPC 1has 64 CEs - 32CEs for HSDPA 16 CEs for CCHs = 16 CEs left for use by associated channels and AMR
channels
WSPC 2 has 64 CEs left for use by associated channels and AMR channels
WSPC 3 has 64 CEs left for use by associated channels and AMR channels
Using associated channel of 64/128 for HSDPA requires 4 CEs from same WSP
WSPC 1 = 16/4 = 4 r 0 WSPC 2 = 64/4 = 16 r 0 WSPC 3 = 64/4 = 16 r 0
RAS05 only supports 16 HSDPA users/NodeB (WSPC 2 fulfills this) and therefore WSPC 1 and WSPC 3 CEs must be
used for AMR
WSPC 1 = 16 CEs and WSPC 3 = 64 CEs = 80 CEs
so support for 16 HSDPA users 80 AMR users
Using associated channel 384 requires 16 CEs from same WSP
WSPC 1 = 16/16 = 1 r 0 WSPC 2 = 64/16 = 4 r 0 WSPC 3 = 64/16 = 4 r 0
so support for 9 HSDPA users and 0 AMR users
Sectorised 1 + 1+ 1 with 2 WSPA and 1 WSPC
WSPC 1 has 64 CEs 32 CEs for HSDPA = 32 CEs left for use by associated channels and AMR channels
WSPA 1 has 32 CEs (3 X 8 CEs for CCHs) = 8 CEs left for use by associated channels and AMR channels
WSPA 2 has 32 CEs left for use by associated channels and AMR channels
Using associated channel of 64/128 for HSDPA requires 4 CEs from same WSP
WSPA 1 = 8/4 = 2 r 0 WSPA 2 = 32/4 = 8 r 0 WSPC = 32/4 = 8 r 0
RAS05 only supports 16 HSDPA users/NodeB and therefore all WSPA 1 CEs can be used for AMR
so support for 8 + 8 = 16 HSDPA users + 8 AMR users
Using associated channel 384 requires 16 CEs from same WSP
WSPA 1 = 8/16 = 0 r 8 WSPA 2 = 32/16 = 2r 0 WSPC = 32/16 = 2 r 0
so support for 2 + 2 = 4 HSDPA users and 8 AMR users
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4 users
4 users
8 users
RAS05 HSDPA NodeB Configuration
3 HSDPA capable cells per NodeB
16 HSDPA users per NodeB can be
distributed randomly between all
HSDPA capable cells
1 WSPC to support 3 HSDPA cells
HSDPAenabled parameter set in WCEL
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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Enabling HSDPA on a Node B
WN3.0 software installed in the NodeB
RN2.1 software installed in the RNC
DMPGs allocated to the HSDPA pool
HSDPAenabled parameter set on (WCELL)
At least one WSPC card to be dedicated to HSDPA
functionality
The Nokia OSS system will require OSS4 software and a CD
delivery on top of the OSS4 software
Customer Confidential Non Binding
97 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Module 6 IUB
After the module the participant will be able to:
Explain the new Iub over ATM solution
Explain dimensioning for Iub capacity
Explain Iub parameters SHAS and SHFCAS
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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ATM over the Iub
RAS05 offers a new Iub solution allowing high capacity data to
be carried efficiently
Iub bandwidth is divided between signalling links on AAL5,
O&M on AAL5 and UP VCCs on AAL2
User plane VCCs transport CCHs, DCCHs and DTCHs
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HSDPA improves Iub efficiency compared to Release99 packet data
since HSDPA is a time shared channel with flow control in Iub
Release99 requires dedicated resources from the RNC to the UE.
Those resources are not fully utilized during TCP slow start or during
inactivity timer periods
HSDPA does not use soft handover no need for soft handover
overhead in Iub
= User 1
= User 2
= User 3
E1 for BTS1
E1 for BTS2
E1 for BTS1
1 2
1 = TCP slow start
2 = Inactivity timer
3
3 = Soft handover for some connections
HSDPA improves the Iub
efficiency by 50-70% due
to time multiplexing and
due to no soft handover
Iub Efficiency with HSDPA
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Algorithm runs on Node B. Operated
per priority queue.
Inputs:
Amount of data at Node B
Estimated throughput
Outputs:
When to send Capacity Allocation
message?
Maximum MAC-d PDU size
HS-DSCH credits
HS-DSCH interval
HS-DSCH repetition period
RNC chooses when to send the data
during each interval.
RNC may further limit the amount of
data to send based on
Node B has allocated more capacity
than there is data to send.
Iub capacity is limiting (scheduling for
this at RNC).
Example
credits = 4
interval = 10 ms
repetition = 3
10 ms 10 ms 10 ms
= MAC-d PDU
max 63 credits
Iub Flow Control
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Dimensioning the Iub Capacity
It is the Nokia recommendation that NetAct Transmission
Planner be used to dimension the Iub interface
The Iub dimensioning will not be affected much with the
introduction of HSDPA in RAS05 and the RAN04 dimensioning
will probably be adequate
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103 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Iub Parameters
The available Iub capacity is required to be shared between
HSDPA and DCH traffic
There are two main parameters that affect this:
Shared HSDPA Allocation Size WBTS
Shared HSDPA Flow Control Allocation Size WBTS
1/5
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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Shared HSDPA AAL2 Allocation Size,
Shared HSDPA Flow Control Allocation Size
HSDPA only pipe
Shared pipe
Shared HSDPA AAL2 Allocation Size
Shared HSDPA Flow Control Allocation Size
2/5
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HSDPA reservation = Max
DCH usage when a HSDPA
user is present
DCH only pipe
Shared pipe
DCH has strict
priority
HSDPA only pipe
DCH Traffic
HSDPA Traffic
HSDPA max
overbooking
HSDPA Transport with Best Effort AAL2 QoS:
RAN236
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106 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Shared HSDPA AAL2 Allocation Size
WBTS Parameter
Mandatory creation parameter
SharedHSDPAallocation
Indicates the guaranteed bit rate in the Iub for HSDPA traffic
Reservation only made when the first HSDPA user enters the cell
The value of the parameter depends on the priority required for the HSDPA traffic if
HSDPA traffic is not as important as DCH traffic then assign a low value
300Kbps is the recommended minimum size
1Mbps is the recommended size for a 1+1+1 site with only 1 WSPC
Range 0 to 7.2 Mbps in 0.1 Mbps steps

3/5
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Shared HSDPA Flow Control Allocation Size
WBTS parameter
SharedHSDPAFlowControlAllocation
Indicates the maximum data rate the RNC may use to send mac-d data on the Iub
DCH traffic has strict priority except for the reserved capacity allocated by the
SharedHSDPAallocation parameter
Initially this parameter could be set at 1.25 X average air interface throughput
Maximum value should be Total Iub capacity minus signalling traffic requirements
Too high DCH usage and aggressive setting will result in mac-d data buffering at
AAL2 level
4/5
Customer Confidential Non Binding
109 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Module 7 RNC
After the module the participant will be able to:
Explain RNC features associated with the RNC in RAS05
Explain the effects of HSDPA on traffic capacity in the RNC
Explain RNC connectivity
Explain the concept of the HSDPA pool
Customer Confidential Non Binding
110 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Traffic Capacity
There is a suggested maximum limit on how much data the RNC can pass onto the
Iub depending on the traffic types
DCH PS 196Mbps
HSDPA 100Mbps
DCH CS 196Mbps
AMR 12.2 6800 Erlang depending on the number of HSDPA
enabled BTSs in the RNC

The values above are theoretical limits when no other traffic types are present

The following formula indicates the feasibility of all 4 traffic mixes

AMR + SHO x (DCH_CS + DCH_PS) + 1.4 x HSDPA < 1
6800 196Mbps
SHO = Soft Handover overhead
Network dependant and typically 1.3
1.4
1.4 is a factor used to take into account
the heavier processing load caused by
HSDPA
Customer Confidential Non Binding
111 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
RNC Connectivity (Feature RAN957)
RAS05 can support up to 384 NodeBs/1152 cells
HSDPA can only be enabled in 288 NodeBs/864 cells
DMPGs are reserved from the RNC DMCUs for the HSDPA pool the amount
depends on the number of HSDPA users
The maximum number of DMPGs in the RNC configuration can be 48
Between 1 and 4 DMPGs can be allocated from each DMCU to HSDPA.
AMR traffic in the RNC is linearly dependant on the on the number of DMPGs
outside the HSDPA DMPG pool
Each full DMCU reserved for HSDPA traffic reduces the maximum AMR Erlang
figure (6800) by 155 Erlang => for each DMPG it will be 155/4 ~ 39 erlang
AAL2 connectivity limit for the RNC is 1000Mbps(1Gbps) and does not reflect the
total amount of traffic but rather the physical connections
Customer Confidential Non Binding
112 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
RN2.1 HSDPA DMPG Pooling Concept
HSDPA UE
NodeB
HSDPA UE
non
HSDPA UE
HSDPA DMPG Pool
Normal DMPGs
RNC
HSDPA UE
NodeB
HSDPA UE
non
HSDPA UE
DMPG-0
DMPG-1
DMPG-2
DMPG-6
DMPG-3
DMPG-7
DMPG-8
DMPG-9
113 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
THANK YOU ALL
FOR YOUR TIME.
ANY QUESTIONS?
114 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Addendum
Customer Confidential Non Binding
115 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Summary of NodeB Units
WAF Wideband Antenna Filter. Combines and isolates Tx/Rx signals as well as
amplifies the received signals. Typically one per sector
WPA Wideband Power Amplifier. Operating bandwidth of 20Mhz on any section of the
60Mhz band
WTR-B WCDMA transceiver unit. One WTR can serve two cells with 2way uplink
diversity
WSM- Wideband Summing and Multiplexing unit. Sums the Tx signals from the signal
processing units or other WSMs
WSP Wideband Signal Processor. Performs Tx and Rx channel code processing,
coding and decoding functions. Number of WSPs is determined according to the
expected NodeB traffic
WAM Wideband Application manager. Performs O&M and carrier control functions. Up
to six units can be installed in certain NodeBs and in this case 3 will act as primary
WAMs (slot 0) and the other 3 as secondary WAMs (slot 1). One primary WAM at a time
is selected as the master telecom and O&M unit by the system.Master WAM takes care
of the NodeB cabinet level control functions. NodeB start up, temperature control,
configuration and O&M processing. All WAM units perform telecom control functions,
logical resource management, ATM processing and transport channel frame protocol
processing.
Customer Confidential Non Binding
116 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
RNC Parameters Related to HSDPA Activation
MaxBitRateNRTMACdflow (Maximum bit rate of NRT MAC-d flow)
MACdflowutilRelThr (Low utilisation threshold of the MAC-d flow))
MACdflowthroughputAveWin (Averaging Window size of the MAC-d flow throughput
measurement)
MACdflowthroughputRelThr (Low throughput threshold of the MAC-d flow)
MACdflowutilTimetoTrigger (Low utilisation time to trigger of the MAC-d flow)
MACdflowthroughputTimetoTrigger (Low throughput time to trigger of the MAC-d
flow)
HsdschGuardTimerLowThroughput (HS-DSCH guard timer due to low throughput)
HsdschGuardTimerHO (HS-DSCH guard time after switching to DCH due to HO)
HsdpaRRCdiversity (SHO prohibition for HSDPA-capable UE)
HSDSCHQoSclasses (HS-DSCH QoS classes)
HSDPAminAllowedBitrateUL (Minimum allowed bit rate in uplink for HSDPA
associated UL DCH)
HSDPAinitialBitrateUL (Initial bit rate in uplink for HSDPA associated UL DCH)
HSDPAPriority (HSDPA priority)
Customer Confidential Non Binding
117 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
WBTS Parameters Related to HSDPA Activation
WinLCHSDPA (PtxnonHSDPA averaging window size for load control)
SharedHSDPAallocation (Shared HSDPA AAL2 allocation)
NbrOfOverbookedHSDPAUsers (Number of overbooked HSDPA users)
ReleaseTimerForSharedHSDPAallocation (Release timer for shared HSDPA
allocation)
SharedHSDPAVCCSelectionMethod (Shared HSDPA AAL2 VCC selection method)
SharedHSDPAFlowControlAllocation (Shared HSDPA flow control allocation)
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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WCEL Parameters Related to HSDPA Activation
HSDPAenabled (HSDPA enabled)
PtxTargetHSDPA (Target for transmitted non-HSDPA power)
PtxMaxHSDPA (PtxMaxHSDPA)
HsdpaFmcsIdentifier (HSDPA FMCS identifier)
HsdpaFmciIdentifier (HSDPA FMCI identifier)
HsdpaFmcgIdentifier (HSDPA FMCG identifier)
PtxOffsetHSDPA (Offset for transmitted non-HSDPA power)
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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Parameter name: HSDPA enabled
Abbreviated name: HSDPAenabled
Range: Yes, No
Default: No
Object: WCEL

Management Parameters for HSDPA RRM 1/8
General Parameters
Parameter name: Maximum bit rate of NRT MAC-d flow
Abbreviated name: MaxBitRateNRTMACdflow
Range: 64, 128, 256, 384,512, , 14080,
step 128 kbps
Default: 1664 kbps
Object: RNC

Mobility Control Parameters
Parameter name: HSDPA FMCS identifier
Abbreviated name: HSDPAFmcsIdentifier
Range: 1 100, step 1
Default: Not applicable
Object: WCEL

Customer Confidential Non Binding
120 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Management Parameters for HSDPA RRM 2/8
Parameter name: HSDPA FMCI identifier
Abbreviated name: HSDPAFmciIdentifier
Range: 1 100, step 1
Default: Not applicable
Object: WCEL


Parameter name: HSDPA FMCG identifier
Abbreviated name: HSDPAFmcgIdentifier
Range: 1 100, step 1
Default: Not applicable
Object: WCEL


Parameter name: HSDPA HOPS identifier
Abbreviated name: HSDPAHopsIdentifier
Range: 1 100, step 1
Default: Not applicable
Object: ADJS

Customer Confidential Non Binding
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Management Parameters for HSDPA RRM 3/8
Parameter name: HS-DSCH guard time after channel
type switching due to HO reasons
Abbreviated name: HsdschGuardTimerHO
Range: 0 30 s, step 1
Default: 5 s
Object: RNC


Parameter name: SHO prohibition after RRC connection
setup for HSDPA capable UE
Abbreviated name: HSDPARRCdiversity
Range: 0 (SHO not allowed) 1 (SHO
allowed), step 1
Default: 1
Object: RNC

Customer Confidential Non Binding
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Management Parameters for HSDPA RRM 4/8
Power Allocation Parameters
Parameter name: PtxTargetHSDPA
Abbreviated name: PtxTargetHSDPA
Range: -10 50 dBm, step 0.1
Default: 38.5 dBm
Object: WCEL


Parameter name: Ptx Max HSDPA
Abbreviated name: PtxMaxHSDPA
Range: 0 50 dBm, step 0.1
Default: 37.8 dBm
Object: WCEL


Parameter name: HSDPA priority
Abbreviated name: HSDPAPriority
Range: 1 2, step 1
Default: 1
Object: RNC

Customer Confidential Non Binding
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Management Parameters for HSDPA RRM 5/8
Parameter name: PtxnonHSDPA averaging window size
for LC
Abbreviated name: WinLCHSDPA
Range: 0 20, step 1
Default: 5
Object: WBTS


Parameter name: PtxOffsetHSDPA
Abbreviated name: PtxOffsetHSDPA
Range: 0 6 dB, step 0.1
Default: 0.8 dB
Object: WCEL

Customer Confidential Non Binding
124 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Management Parameters for HSDPA RRM 6/8
MAC-d flow throughput measurement parameters
Parameter name: Low utilization threshold of the MAC-d
flow
Abbreviated name: MACdflowutilRelThr
Range: 0 64000 bps, step 256
Default: 256 bps
Object: RNC


Parameter name: Window size of the MAC-d flow
throughput measurement
Abbreviated name: MACdflowthroughputAveWin
Range: 0 10 s, step 0.5 s
Default: 3 s
Object: RNC


Parameter name: Low throughput threshold of the MAC-
d flow
Abbreviated name: MACdflowthroughputRelThr
Range: 0 64000 bps, step 256
Default: 0
Object: RNC

Customer Confidential Non Binding
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Management Parameters for HSDPA RRM 7/8
Parameter name: Low utilization time to trigger of the
MAC-d flow
Abbreviated name: MACdflowutilTimetoTrigger
Range: 0 300 s, step 0.2 s
Default: 0 s
Object: RNC


Parameter name: Low throughput time to trigger of the
MAC-d flow
Abbreviated name: MACdflowthroughputTimetoTrigger
Range: 0 300 s, step 0.2 s
Default: 5 s
Object: RNC


Parameter name: HS-DSCH guard timer due to low
throughput
Abbreviated name: HsdschGuardTimerLowThroughput
Range: 0 240 s, step 1
Default: 30 s
Object: RNC

Customer Confidential Non Binding
126 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
Management Parameters for HSDPA RRM 8/8


Other parameters


Parameter name: HS-DSCH QoS classes
Abbreviated name: HSDSCHQoSclasses
Range: 0-15, step 1
Default: 15
Object: RNC

Parameter name: Minimum allowed bit rate in uplink for
HSDPA associated UL DCH
Abbreviated name: HSDPAminAllowedBitrateUL
Range: 64, 128, 384 kbps
Default: 64 kbps
Object: RNC


Parameter name: Initial bit rate in uplink for HSDPA
associated UL DCH
Abbreviated name: HSDPAinitialBitrateUL
Range: 64, 128, 384 kbps
Default: 64 kpbs
Object: RNC

Customer Confidential Non Binding
127 2006 Nokia HSDPA Theory Course V3.ppt / 2006-07-05 /BeAs
UE Categories
10
9
7/8
5/6
3/4
1/2
12
11
HSDPA
Category
-
-
-
3.6 Mbps
1.8 Mbps
1.2 Mbps
1.8 Mbps
0.9 Mbps
5 Codes
- - 3630 2 QPSK only
- - 3630 1 QPSK only
QPSK/16QAM
QPSK/16QAM
QPSK/16QAM
QPSK/16QAM
QPSK/16QAM
QPSK/16QAM
Modulation
14.0 Mbps
10.1 Mbps
-
-
-
-
15 Codes
- 27952 1
- 20251 1
7.2 Mbps
14411 1
- 7298 1
- 7298 2
- 7298 3
10 Codes
Transport
Block size
Inter-TTI
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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Applicable to
RAS05
(QPSK
and 5 codes)
CQI Reporting from UE
UE measures channel quality of CPICH
and assumes that HS-PDSCH codes
will be transmitted with combined power
PHS-PDSCH = PCPICH +
G.
Measurement power offset G signalled
to Node B and UE by NBAP and RRC.
Table to the right (from 25.214) defines
CQI for UE categories 1 to 6. Based on
10% BLER.
Reference power adjustment D is used
to signal how much quality is better
than maximum TBS supported by UE.
CQI TBS codes M D (dB)
1 137 1 QPSK 0
2 173 1 QPSK 0
3 233 1 QPSK 0
4 317 1 QPSK 0
5 377 1 QPSK 0
6 461 1 QPSK 0
7 650 2 QPSK 0
8 792 2 QPSK 0
9 931 2 QPSK 0
10 1262 3 QPSK 0
11 1483 3 QPSK 0
12 1742 3 QPSK 0
13 2279 4 QPSK 0
14 2583 4 QPSK 0
15 3319 5 QPSK 0
16 3565 5 16QAM 0
17 4189 5 16QAM 0
18 4664 5 16QAM 0
19 5287 5 16QAM 0
20 5887 5 16QAM 0
21 6554 5 16QAM 0
22 7168 5 16QAM 0
23 7168 5 16QAM -1
24 7168 5 16QAM -2
25 7168 5 16QAM -3
26 7168 5 16QAM -4
27 7168 5 16QAM -5
28 7168 5 16QAM -6
29 7168 5 16QAM -7
30 7168 5 16QAM -8
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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16QAM 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
A/N Ack/Nack
AM Acknowledge Mode
AAL2 ATM Adaptation Layer type 2
Ack Acknowledgement
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
AS Active Set
ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
BLER Block Error Rate
CCS Channelisation Code Set
CQI Channel Quality Information
CRNC Controlling RNC
DCCH Dedicated Control Channel
DCH Dedicated Channel
DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel

DPCH Dedicated Physical Channel
DSP Digital Signal Processor
DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel
DTX Discontinuous Transmission
F Flag
FBI Feedback Information
FC Flow Control
FP Frame Protocol
H-RNTI HS-DSCH Radio Network Temporary
Identifier
HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request
HS-DPCCH High Speed Dedicated Physical
Control
Channel
HS-DSCH High Speed Downlink Shared Channel
HS-PDSCH High Speed Physical Downlink Shared
Channel
HS-SCCH High Speed Shared Control Channel
Abbreviations (1)
Customer Confidential Non Binding
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HSDPA High Speed Downlink
Packet Access
I In phase
LA Link Adaptation
M Modulation
MAC Medium Access Control
Nack Negative Acknowledgement
NDI New Data Indicator
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PHY Physical (Layer)
Q Quadrature
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RLC Radio Link Control
RNC Radio Network Controller
RV Redundancy Version
SDU Service Data Unit
SID Size Index Identifier
SRNC Source RNC
TBS Transport Block Size
TM Transparent Mode
TNL Transport Network Layer
TPC Transmit Power Control
TSN Transmission Sequence Number
TTI Transmission Time Interval
UE User Equipment
UM Unacknowledged Mode
VF Version Flag
WAMA Wideband Application Manager
version A
WSPA Wideband Signal Processor version A
WSPC Wideband Signal Processor version C
WSPD Wideband Signal Processor version D

Abbreviations (2)