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Networking Basics Networking Basics Mohd. Mohd. Abdul Abdul Hannan Hannan Chowdhury Chowdhury

Networking Basics

Networking

Basics

Mohd. Mohd. Abdul Abdul Hannan Hannan Chowdhury Chowdhury
Mohd.
Mohd. Abdul
Abdul Hannan
Hannan Chowdhury
Chowdhury
Objectives Objectives
Objectives
Objectives

At the end of this session, you will be able to:

– Define a Computer Network; – List the advantages and disadvantages of using computer networks; – Classify computer networks; – Differentiate between LAN ,MAN and WAN – Explain the functions of the standard topologies – Explain the functions of different network protocols

Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
– Explain the roles of a computer in a network – Identify the different networking hardware
– Explain the roles of a computer in a network
– Identify the different networking hardware
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Objectives Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: – Define a
Why
Why

Why Network?

Network?

Why Why Network? Network? ItIt was was not not efficient efficient oror cost- cost- effective effective
ItIt was was not not efficient efficient oror cost- cost- effective effective for for businesses businesses
ItIt was
was not
not efficient
efficient oror cost-
cost-
effective
effective for
for businesses
businesses toto use
use
floppy
floppy disks
disks toto share
share data.
data.
Sneaker-net
Sneaker-net creates
creates multiple
multiple
copies
copies of
of the
the data.
data. Each
Each time
time aa
file
file was
was modified
modified itit would
would have
have toto
bebe shared
shared again
again with
with all
all other
other
people
people who
who needed
needed that
that file.
file.
IfIf two
two people
people modified
modified the
the file
file and
and
then
then tried
tried toto share
share it,
it, one
one of
of the
the
sets
sets of
of changes
changes would
would bebe lost.
lost.
Businesses
Businesses needed
needed aa solution
solution
that
that would
would successfully
successfully
address
address the
the above
above three
three
problems.
problems.
What
What
What is is a a Network? An interconnected system of things or people; A wide variety

What isis aa Network?

Network?

An interconnected system of things or people;

A wide variety of systems of interconnected components are called networks.

What is is a a Network? An interconnected system of things or people; A wide variety
What
What

What isis aa Computer

Computer Network?

Network?

Computer Network is two or more computers connected so that they can communicate with each other and share information, software, peripheral devices, and/or processing power.

What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so

Computer Network is a group of computers connected by using various media is capable of sharing, managing and providing resources.

What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
In summary, all networks must have the following: – Something to share (data) – A physical
In summary, all networks must have the
following:
– Something to share (data)
– A physical pathway (transmission medium)
– Rules of communication (protocols)
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so
What is is a a Computer Network? Computer Network is two or more computers connected so

Keeps information reliable and up to-date efficiently

Which Which one one of of the the following following isis aa computer computer network? network?
Which
Which one
one of
of the
the following
following isis aa
computer
computer network?
network?
Which Network
Which
Network

Which resources

can share?

share?

resources wewe can

Network Resources

Resources (Software/Services)

(Software/Services):

Files / Programs Services

Which Network resources share? we we can Network Resources Resources (Software/Services) (Software/Services) : Files / Programs

Network Resources (Hardware):

– Printers – Hard disks – Floppy disks – DVD/CD-ROMs – Plotters – etc.
– Printers
– Hard disks
– Floppy disks
– DVD/CD-ROMs
– Plotters
– etc.
Network – Cable Media
Network
– Cable Media

Network Media

Media

The following medias are used as communication path:

Twisted Pair Cable – UTP Cable – STP Cable Coaxial Cable Fiber Optic Cable – Wireless
Twisted Pair Cable
– UTP Cable
– STP Cable
Coaxial Cable
Fiber Optic Cable
– Wireless Media
Microwave
Infrared, etc.
– Communicating Devices
Hub
Switch
Router (as network management device too)
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that

Rules of Communication (Protocol):

Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that govern how devices on a network exchange information.

TCP/IP UDP NWLink NetBEUI PPP IPX/SPX etc.

TCP/IP UDP NWLink NetBEUI PPP IPX/SPX etc.
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
the functions of network in different layer- – OSI Reference Model – TCP/IP Model
the functions of network in different layer-
– OSI Reference Model
– TCP/IP Model
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that
Rules of Communication (Protocol): Protocol is Formal description of a set of rules and conventions that

There are also some reference models which describe

Example of a network

Example of a network

Example of a network
Example of a network
A Simple Network Structure.
A Simple Network Structure.

A Simple Network Structure.

A Simple Network Structure.
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:

Classification of

Classification

of Networks:

Networks:

Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:

Size: Geographic size of network;

Topology: Physical Arrangement and the logical

Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
relations between nodes. or not. who cannot
relations between nodes.
or not.
who cannot
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:
Classification of Classification of Networks: Networks: Networks are classified using different point of view. For example:

Role in the network: Is there any controlling machine

Security and Access control: Who can access and

Classification of Classification of Networks Networks (by (by Size): Size): There are three basic type of

Classification of

Classification

of Networks

Networks (by

(by Size):

Size):

There are three basic type of network On the basis of the area covered:

LAN (Local Area Network)

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

– WAN (Wide Area Network)
– WAN (Wide Area Network)
LAN LAN (Local
LAN
LAN (Local

(Local Area

Area Network)

Network)

LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices in a single building or other geographically limited area;

LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices

Uses cables as its connecting media;

LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
– The strength of the signal
– The strength of the signal
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
It is high-speed, low-error data network;
It is high-speed, low-error data network;
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
LAN LAN (Local (Local Area Area Network) Network) LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
receiving the messages via the connecting media
receiving the messages via the connecting media

Carries information in the form of computer signals (i.e., digital);

Maximum distance between networks limited by:

– The network system’s built-in time limit for sending and

MAN
MAN
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.

MAN (Metropolitan

(Metropolitan Area

Area Network)

Network)

Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.

The area covered by a MAN is between LAN & WAN and typically it is between 5 and 50 km diameter.

Generally uses the LAN technology. For example: ‘Shikka Bhaban’.
Generally uses the LAN technology.
For example:
‘Shikka Bhaban’.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.
MAN MAN (Metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Area Network) Network) Network that spans a metropolitan area or city.

– A MAN of Standard Chartered Bank in Dhaka City.

May carries information in the form of analog or digital signals

– A MAN among Ministry of Eduction, BANBEIS, NAEM and

WAN WAN (Wide
WAN
WAN (Wide

(Wide Area

Area Network)

Network)

Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area;

It uses multiplexes to connect LAN and MAN to global communications networks like the Internet.

WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses

It may cover Cities, States, Countries, Continents; even planets;

– Phone lines – Microwaves – Satellites, or – a combination of communication channels to connect
– Phone lines
– Microwaves
– Satellites, or
– a combination of communication channels
to connect several locations.
– A WAN of Airline Ticketing system.
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
World.
World.
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
WAN WAN (Wide (Wide Area Area Network) Network) Wan spreads into unlimited geographic area; It uses
Establishes communication via: For example:
Establishes communication via:
For example:

A WAN of Standard Chartered Bank in the country or

Advantages Advantages of of LAN LAN over over WAN WAN LAN LAN designers designers can can
Advantages
Advantages of
of LAN
LAN over
over WAN
WAN
LAN
LAN designers
designers can
can set
set upup their
their own
own network
network that
that isis
technically
technically reliable.
reliable. Whereas
Whereas WAN
WAN designers
designers are
are
forced
forced toto use
use existing
existing public
public telephone
telephone network
network
that
that isis technically
technically unreliable.
unreliable.
LAN
LAN cables
cables are
are more
more reliable
reliable since
since they
they travel
travel
lower
lower distances
distances and
and uses
uses nono conversion
conversion of
of
computer
computer signal.
signal. Whereas
Whereas the
the WANs
WANs are
are more
more
susceptible
susceptible toto errors
errors due
due toto the
the distances
distances that
that
data
data toto bebe traveled
traveled and
and needs
needs conversion
conversion of
of
signals
signals inin different
different devices
devices and
and stages.
stages.
Error
Error detection
detection and
and correction
correction are
are done
done at
at lower
lower
levels
levels inin LANs
LANs asas compared
compared toto WANs
WANs
LAN
LAN uses
uses simple
simple devices
devices inin compared
compared toto WAN
WAN that
that
uses
uses complex
complex devices
devices that
that are
are more
more expensive.
expensive.
Classification of Classification of Networks Networks (By (By Topology) Topology) A topology is simply a description

Classification of

Classification

of Networks

Networks (By

(By Topology)

Topology)

A topology is simply a description of how a type

of system is arranged.

Classification of Classification of Networks Networks (By (By Topology) Topology) A topology is simply a description

There are two types of topology:

Physical topology: Refers to the configuration of

cables, computers, and other peripherals. – Logical topology: The method used to pass information between workstations.
cables, computers, and other peripherals.
– Logical topology: The method used to pass
information between workstations. Logical topologies
are called Protocol.
Three basic physical Topologies are:
– Bus
– Star
– Ring
Topology AA network toto aa single
Topology
AA network
toto aa single

Topology (bus)

(bus)

network topology

topology inin which

which nodes

nodes are

are connected

connected

each end.

end.

single cable

cable with

with terminators

terminators at

at each

Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected

All devices

All

devices are

are connected

connected toto aa central

central cable,

cable, called

called

the bus

the

bus oror backbone.

backbone. Bus

Bus networks

networks are

are relatively

relatively

inexpensive and

inexpensive

and easy

easy toto install

install for

for small

small networks.

networks.

Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Ethernet Ethernet systems systems use
Ethernet
Ethernet systems
systems use
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
Topology AA network toto aa single Topology (bus) (bus) topology in in which nodes are connected
use aa bus bus topology. topology.
use aa bus
bus topology.
topology.
Topology The
Topology
The

The equipment

toto establish

Topology (bus)

(bus)

equipment necessary

necessary

establish aa bus

bus

topology:

topology:

– Coaxial

Coaxial Cable

Cable

– BNC BNC Connector Connector – T-connector T-connector
– BNC
BNC Connector
Connector
– T-connector
T-connector
Topology
Topology

Topology (bus)

(bus)

Advantages of a Bus Topology

– Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear

bus.

– Requires less cable length than a star topology.

Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Disadvantages of a Bus Topology
Disadvantages of a Bus Topology
main cable. cable. shuts down.
main cable.
cable.
shuts down.
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or
Topology Topology (bus) (bus) Advantages of a Bus Topology – Easy to connect a computer or

– Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone

– Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the

– Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network

Topology
Topology

Topology (Star)

(Star)

AA star star topology topology isis designed designed with with each each workstations workstations /Server /Server
AA star
star topology
topology isis designed
designed with
with each
each
workstations
workstations /Server
/Server /Peripherals
/Peripherals connected
connected
directly
directly toto aa central
central point
point like
like hub
hub oror concentrator
concentrator
Data
Data onon aa star
star network
network passes
passes through
through the
the hub
hub oror
concentrator
concentrator before
before continuing
continuing toto itsits destination.
destination.
The
The hub/switch
hub/switch oror concentrator
concentrator manages
manages and
and
controls
controls all
all functions
functions of
of the
the network.
network. ItIt also
also acts
acts
asas aa repeater
repeater for
for the
the data
data flow.
flow. This
This configuration
configuration
isis common
common with
with twisted
twisted pair
pair cable;
cable; however,
however, itit
can
can also
also bebe used
used with
with coaxial
coaxial cable
cable oror fiber
fiber optic
optic
cable. cable.
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) The The equipment equipment necessary necessary toto establish establish aa bus bus
Topology
Topology (Star)
(Star)
The
The equipment
equipment
necessary
necessary toto establish
establish
aa bus
bus topology:
topology:
– Hub Hub oror Switch Switch – Twisted Twisted Pair Pair Cable Cable – RJ45 RJ45
– Hub
Hub oror Switch
Switch
– Twisted
Twisted Pair
Pair Cable
Cable
– RJ45
RJ45 Connector
Connector
Topology
Topology

Topology (Star)

(Star)

Advantages of a Star Topology

– Easy to install and wire.

No disruptions to the network in connecting or removing

devices.

– Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

Disadvantages of a Star Topology that device will be disconnected. cables.
Disadvantages of a Star Topology
that device will be disconnected.
cables.
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –
Topology Topology (Star) (Star) Advantages of a Star Topology – Easy to install and wire. –

– If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached with

– Requires more cable length than a linear bus topology.

– More expensive than linear bus topologies because of

the cost of the concentrators and the cost of longer

Topology o
Topology
o

Topology (Ring)

(Ring)

The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where each network computer and device are connect to each other forming a large circle (or similar shape).

Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
o Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination. o Today
o
Each packet is sent around the ring
until it reaches its final destination.
o Today the ring topology is seldom
used.
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology o Topology (Ring) (Ring) The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where
Topology What is Token:
Topology
What is Token:

Topology (Ring)

(Ring)

– It is a short message/packet passed around the ring and

is captured by the computer that has to transmit the

data. It contains Address of the receiving computer and

data that is to be sent.

– The destination computer that received the token sends

Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
computer. Offers the following advantages: conditions of heavy load – Equal access is given to all
computer.
Offers the following advantages:
conditions of heavy load
– Equal access is given to all computers
network
– Troubleshooting is difficult
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
an acknowledgement packet back to the source
an acknowledgement packet back to the source
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Topology What is Token: Topology (Ring) (Ring) – It is a short message/packet passed around the
Suffers from the following disadvantages:
Suffers from the following disadvantages:

– Network efficiency can be as high as 100 per cent under

Failure of one computer on the ring can affect the entire

– Adding or removing computers disrupts the network

Other Other Topologies Topologies Beside Beside the the three three basic basic topologies topologies there there
Other
Other Topologies
Topologies
Beside
Beside the
the three
three basic
basic topologies
topologies there
there are
are
some
some topologies-
topologies-
– Star Star Bus: Bus: combination combination of of star star and and bus bus topology;
– Star
Star Bus:
Bus: combination
combination of
of star
star and
and bus
bus topology;
topology;
– Star
Star Ring:
Ring: Combination
Combination of
of star
star and
and ring
ring topology;
topology;
– Physical
Physical Mesh:
Mesh: Each
Each computer
computer isis directly
directly connected
connected
with
with each
each other.
other.
Star Bus Topology Is a combination of the bus and star topologies Has several star topology
Star Bus Topology
Is a combination of the
bus and star topologies
Has several star
topology networks
linked with linear trunks
Does not adversely
affect the network if
one computer fails
Causes the network to
be disabled when the
central hub fails
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are

topologies.

Star Ring Topology

Is a combination of the ring and star

topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are

Has hubs that are connected in a star pattern

to the main hub

topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
topologies. Star Ring Topology Is a combination of the ring and star Has hubs that are
Physical
Physical

Physical Mesh

Mesh Topology

Topology

Has a link between each device on the network

Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets

Gets unmanageable beyond a very small number of

devices

Has each of its computers linked to most of the

Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets
Physical Physical Mesh Mesh Topology Topology Has a link between each device on the network Gets

other computers reducing the redundant links

network):
network):

– Clients

Classification of Networks (Role in the

Roles of Computer in a Network

network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which

Which use network resources but do not share them

Servers

network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
Which provide network resources – Peers Which use and share network resources into three categories: –
Which provide network resources
– Peers
Which use and share network resources
into three categories:
– Peer-to-Peer networks
– Server-based networks
– Combination networks
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which
network): – Clients Classification of Networks (Role in the Roles of Computer in a Network Which

On the basis of the roles, networks are divided

Peer Peer toto Peer
Peer
Peer toto Peer

Peer networks

networks

There is no central control over the network

Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers

All the computers are clients as well as servers

Does not have any dedicated server

Is organized into workgroups that have limited

Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
security control
security control
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer networks There is no central control over the network All the computers
Peer Peer toto Peer
Peer
Peer toto Peer

Peer networks

networks

Offers the following advantages:

– No extra investment on server hardware and software

– Easy setup

– No network administrator required

– Users can controls sharing of resources

Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
Peer Peer toto Peer networks Offers the following advantages: – No extra investment on server hardware
– Less cost in a small network Have the following disadvantages: – Weak and intrusive security
– Less cost in a small network
Have the following disadvantages:
– Weak and intrusive security
– Need to administer the computers individually
– Lack of centralized management
sharing
– Non-handling of multiple network connections

– Additional burden on the computers because of resource

Server:
Server:

Server-based Networks

– Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks

– A single server may perform all the tasks or the tasks

may distribute into separate servers

Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server

Servers are classified into following categories:

Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
– File servers that allow users to share files
– File servers that allow users to share files
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
Server: Server-based Networks – Servers are dedicated to perform some specific tasks – A single server
network printer expensive software applications
network printer
expensive software applications

Print servers that allow users to print on a common

Application servers that allow clients to access

Message servers that provide message services

that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –

that provides:

Server-based Networks

Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment

– Security – Administration – Services to various clients – Ensure security of files and directories

that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –
that provides: Server-based Networks Nodes are organized into domains in a Server environment – Security –

Server shown in the figure is optimized for file, print,

and application services. Workstation is optimized for

desktop performance, either as a network client or as a

peer.

Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides

Server-based Networks

Offer the following advantages:

– Strong central security

– Centralized file storage that:

  • Provides easy backup of critical data

  • Allows users to work with the

Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
– An expensive dedicated server is essential
– An expensive dedicated server is essential
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
Server-based Networks Offer the following advantages: – Strong central security – Centralized file storage that: Provides
– same set of data – Reduced overall costs in a large network – Easy management
– same set of data
– Reduced overall costs in a large network
– Easy management of multiple users
– Users are freed from managing resources
Have the following disadvantages:
monitor the network.

– Needs expensive network operating system software

– A dedicated network administrator must manage and

Combination
Combination

Combination Networks

Networks

Combination Combination Networks Networks This type of network- – Combine server-based and peer-to-peer networking features –

This type of network-

– Combine server-based

and peer-to-peer

networking features

– Can be implemented by using two types of operating systems on the same network –
– Can be implemented
by using two types of
operating systems on
the same network
– Require extensive
planning and training
of the users to
implement the network
and security issues
Network
Network

Network Protocols

Protocols

Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts,

workstations etc.) on a network to communicate

in a standard way.

Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on

In an intermediate network facility, a set of rules

Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Three most common protocols are: – TCP/IP – NetBEUI – NWLink
Three most common protocols are:
– TCP/IP
– NetBEUI
– NWLink
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on
Network Network Protocols Protocols Protocol is a way for two elements (server, hosts, workstations etc.) on

and procedures governing communication

between entities connected by the network.

Network
Network

Network Protocols

Protocols (TCP/IP)

(TCP/IP)

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A

protocol for communication between computers,

used as a standard for transmitting data over

multiple networks on the basis of standard

Internet Protocols.

Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
in which they were sent. provides 32 bit (IPv4) or 128 bit (IPv6) addressing mechanism.
in which they were sent.
provides 32 bit (IPv4) or 128 bit (IPv6)
addressing mechanism.
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,
Network Network Protocols Protocols (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol A protocol for communication between computers,

Whereas the IP protocol deals only with packets,

determines the best path to the destination. IP

TCP is one of the main protocols in TCP/IP

networks. TCP enables two hosts to establish a

connection and exchange streams of data. TCP

guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees

that packets will be delivered in the same order

System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a

System

Network Protocols (NetBIOS)

Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output

System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a

NetBIOS is a protocol used in a LAN to provide

services for managing names, conducting

(Computers). It is not a routable protocol.
(Computers).
It is not a routable protocol.
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a
System Network Protocols (NetBIOS) Abbreviated from Network Basic Input/Output NetBIOS is a protocol used in a

sessions and send datagrams between nodes

Network Protocols (NetBEUI) Abbreviated from NetBIOS Extended User Interface A network protocol native to Microsoft Networking.

Network Protocols (NetBEUI)

Abbreviated from NetBIOS Extended User Interface

A network protocol native to Microsoft Networking. It is a non-routable network transport suit for use
A network protocol native to Microsoft
Networking.
It is a non-routable network transport suit for use
in small networks consisting of a single LAN with
50 or fewer computers.
In the Microsoft networking world, NetBEUI was
the primary protocol for Windows 3.11 (Windows
for Workgroup).
NetBEUI is easy to use because it is self-
configuring. There is nothing to do except install
it.
It cannot be used in a WAN environment.
Network
Network

Network Hardware

Hardware

The hardware required to enable communication

among two or more nodes are-

– NIC (Network Interface Card)

– Repeater

– Hub

Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
– Switch – Wireless Access Point – Router – Cables – Connectors – Etc.
– Switch
– Wireless Access Point
– Router
– Cables
– Connectors
– Etc.
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
Network Network Hardware Hardware The hardware required to enable communication among two or more nodes are-
NIC NIC Network
NIC
NIC Network

Network Interface

Interface Card

Card

To enable a computer to access in the network there must be an interface (NIC) installed in the computer. The NIC may be built in the computer (i.e., integrated into the motherboard) or installed in the PCI slot of the motherboard. In both case there will be a port to attach cables with that or a antenna for wireless LAN. NIC provide the following tasks-

– Prepare data for the transmission medium – Sends data to the media – Controls the
– Prepare data for the
transmission medium
– Sends data to the media
– Controls the flow of data from
the PC to the transmission
medium
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
NIC NIC Network Network Interface Interface Card Card To enable a computer to access in the
Repeater Repeater ItIt isis aa device itsits original
Repeater
Repeater
ItIt isis aa device
itsits original

nodes exceed

nodes

device toto regenerate

value when

regenerate the

when the

the week

week signal

signal into

into

original value

the distance

distance between

cable length.

length.

between two

two

exceed the

the minimum

minimum cable

Repeater Repeater ItIt isis aa device itsits original nodes exceed nodes to to regenerate when the
HUB HUB
HUB
HUB

A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a

network. Typically used to connect hosts and

segments of a local area network (LAN), a hub

contains multiple ports.

HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used

When data arrives at one port, it is copied to the

other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see

the data.

the data.
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
Hub classified into following categories: – Passive Hub that: acts as a central connection point does
Hub classified into following categories:
– Passive Hub that:
acts as a central connection point
does not amplify or regenerate signals
does not require electrical power
– Active Hub:
which regenerates and transmits the signal
is also called as multi-port repeater
requires electrical power to run
– Intelligent Hub:
Acts as multi-port repeater
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
Regenerates and transmits signal through a specific port
Regenerates and transmits signal through a specific port
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used
HUB HUB A Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used

Requires electrical power

Switch Switch
Switch
Switch

A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than broadcasting every packet to every port as in conventional hubs. In this way, the connections between ports deliver the full bandwidth available.

Unlike hub the switch can control traffic on the basis of PCs MAC address.
Unlike hub the switch can
control traffic on the basis of
PCs MAC address.
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Switch Switch A central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than
Wireless
Wireless

Wireless Access

Access Point

Point

Wireless Wireless Access Access Point Point
Router Router AA network
Router
Router
AA network

from

from one

network device

one network

device for

for providing

providing routing

routing service

service

network toto another.

another.

Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It

ItIt connects

connects multiple

multiple networks

networks and

and acts

acts asas aa

gateway toto access

gateway

access another

another network

network oror internet.

internet.

Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Router Router AA network from one device network for providing routing service to to another. It
Transmission Media Transmission Media It is the network component over which the message is transmitted It
Transmission Media Transmission Media It is the network component over which the message is transmitted It

Transmission Media

Transmission

Media

It is the network component over which the

message is transmitted

It determines how fast data will be transmitted

The media may have the following types-

– Cable Media

Coaxial Cable Twisted pair Cable Fiber-optics Cable – Wireless Media Radio Wave Microwave, etc
Coaxial Cable
Twisted pair Cable
Fiber-optics Cable
– Wireless Media
Radio Wave
Microwave, etc
Cable
Cable

Cable Specifications

Specifications

Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications

relating to cable type include:

10Base2 – refers to the speed of the transmission at

10Mbps. Type of speed is baseband. The 2 represents

the capability of the cable, allowing the signal to travel

approx. 200 meters, and is also referred to as Thinnet.

Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Cable Cable Specifications Specifications Some examples of Ethernet cable specifications relating to cable type include: –
Generally it is a coaxial cable. Generally it is a coaxial cable. colored cable.
Generally it is a coaxial cable.
Generally it is a coaxial cable.
colored cable.

10Base5 – refers to the speed of the transmission at

10Mbps. Type of speed is baseband. The 5 represents

the capability of the cable, allowing the signal to travel

approx. 500 meters, and is also referred to as Thicknet.

10BaseT – refers to the speed of the transmission at

10Mbps. Type of speed is baseband, and the T refers to

twisted pair. It is generally a group of 4 twisted pair

Coaxial Coaxial cable cable
Coaxial
Coaxial cable
cable

consists of

consists

of aa

hollow

hollow outer

outer

Coaxial Cable

Coaxial

Cable

Coaxial Coaxial cable cable of consists a a hollow hollow outer outer Coaxial Cable Coaxial Cable

cylindrical cylindrical

conductor conductor that that surrounds surrounds aa single single inner inner wire wire made made of
conductor
conductor that
that
surrounds
surrounds aa
single
single inner
inner wire
wire
made
made of
of two
two
conducting conducting
elements. elements.
STP Shielded
STP
Shielded

STP (Shielded

(Shielded Twisted

Twisted Pair)

Pair) Cable

Cable

Shielded twisted-pair

twisted-pair

combines combines the the techniques techniques of of shielding, shielding, cancellation, cancellation, and and twisting twisting
combines
combines the
the
techniques
techniques of
of
shielding,
shielding,
cancellation,
cancellation, and
and
twisting
twisting of
of wires.
wires.
Each
Each pair
pair of
of wires
wires isis
wrapped
wrapped inin foil,
foil, and
and
the
the four
four pairs
pairs isis again
again
wrapped
wrapped inin anan overall
overall
metallic
metallic foil.
foil.
STP
STP reduces
reduces electrical
electrical
noise
noise within
within the
the cable
cable
and
and crosstalk.
crosstalk.
The
The metallic
metallic shielding
shielding
of
of STP
STP needs
needs toto bebe
grounded
grounded at
at both
both
ends,
ends, otherwise
otherwise itit
becomes
becomes susceptible
susceptible
toto major
major noise
noise
problems.
problems.
UTP Unshielded
UTP
Unshielded

UTP (Unshielded

(Unshielded Twisted

Twisted Pair)

Pair) Cable

Cable

Unshielded twisted-pair

twisted-pair

cable cable isis aa four-pair four-pair wire wire medium. medium. Each Each of of the the
cable
cable isis aa four-pair
four-pair wire
wire
medium. medium.
Each
Each of
of the
the 88 individual
individual
copper
copper wires
wires isis covered
covered
byby insulating
insulating material
material
Each
Each pair
pair of
of wires
wires being
being
twisted
twisted around
around each
each
other.
other.
UTP
UTP relies
relies solely
solely onon the
the
cancellation
cancellation effect
effect toto
limit
limit signal
signal degradation
degradation
caused
caused byby EMI
EMI and
and RFI
RFI ..
CAT-5
CAT-5 isis the
the most
most
frequently
frequently used
used and
and
implemented
implemented installation
installation
today.
today.
UTP
UTP has
has many
many
advantages
advantages inin that
that itit isis
easy
easy toto install
install and
and less
less
expensive
expensive than
than other
other
types
types of
of networking
networking
media.
media.
Optical Optical Media Media –– Total Total Internal Internal Reflection Reflection AA light light ray ray
Optical
Optical Media
Media –– Total
Total Internal
Internal Reflection
Reflection
AA light
light ray
ray that’s
that’s being
being turned
turned onon and
and off
off toto send
send data
data into
into fiber
fiber
must
must stay
stay inside
inside the
the fiber
fiber until
until itit reaches
reaches the
the far
far end.
end.
The
The ray
ray can
can not
not refract
refract into
into the
the material
material wrapped
wrapped around
around the
the
outside
outside of
of the
the fiber
fiber because
because the
the refraction
refraction would
would cause
cause itit toto lose
lose
part
part of
of the
the light
light energy.
energy.
Two
Two conditions
conditions must
must bebe met
met for
for the
the light
light rays
rays inin fiber
fiber toto bebe
reflected
reflected back
back into
into the
the fiber
fiber without
without any
any loss:
loss:
The
The core
core of
of the
the fiber
fiber has
has toto have
have aa
larger
larger refracting
refracting index
index than
than the
the
material
material surrounding
surrounding it.
it. The
The
material
material surrounding
surrounding the
the core
core isis
called
called cladding.
cladding.
The
The angle
angle of
of incidence
incidence of
of the
the light
light
ray
ray isis greater
greater than
than the
the critical
critical angle
angle
for
for the
the core
core and
and itsits cladding.
cladding.
When
When both
both conditions
conditions are
are met,
met, the
the
fiber
fiber will
will have
have total
total internal
internal
reflection,
reflection, giving
giving aa light
light wave
wave aa
guide
guide for
for data
data communications.
communications.
Wireless Equipped Equipped with
Wireless
Equipped
Equipped with

Wireless device

device and

and Technology

Technology

Wireless NIC
Wireless NIC

with wireless

wireless

NICs, NICs, anan “ad “ad hoc” hoc” network network could could bebe established, established, comparing comparing
NICs,
NICs, anan “ad
“ad hoc”
hoc” network
network
could
could bebe established,
established,
comparing
comparing itit toto aa peer-to-
peer-to-
peer
peer wired
wired network.
network.
Both
Both devices
devices act
act asas servers
servers
and
and clients,
clients, and
and security
security isis
set
set at
at aa minimum
minimum along
along
with
with throughput
throughput
ToTo solve
solve the
the problem
problem of
of
compatibility,
compatibility, anan access
access
point
point isis installed
installed toto act
act asas
the
the central
central “hub”
“hub” for
for the
the
Access Point
WLAN.
WLAN.
The
The range
range for
for anan access
access
point
point isis usually
usually between
between
300
300 toto 500
500 feet
feet (91.44
(91.44 ––
152.4
152.4 meters).
meters).
Thank you!!
Thank you!!
Thank you!!