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Introduction

And
Innate Immunity

Dr. Mejbah Uddin Ahmed


WELL COME
Introduction

• One of the major achievements in the history


of medical science is the elimination of small
pox from the face of the earth.

• Expanded Program on Immunization


prevented from six infectious diseases
namely Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus,
Measles, Polio and Tuberculosis.
Introduction
•The successful transplantation many organs
is another achievement in the field of
Immunology.

• The future prospect of immunology will be in


the field of diagnostic and therapeutic
approaches of cancers and AIDS.
Introduction

• Immunology:
Which deals with the study of development
and function of immune system by which the
body reacts to expel, destroy or neutralize
foreign substances including pathogenic
microorganisms.
Introduction

Applications of Immunology:
● Diagnosis of disease: By detecting antibody
or antigen.
● Understanding of disease process.
● Prevention and Treatment of disease.
● Blood grouping and cross matching, tissue
typing and HLA testing.
● Forensic medicine: Paternity testing, Stain
identification (Blood, Semen etc.), Meat
testing.
Introduction
• Branches of Immunology:
1. Immunochemisty.
2. Immunobiology.
3.Immunogenetics.
4. Clinical Immunology.
5.Immunotherapy.
6.Immunopharmacology
Introduction
Immunity:
May be defined as all those physiologic
mechanisms that endow the animal with the
capacity to recognize materials foreign to
itself and to neutralize, eliminate or
metabolize them.

Types of Immunity:
1. The Innate or nonspecific immunity.
2. The Acquired or adaptive or specific
immunity.
Introduction
Criteria of Innate Immunity:
- Present from birth.
- Antigen non-specific.
- There is no memory.
- There is a limited role of
recognition molecules.
- Initial and subsequent responses
are same.
Introduction

● Components of innate immunity:


A. Physical / Mechanical factors:
1.Anatomical barriers: Skin, Mucous
membranes, Bony encasements

2. Mechanical removal: Mucus and cilia,


cough and sneeze reflex, physical flushing
action of body fluids.
Introduction
• B. Chemical factors:
• Antigen-nonspecific body chemicals: HCL,
lysozyme, lactic acid, enzymes, etc.
• Antigen-nonspecific cytokines: IL-1,
IFN-γ, TNF-ɑ, etc.
• Pattern-recognition receptors: Toll-like
receptor, CD14.
Introduction
• Pathogen-associated molecular patterns:
To protect against infection, body initially must
detect the microorganisms by recognizing
molecules unique to microorganisms. These
include: Peptidoglycan, LPS, Lipoteichoic
acid, Mannose, Flagella, Nucleic acid,
glycolipids, and zymosan from yeast cell
walls etc.
Introduction
• Pattern-Recognition Receptors:
To recognize these molecules, cells of
immune system have a variety of
receptors on their surface, called
Pattern Recognition Receptors.
Pattern recognition receptor
Pattern-Recognition Receptors
Pattern recognition receptor
Introduction
• C. Biological / Cellular factors:
■The complement system:
Lectin pathway, alternate pathway
■ Cells:
Leucocytes, Macrophages, NK cell,
Dendritic cells, Mast cells.
■Normal flora ■Phagocytosis
■Inflammation ■Nutritional immunity
■Fever ■The acute phase response
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