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By Emily C, Grace G, Abigail M and Liam T

Oligodendrocyte Development
Germinal layer, here all cells can divide
Some cells lose the ability to divide and detach from the
germinal layer
Move outward to form a new layer = Intermediate/mantle
layer
Germinal layer is now the ventricular layer
Cells in the intermediate layer differentiate either to
neurons or glia through local signals (sonic hedgehog)
Neurons send projections outwards and some glial cells
will move out and wrap around axons, forming myelination
(white matter) This is in the mantle zone.
Oligodendrocytes
Schwann Cell Development
Derived from neural crest cells which migrate
peripherally.
Neural Crest cells become Schwann cell precursors,
(the mechanism for which is unknown) at around
embryonic day 14-15
At day 15-17 they become Immature Schwann cells
These steps are reversible
The immature Schwann cells fate is determined by the
axon on which they wrap around only those around
large diameter axons will be myelinating Schwann
cells.
Schwann Cell
http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v6/n9/images/nrn1746-f1.jpg
Differences
http://blustein.tripod.com/Oligodendrocytes/08-zoom.jpg
http://faculty.southwest.tn.edu/rburkett/_derived/A&P1_nervous_sys
tem_lab.htm_txt_AP1_N4.gif



Schwann Cells Oligodendrocytes
PNS CNS
Form around one axon Form around multiple axons
SCP Oligodendroblasts
Function-Myelin Sheath Formation
In PNS
Nerve bundle invaded by Schwann cells
Multiply rapidly, segregating individual axons.
Axons with large diameter, undergo myelination.
Plasmalemmma of the Schwann cell forms a double
membrane structure, by wrapping around axon.
Cytoplasmic surfaces then condense into myelin
sheath.



In CNS
Cytoplasmic loop on end of mesaxon
Loop` is restricted to small portion of sheath.
Beleived that internode, diameter of axon and number
of myelin layers all increase at the same time.
But the process is still understood poorly.
Disease
Demyelinating Dysmyelinating

Multiple Sclerosis
Progressive multifocal
leukoencephalopathy
(Trauma)





Leukodystrophy
Schizophrenia
Leukodystrophies
Genetic disorders that cause damage to white matter.

Autosomal recessive

Resulting from the loss of function of myelin
producing enzymes.
Metachromatic leukodystrophy
Found in 1 in 40,000 people

Deficiency in arylsulfatase-A enzyme
Picture from page 584 of molecular pathology
Multiple Sclerosis
Variety of disorders
Remission and relapse or
progressive form of the
disease
Immune damage to myelin
Geographical factors
Causes lesions in white
matter

http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/exhibns/month/oct2003.html
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Monthly_multiple_sclerosis_anim_cropped_no_text.gif
Autoimmunity hypothesis slide. Picture from page 585 of molecular pathology
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
An example of infectious demyelination
Caused by the JC virus
Virus found in 40% of people without symptoms
Disease arises in immunocomprimised pateints



http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=783327
References
http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v6/n9/box/nrn1746_BX1.html

http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/metachromatic-leukodystrophy

http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0092867400800938/1-s2.0-S0092867400800938-main.pdf?_tid=8bf26afa-5168-11e3-a58c-
00000aacb35e&acdnat=1384899701_d849c55c0ef26b5d323efdd86d4afbc3

http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/metachromatic-leukodystrophy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3029296/

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301008202000588

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27954/

http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v6/n9/full/nrn1746.html

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301008202000588

http://newsatjama.jama.com/2012/01/23/fda-approves-test-to-assess-risk-of-deadly-viral-illness-linked-to-natalizumab/


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