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Chapter 2

The Birth of Filipino


Nationalism
Lecture Notes in Life and Works of Rizal
Dr. Francis Baleta, RFT, RPT
Isabela State University


Nationalism or
devotion to or
advocacy of national
unity and
independence is the
most important
prerequisite to the
formation of national
consciousness, indeed
the sine qua non to the
development of
national identities.


BIRTH OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM

It is a feeling developed in a
people living in a contiguous
geographic area, a sentiment
forged by a common history,
language and literature, customs
and traditions and even by a
common religion.
BIRTH OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM

BIRTH OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM

As a historical development, it is a
relatively new concept, a product of
the ferment and political upheavals of
the 18
th
century and a child of the
French Revolution, which was
exported to other nations of Europe
during the Napoleonic wars and later,
by war and commerce, by colonialism
itself, to other parts of the world.
BIRTH OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM
In the history of colonized and
exploited peoples all over the world,
no significant struggle for liberation
and independence ever succeeded
in making any headway without the
earlier development of nationalism
among the people involved in the
movement.
BIRTH OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM
No such sentiment existed in the
Philippines before the 19
th
century.
To be sure, the different ethnic groups in
the country shared the same basic
elements of nationalism such as
similarities of racial and cultural features,
but Spanish and colonial policy as well as
certain natural barriers retarded the
development of nationalistic feeling
among the Filipinos.
BIRTH OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM
The insular and mountainous character
of Philippine geography limited social
contact and communication.
The dismal state of transportation and
communication facilities rendered these
natural barriers much more formidable.
Moreover, the Spanish medieval practice
of requiring passports for travel from one
province to another virtually estranged
regions from one another.
BIRTH OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM
The Filipinos in different parts of the country,
therefore, failed to realize the similarities of
their grievances and the existence of a
common source of suffering and misery.
Linguistic differences and the absence of a
common language, aggravated by the
deliberate refusal of the Spaniards to
propagate the Spanish language, weighed
heavily in fomenting regionalism and
prevented the people from developing a
national language that would have united
them.
FACTORS THAT LED TO THE BIRTH OF
FILIPINO NATIONALISM
Opening of the
Philippines to world
trade from 1834 to 1873
-This stimulated the
economic activities in the
country which brought
prosperity to some of the
Filipinos but most of all to
the Chinese and the
Spaniards.


It resulted to the rise of a
new social class referred
to as Middle Class or
the Ilustrados
- Acquired material
wealth
- Improved their social
stature and influence
- Clamored for social
and political equality
with the colonial
masters.


Influx of Liberal Ideas

With the opening of the Philippines to
world trade, European ideas freely
penetrated the country in form of printed
books, newspapers, and treatises made
available to the natives as they participated
in the process of exchange of goods and
products.
The new knowledge and current events
they learned and acquired outside affected
their ways of living and the manner of their
thinking

The Rise of the Middle
Class

- The middle class or the
Ilustrado family sent
members of their family
particularly male children
to study abroad.
- These students would be
exposed to European
thoughts and would later
lead in call for reforms.
- Filipino patriots and
propagandist mostly
came from this class

Opening of Suez Canal

- The Suez Canal was
created by a French
engineer named
Ferdinand de Lesseps
- This man-made canal
made transportation
easier, making the
transfer of goods and
ideas better and faster.

Spanish Revolution of 1868
- The period when Queen
Isabella was ousted by
Generals Francisco Serrano
and Juan Prim
- This incident had proven that
Spain was not invincible and
that even how powerful it was
it cannot escape social unrest
and political upheavals.
- In 1873, the first Spanish
Republic was established and
the Liberals installed Carlos Ma.
Dela Torre as the governor
general in the Philippines
Liberal Regime of
Carlos Ma. Dela Torre

- It was during his term as
governor general that
freedom of speech was
allowed among the
Filipinos
- De la Torre was a well-
loved leader because
he was concern with
the needs of the natives


- He ordered the abolition of flogging as
punishment for military disobedience

- He implemented the Educational Decree
of 1863 and the Moret Law which delimit
the secularization of educational
institutions and allowed the government
to take control among different schools
and academic institutions.


Secularization
Movement
- An interest group
consisted of Filipino priests
who demanded that they
be allowed to handle
parishes in accordance
with the provisions of the
Council of Trent
- It was once headed by
Father Pedro Pelaez and
was followed by Fr. Jose
Burgos.



Restoration of the Monarch
and the Installation of
Izquierdo as gov. gen. of
the Philippines

- 1870, Spanish monarchy was
restored with Amadeo de
Savoy as new king.
- This king eventually sent
Rafael Izquierdo as the
governor general in Manila


Izquierdo was the
exact opposite of De
la Torre
He ordered that the
exemptions and
privileges enjoyed by
workers of the
arsenals and ship
yards be repealed,
giving reason for
these workers to
launch a mutiny that
took place in 1872.

The Cavite Mutiny

- An uprising of the arsenal and
shipyard workers of Cavite as a
response to the repeal of their
privileges such as exemption
from paying tributes and
performance of forced labor.
- This took place on January 20,
1872 and was headed by
Sergeant La Madrid
- This small mutiny was
magnified by Spanish to make
it appear that it was a wide-
scaled conspiracy and that
even Filipino clergy were part
of it.

The Martyrdom of
GOMBURZA
The Three Martyr Priest
Jose Burgos
Born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur
Youngest among the
three
One of the major
advocates of
secularization
Born on 9 February1837
During that time was the
curate of the Cathedral
and Canonigo Magistral


Mariano Gomes
Born in Sta. Cruz,
Manila
First to be executed
Founded La Verdad,
which served as the
mouthpiece of
secularization
Oldest among the
martyr priests


Jacinto Zamora
Born August 14,
1835
He already lost
his mind during
the proceedings

Significance of the martyrdom
of the three priests
Filipinos forgot their regional
hostilities and felt the need of
being united for a common cause
The Filipinos instead of developing
fear from the Spaniards,
developed hatred instead
The GOMBURZA served as
inspiration to future patriots to
selflessly fight the Spaniards in
order to put a stop on injustices
and abusiveness committed by
the colonizers.

THE REFORM AND COUNTER
REFORM MOVEMENTS
REFORM MOVEMENTS:
The Propaganda
Movement
Major Propagandists
Graciano Lopez
Jaena
A native of Jaro,
Iloilo.
Famous for his
satirical work
entitled Fray
Botod
Founded La
Solidaridad in 1889

Marcelo del Pilar
A fierce lawyer and
writer from Malolos,
Bulacan
Identified by Spanish
authorities in Madrid
as the most
dangerous Indio
Founded the
Diariong Tagalog
in 1882, the first
Filipino newspaper
written in the
vernacular.

Used the pennames
Plaridel, Dolores
Manapa, Piping
Dilat
Famous works
include:

- La Soberania
Monacal en Filipinas
(Monastic Supremacy
in the Philippines)
- La Frailocracia Filipina
(The Friars in the
Philippines)

Jose Rizal
Known for his novels
Noli Me Tangere
and El Filibusterismo
Founded La Liga
Filipina after the
failure of the
Propaganda
Movement

Other Propaganda Literature
Ninay Pedro Paterno
Sampaguitas Pedro Paterno
Impresiones Antonio Luna
La Universidad de Pilipinas: Plano de
Estudios Jose Maria Panganiban
Celebres Filipinos Mariano Ponce
Historia de Ilocos Isabelo delos
Reyes
El Folklore Filipino Isabelo delos
Reyes

Masonry
One of the oldest fraternities in Europe
Became a popular organization for
Filipino liberals and democrats
Revolucion 1
st
Filipino Masonic lodge in
Barcelona founded by Lopez Jaena
Solidaridad Founded by M. del Pilar in
Madrid
Nilad 1
st
Masonic Lodge in the Philippines
founded by Pedro Serrano Laktaw

COUNTER - REFORM MOVEMENTS:

Qiuopquiap
Pablo Feced in real life
His articles expressed hatred and
contempt against Filipino reformists
His articles were usually published in
Diario de Manila and El Liberal in
Madrid
His infamous work was Filipinas:Ezbozos
y Pinceladas (Philippines: Sketches
and Strokes) that was a biased
assessment of the Philippines

Wenceslao Retana

Defender of Frailocracy
Published Questiones
Filipinas: Avisos y
Profecias, a compilation
of articles attacking
anti-friar Filipino
reformists
Had a dispute with Rizal
but eventually became
the heros biographer

Fray Jose Rodriguez

Wrote an attack
against the Noli in a
pamphlet entitled
Caiingat Kayo
In response Rizal
wrote, La Vision del
Fray Rodriguez

Fray Lucio Bustamante

Ridiculed the Filipinos
who wanted to learn
Spanish yet cannot
satisfactorily perform
their manual jobs.


Other Counter
Publications

Diario de Manila
El Liberal
La Voz de Espana

Failure of the Propaganda
Movement

Inadequacy of funds
The publication of La Sol ceased to
exist
Personal and health problems of
reformists
Homesickness
Conflict of interests
La Liga Filipina

Founded by Rizal on 3 July 1892 at
Tondo, Manila
Objectives:
Unification of the archipelago into a one
compact, vigorous and homogenous body;
Mutual protection in every want and need;
Defense against all forms of violence and
injustices;
Encouragement of education, agriculture and
commerce;
The study of application of reforms

Significance of the
Movement
Succeeded in influencing
profound political
developments
Politicized a great
number of Filipinos
Establishment of a group
that yearned for reforms,
the Katipunan