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Induction Motors

Introduction
An induction motor carries alternating current in both the stator
and the rotor windings.
An induction motor is a singly-fed motor. Therefore, it does not
require a commutator, slip-rings, or brushes.
In fact, there are no moving contacts between the stator and the
rotor.
This results in a motor that is rugged, reliable, and almost
maintenance free.
The absence of brushes eliminates the electrical loss due to the
brush voltage drop and the mechanical loss due to friction
between the brushes and commutator or the slip-rings.
Thus, an induction motor has a relatively high efficiency.
Introduction
Three-phase induction motors are the most common and
frequently encountered machines in industry
simple design, rugged, low-price, easy maintenance
wide range of power ratings: fractional horsepower to
10 MW
run somehow at constant speed from no-load to full
load
Its speed depends on the frequency of the power
source
Construction
An induction motor has two main parts
a stationary stator
The outer (stationary) member of an induction motor is
called the stator and is formed by stacking thin-slotted,
highly permeable steel laminations inside a steel or cast-
iron frame.
The frame provides mechanical support to the motor.
Although the frame is made of a magnetic material, it is
not designed to carry magnetic flux.
Identical coils are wound (or placed) into the slots and
then connected to form
a balanced three-phase winding.
Stator of IM
Construction
A revolving rotor
The rotor is also composed of thin-slotted, highly permeable steel
laminations that are pressed together onto a shaft.

Basic design types depending on the rotor design
Squirrel-cage:
The squirrel-cage rotor is commonly used when the load requires
little starting torque.
Circular rings called the end-rings are also formed on both sides
of the stack.
These end-rings short-circuit the bars on both ends of the rotor, .
Each pair of poles has as many rotor phases as there are bars
because each bar behaves independently of the other.
It is a common practice to skew the rotor laminations to reduce
cogging and electrical noise in the motor.
Induction Machines_Introduction
Stator winding is essentially the same as that of a synchronous
machine.

Rotor may be one of two types: wound rotor or squirrel-cage rotor.

Wound rotor has a polyphase winding similar to the stator winding.
The rotor terminals are brought outside with the help of slip rings.
The rotor winding is usually short-circuited through external
resistances that can be varied.

Squirrel-cage rotor has a winding consisting of conducting bars of
copper or aluminum, short-circuited at each end by conducting end
rings.
Construction
Squirrel cage rotor
Wound rotor
Notice the
slip rings
Operating Principle
When supplied from a balanced three-phase (polyphase) source, the
three-phase (polyphase) stator winding produces a rotating magnetic
field. The magnetic field rotates at a synchronous speed given by:




This phenomenon applies to synchronous motors as well.

Due to the stator magnetic field, an emf is induced in the rotor
winding. The emf sets up a current in the rotor.

Current-carrying rotor winding (conductors) under the stator
magnetic field produces a torque (force) in the direction of the
rotating stator magnetic field.

An induction machine may be regarded as a transformer. The rotor
(current) frequency is, however, different from the stator (current)
frequency.
P
f
n
s
120
=
Slip
Slip: The difference between the speed of the rotating flux produced
by the stator and the speed of the rotor is called slip speed, and the
ratio of slip speed to synchronous speed is called slip.




where:
n
s
= synchronous speed
n
r
= rotor speed (r/min)
s = slip

The slip depends on the mechanical load connected to the rotor shaft.
Increasing the shaft load decreases the rotor speed, thus increasing
the slip.

s
r s
n
n n
S

=
Equivalent Circuit
Modeling Induction Machines_1
Motor Mode of Operation: At no-load, the machine operates at
negligible slip. If a mechanical load is applied, the slip increases
such that the induced voltage and current produce the torque
required by the load. The machine thus operates as a motor.

Generator Mode of Operation: If the rotor is driven by a prime-
mover at a speed greater than that of the stator field, the slip is
negative. The polarities of the induced voltages are reversed so
that the resulting torque is opposite in direction to that of rotation.
The machine thus operates as a generator.

Alternative Rotor Constructions
High efficiency at normal operating conditions requires a low rotor
resistance.
On the other hand, a high rotor resistance is required to produce a high
starting torque and to keep the magnitude of the starting current low and
the power factor high.
The wound rotor is one way of meeting the above mentioned need for
varying the rotor resistance at different operating conditions. Wound-
rotor motors are, however, more
expensive than squirrel-cage motors.


Effect of the rotor resistance
the torque-slip curves.
Double Squirrel-Cage Rotor Construction
Following double squirrel-cage arrangements can also be used to
obtained a high value of effective resistance at starting and a low value
of the resistance at full-load operation.
It consists of two layers of bars, both short-circuited by end rings.
The upper bars are small in cross-section and have a high resistance.
They are placed near the rotor surface so that the leakage flux sees a path
of high reluctance; consequently, they have a low leakage inductance.
The lower bars have a large cross-section, a lower resistance and a high
leakage inductance.



Double squirrel-cage rotor bars
Double Squirrel-Cage Rotor Construction (contd)
At starting, rotor frequency is high and very little current flows through
the lower bars; the effective resistance of the rotor is then the high
resistance upper bars.(due to high leakage flux . Impedence is high)
At normal low slip operation, leakage reactances are negligible, and the
rotor current flows largely through the low resistance lower bars; the
effective rotor resistance is equal to that of the two sets of bars in
parallel.



Double squirrel-cage rotor bars
Deep-Bar Rotor Construction
The use of deep, narrow rotor bars produces torque-slip characteristics
similar to those of a double-cage rotor.
Leakage inductance of the top cross-section of the rotor bar is relatively
low; the lower sections have progressively higher leakage inductance.
At starting, due to the high rotor frequency, the current is concentrated
towards the top layers of the rotor bar.
At full-load operation, the current distribution becomes uniform and the
effective resistance is low.



Deep-bar rotor construction
Equivalent Circuit with a Double Cage or Deep Bar Rotor
Equivalent circuit of a single-
cage induction motor (with one
rotor winding).
Equivalent circuit of a double-
cage induction motor (two rotor
windings).
Equivalent Circuit_Single Rotor Circuit Representation
( )
( )
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
0
2 2
2
1
0
1
2 2
0
1
2 2
0
,
X
R R
m
R R
R R
R
where
s m
R
mR
R
X s X
s m
R
R
ms m
R s R
r
r
r
r
r r
+
=
+
=
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
For system studies, the rotor should be
represented by a single rotor circuit whose
parameters vary as a function of slip, s.