Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

Introduction

 Mykos: Fungus.
 Mycoses: A disease caused by a fungus.
о Fungi are eukaryotic organisms.
о Cell wall contains chitin.
о Cell membrane contains ergosterol.
Introduction

о Most fungi are obligate aerobe, some are


facultative anaerobe, but none are anaerobe.
о Some fungi reproduce by forming sexual
spore & some asexually by forming conidia.
Several Terms
о Yeast: Unicellular, oval to round reproduce by
asexual budding.
о Mold: Long filaments, multicellular (hyphae).
May be septate or nonseptate.

Yeast
Structure of a Mushroom
Terminology
 Pseudohyphae – “Hyphae” formed by
“budding” yeasts when the buds do not
separate from the mother cell.
 Mycelium – A term describing the “network”
of hyphae.
Terminology

 Dimorphism: Capable of growing in mold or


yeast form under different environmental
conditions.
 Several medically important fungi are
thermally dimorphic; Molds in environment &
yeast in human.
Reproduction of fungus
Asexual:
Spores: Arthrospore, Chlamydospore, Blastospore,
Sporangiospore.
Budding (yeast): New cell grows on mature cell then
breaks off.
Sexual:
Mating: Hyphae of 2 fungi grow together and
exchange genetic material.

Spores: Zygospore, Ascospore, Basidiospore.


Importance of fungi
 Harmful:
 Diseases in plants and animals, Toxins.
 Useful:
 Primarily decomposers – return organic
matter to the soil.
 Used to produce antibiotics like penicillin.
 Used for food – Pizza, Beer, wine, Bread,
mushrooms, yeast.
Risk Factors for Fungal Infections
 Trauma to the skin.
 Diabetes & immunocompromised (older pts.,
steroid use, HIV infection).
 Poor nutrition.
 Restrictive footwear.
 Sports participation.
 Living in a warm, moist climate.
Fungal Toxin
 Fungal toxin includes:
 Amanitin & phaloidin – Produced by
amanita mushrooms are potent hepatotoxic.
 Alkaloids (ergotamine & diethylamide) –
Produced by Claviceps purpura causes
vascular & neurologic effects.
 Aflatoxin – Produced by Aspergillus flavus
cause liver damage and hepatic carcinoma.
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

 Direct microscopic examination: Gram


stain, potassium hydroxide (10% KOH),
calcofluor white, India ink prperation.
 Culture: Sabouraud dextrose agar.
 DNA probe.
 Serology.
Antifungal drugs
 Antifungal drugs includes:
 Amphotericin B: Disrupts cell membrane.
 Azoles (Fluconazole, ketoconazole,
itrakonazole, miconazole etc. inhibits
ergosterol synthesis.
 Nystatin – Used topically for candida
infection.