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Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1

Imran Hussain | UMT


Imran Hussain
University of Management and Technology (UMT)
Lecture 25
Design Synthesis
Virtual University
Human-Computer Interaction



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In Last Lecture
Prototyping techniques
Low-fidelity
High-fidelity
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In Todays Lecture
Principles

Guidelines

Rules

Standards

Patterns

Imperatives
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Introduction
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Lets look at the design process again
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Goal-Directed Design Process
Research
User and the
domain
Modeling
Users and
use context
Requirements
Definition of user,
business& technical needs
Framework
Definition of design
structure & flow
Refinement
Of behavior, form&
content
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Techniques and methods on their own do not ensure
product quality and success

we need something more
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Guidance for Design
Design is creative process

Design depends on existing body of knowledge and expertise

Knowledge distilled from industry best practices and research

This knowledge provides guidance
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Types of Guidance
Principles

Guidelines

Rules
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Design Principles
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Principle
A very broad statement that is usually based on research about how
people learn and work

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Principle
Guidelines for design of useful and usable form and behavior

Generally applicable guidelines that address issues of behavior,
form and content

Represent characteristics of product behavior that help users better
accomplish their goals

Applied throughout design process, helping to translate tasks that
arise out of scenario iterations into formalized structures and
behaviors in the interface

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Principles Minimize Work
Optimize experience of user

In case of productivity tools and non-entertainment-oriented
products this means minimization of work

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Principles Minimize Work
Work minimized includes
Logical work
Comprehension of text and organizational structure
Perceptual work
Decoding visual layouts and semantics of shape, size, color, and
representation
Mnemonic work
Recall of passwords, command vectors, names and locations of data
objects, and other relationships between objects
Physical/motor work
Number of keystrokes, degree of mouse movement, use of gestures,
switching between input modes, extent of required navigation
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Principles and Levels of Operation
Principles operate at 3 levels of organization:
Conceptual level
Help define what a product is and how it fits into the broad context of use by
the primary personas
Interaction level
Define how a product should behave in general and in specific situations
Interface level
Help define the look and feel of interfaces

Most principles are cross-platform, but some platforms (Web,
embedded systems) have special constraints

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Example of Principle
They state broad usability goals

Example
Be consistent in your choice of words, formats, graphics, and
procedures

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Design Principles (Norman)
Visibility

Affordance

Constraints

Mapping

Consistency

Feedback
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Difference between design, usability principles and
heuristics?
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Design Principles (Nielsen)
Visibility of system status
Match between system and real world
User freedom and control
Consistency and standards
Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors
Error prevention
Recognition rather than recall
Flexibility and efficiency of use
Aesthetic and minimalist design
Help and documentation
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Design Principles (Simpson, 1985)
Define the users
Anticipate the environment in which your program will be used
Give the operators control
Minimize operators work
Keep the program simple
Be consistent
Give adequate feedback
Do not overstress working memory
Minimize dependence on recall memory
Help the operators remain oriented
Code information properly (or not at all)
Follow prevailing design conventions

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Design Principles (Shneiderman, 1992)
Strive for consistency
Enable frequent users to use shortcuts
Offer informative feedback
Design dialogs to yield closure
Offer simple error handling
Permit easy reversal of actions
Support internal locus of control
Reduce short-term memory load
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Design Principles (Dumas, 1988)
Put the user in control
Address the users level of skill and knowledge
Be consistent in wording, formats, and procedures
Protect the user from the inner workings of the hardware and
software that is behind the interface
Provide online documentation to help the user to understand how to
operate the application and recover from errors
Minimize the burden on users memory
Follow principles of good graphics design in the layout of the
information on the screen
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Common themes
Giving the user control

Striving for consistency

Smoothing interaction with feedback

Supporting the users limited memory
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Document Design (Redish, 1988)
Ask relevant questions when planning manuals
Learn about your audiences
Understand how people use manuals
Organize so that users can find information quickly
Put the user in control by showing the structure of the manual
Use typography to give readers clues to the structure of the manual
Write so that users can picture themselves in the text
Write so that you dont overtax users working memory
Use users words
Be consistent
Test for usability
Expect to revise
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Document Design (Horton, 1990)
Understand who uses the product and why
Adapt the dialo to the user
Make the information accessible
Apply a consistent organizational strategy
Make messages helpful
Prompt for inputs
Report status clearly
Explain errors fully
Fir help smoothly into the users workflow
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Design Guidelines
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Guideline
Distilled from principles and are more specific goals

One principle can lead to many guidelines

Guidelines can differ for specific combinations of users,
environments and technologies

Specific guidelines developed after specialists gain knowledge of a
new area of HCI
E.g., windows-based software (a new HCI area)

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Guideline
Example
Be consistent in your choice of words, formats, graphics, and
procedures (principle)
Be consistent in the way you have users leave every menu (guideline)
Bye
Exit
Quit
End


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Principle guidelines
Write so that you dont overtax users working memory (principle)
Put the parts of each sentence in logical order
Cross out unnecessary words
Untangle convoluted sentences
Use lists, tables, and step-by-step instructions
Use parallel sentence structure whenever you can, especially in
headings, lists, and explanations of options
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Design Rules
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Local Rule
Rules
Low-level guidance that refers to a particular prescription that must be
followed

Forces everyone working on the interface to be consistent in their
use of ways
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Local Rule
Rules for design

E.g., Provide an Escape option in a dialog in which users may want
to leave the dialog box without making any changes or selecting any
options.
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Local Rule
Rules for documentation

Use typography to give readers clues to the structure of the manual
(principle)
Make the headings stand out from the text (guideline)
Make the hierarchy of the headings obvious
Use a short line length for the text
Indent lists and steps in procedures

First headings are used only for chapter titles. They are in boldface, 24-
point, Helvetica, with a 2-point line (rule), flush left with the beginning of the
text line. Each first-level heading starts with a new page. (rule)
Second-level heading ..
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Guides & Standards
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Guides (Standards)
User-Interface Design Guides (aka User-Interface Design
Standards, aka Style Guides)

Compilation of principles, guidelines and local rules

Used by an organization that frequently creates products

Useful way to communicate HCI practices and to ensure
consistency
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Published Standards
Standards available if developing products in one the Graphical
User-Interface (GUI) operating systems
Standards published by:
Apple
Microsoft
IBM
Open Software Foundation
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Concept Level of
Guidance
AKA How to Use
Usability Goals General Setting up usability criteria for assessing the acceptability of a system (e.g.,
How long does it take to perform a task?).
User Experience Goals General Pleasure factors Identifying important factors of the user experience (e.g., How can you make
the interactive product more enjoyable?).
Design Principles General Heuristics when used
in practice
As reminders of what to provide and what to avoid when designing and
interface (e.g., What kind of feedback are you going to provide at the
interface?)
Usability Principles Specific Heuristics when used
in practice
Assessing the acceptability of interfaces, used during heuristic evaluation
(e.g., Does the system provide clearly marked exits?).
Rules Specific Interface specifications To determine if an interface adheres to a specific rule when being designed
and evaluated (e.g., Always provide a backwards and forwards navigation
button on a web browser)
(Preece, Ch. 1)
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Design Patterns
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Patterns
Exemplary, generalizable solutions to specific classes of design
problems

Purpose
Capture useful design decisions and generalize them to address similar
classes of problems in the future
Represent the capture and formalization of design knowledge

Benefit
Reducing design time and effort
Educating designers new to product
Educating designers new to field
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Interaction Patterns
Architectural patterns (Christopher Alexander, 1979)
Building blocks that capture essence of architectural design that creates
a feeling of well-being in the inhabitants of architectural structures

Interaction patterns similar to architectural patterns
Apart from structure and organization, also concerned with dynamic
behaviors and changes in elements in response to user activity

Engineering patterns sole concern is efficient reuse of code


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Types of Interaction Design Patterns
Postural
Applied at conceptual level and helps determine product stance

Structural
Related to management of information display and access
Ways containers of data and functions are visually manipulated
E.g., views, panes, element groupings

Behavioral
Solve wide-ranging problems related to specific interactions with
individual functional or data objects or groups of such objects (widget
level)

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Example of structural pattern
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Design Imperatives
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Design Imperatives
These guide the design process, aka goals

Types
Ethical [considerate, helpful]
Purposeful [useful, usable]
Pragmatic [viable, feasible]
Elegant [efficient, artful, affective]