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Overview of

Breast Cancer
Dr. Rizwana Syed
M.D.
Ob Gyn
Breast Cancer Facts

2
nd
leading cause of death
2
nd
most common cancer
Incidence increases with age
All women are at risk

How is the Breast Designed
The breasts sit on the chest
muscles that cover the ribs.
Each breast is made of 15 to 20
lobes.
Lobes contain many smaller
lobules.
Lobules contain groups of tiny
glands that can produce milk.
Milk flows from the lobules
through thin tubes called ducts to
the nipple.
The nipple is in the center of a
dark area of skin called the areola.
Fat fills the spaces between the
lobules and ducts.
Types of Breast Cancer
Ductal Carcinoma
Originate in ducts that carry milk to nipples
If cancer confined to duct = in situ (DCIS)
Usually found on mammogram
If moved beyond duct = invasive or infiltrating

Lobular Carcinoma
rare

What causes Breast cancer
Breast cancer is always caused by a genetic
abnormality (a mistake in the genetic material).
However, only 5-10% of cancers are due to an
abnormality inherited from your mother or father.
About 90% of breast cancers are due to genetic
abnormalities that happen as a result of the
aging process and the wear and tear of life in
general.
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
Gender: female (1% males)
Race: more common in whites
Age: increases as a woman gets older.
Relative : (mother or sister)
Menstrual history :early on set
late menopause
Childbirth: first child After the age of 30
or having no children at all

Pregnancy and breastfeeding are protective against breast cancer
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
Obesity
Diet: Fat
Alcohol
Lack of Physical Activity ; Stress
Radiation Exposure
History of cancer: breast, uterus, cervix, ovary
Hormones: estrogens in Hormone replacement
therapy & Birth control pills
Genetics : certain conditions that are inheritated

> 70% have no risk factors
Symptoms of Breast Cancer
Early breast cancer may not have symptoms.
Diagnosis of Breast Cancer


Prevention
Breast Cancer Risk Factors
that can be controlled

All
women are
at risk
Obesity
Exercise
Breastfeeding
Alcohol
Hormone
Replacement
Therapy
Not having
children
Screening For Breast Cancer
A Good Breast Health Plan
Self Awareness (Monthly Self
Exams) (BSE)

Clinical Breast Examination
(CBE)

Mammograms

Screening
Average-size lump found by woman
practicing occasional breast self-exam
(BSE)
Average-size lump found by woman
practicing regular breast self-exam
(BSE)
Average-size lump found by first
mammogram
Average-size lump found by getting regular
mammograms
r
i
z
Breast Self Examination (BSE)
Opportunity for woman to
become familiar with her
breasts
Monthly exam of the
breasts and underarm area
May discover any changes
early
Begin at age 20, continue
monthly

When to do BSE

Menstruating women- 5 to 7
days after the beginning of
their period
Menopausal women -
same date each month
Pregnant women
same date each month
Takes about 10 minutes
Perform BSE at least
once a month
Examine all breast tissue

Why dont more women practice BSE
Fear
Embarrassment
Youth
Lack of knowledge
Too busy, forgetfulness

Clinical Breast Examination
Performed by doctor or
trained nurse practitioner
Annually for women over
40yrs
At least every 3 years for
women between 20 and
40 yrs
More frequent
examination for high risk
patients

Mammography

X-ray of the breast
Has been shown to
save lives in patients
50-69
Data mixed on
usefulness for patients
40-49
Normal mammogram
does not rule out
possibility of cancer
completely
Women (asymptomatic)
40 years of age and
older should have a
MAMMOGRAM every
year.

Treatment for Breast Cancer
Surgery
Radiation Therapy
Chemotherapy
Hormonal Therapy

Surgery

Lumpectomy

Modified Radical
Mastectomy

Radical Mastectomy (rare)
Reconstruction
Breast Reconstruction
Pre and Post Expander and Implant
Pre and Post Tissue and Implants Combined
Radiation Therapy
Chemotherapy
Hormonal Therapy



As a adjunct to surgery depending
on stage of cancer

Prognosis after Breast Cancer
5-Year
Survival (%)
10-Year Survival
(%)
Stage 0 95 90
Stage I 85 70
Stage II 70 50
Stage III 55 30
Stage IV 5 2
Myths & Facts
Touching the breasts too often will lead to cancer
Talking about cancer causes cancer
Using illegal drugs causes cancer
Herbs cure breast cancer
(ua de gato/cats claw)


A bruise on the breast will lead to breast cancer.
If an incision is made during breast cancer surgery,
the cancer will spread.
Getting too many mammograms leads to
breast cancer.
Mammograms are only used to evaluate
breast lumps.
Myths & Facts
Breast cancer only affects older women
If you have a risk factor for breast
cancer, you're likely to get the disease
Using antiperspirants causes breast
cancer.
A breast cancer diagnosis is an
automatic death sentence.
Breast cancer is preventable
THANK YOU
drrizwanasyed@hotmail.com