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# Introduction to Finance

## Session 4 – Financial Statement

Analysis
Ratio Analysis

• Liquidity
– Measures a firm’s ability to meet its current obligations
• Leverage (borrowing capacity)
– Measures the degree of protector for long-term creditors
• Profitability
– Measures the earning ability of a firm
• Investor-focused
• Cash flow
– Indicate liquidity, borrowing capacity, and profitability

Chapter 5, Slide #2
Ratio Analysis

## • Interpreted in comparison with

– Prior ratios
– Competitor ratios
– Industry ratios
– Predetermined standards

Chapter 5, Slide #3
The Users of Financial Statements

• Management
– Analyze information from the perspective of both
investors and creditors
• Investors
– Analysis of past and present information to project
the future prospects of the entity
• Creditors
– Short-term: focus is on current resources
– Long-term: consider the future prospects of the firm

Chapter 5, Slide #4
Complexities and Context

## • Use of average data from balance sheet

accounts
– Necessary when comparing against income
statement data
– Does not
• Eliminate cyclical or seasonal variations
• Capture changes that occur unevenly throughout the year
• Analysis must be performed and understood
within the context of
– Native accounting principles
– Native business practices and culture

Chapter 5, Slide #5
Common-Size Analysis

## • The use of percentages is usually preferable to

the use of absolute amounts
• Vertical analysis
– All amounts of a year expressed as a percentage of
a base amount (e.g., net sales revenue, total
assets)
• Horizontal analysis
– Amounts for comparative years are expressed as a
percentage of the base year amount

Chapter 5, Slide #6
Vertical Analysis
Melcher Company
Income Statement
For the Years Ended December 31
2005 2004 2003
Sales revenue \$ 100,000 100.0% \$ 95,000 100.0% \$91,000 100.0%
Cost of goods sold 65,000 65.0% 60,800 64.0% 56,420 62.0%
Gross profit 35,000 35.0% 34,200 36.0% 34,580 38.0%
Operating expenses:
Selling expense 14,000 14.0% 11,400 12.0% 10,000 11.0%
General expense 16,000 16.0% 15,200 16.0% 13,650 15.0%
Total operating expense 30,000 30.0% 26,600 28.0% 23,650 26.0%
Operating Income before taxes 5,000 5.0% 7,600 8.0% 10,930 12.0%
Taxes related to operations 1,500 1.5% 2,280 2.4% 3,279 3.6%
Net Income \$ 3,500 3.5% \$ 5,320 5.6% \$ 7,651 8.4%

## Each financial statement element is presented as

a percentage of a designated base.
Chapter 5, Slide #7
Horizontal Analysis
Melcher Company
Income Statement
For the Years Ended December 31
2005 2004 2003 2005 2004 2003
Sales revenue \$ 100,000 \$ 95,000 \$ 91,000 109.9% 104.4% 100.0%
Cost of goods sold 65,000 60,800 56,420 115.2% 107.8% 100.0%
Gross profit 35,000 34,200 34,580 101.2% 98.9% 100.0%
Operating expenses:
Selling expense 14,000 11,400 10,000 140.0% 114.0% 100.0%
General expense 16,000 15,200 13,650 117.2% 111.4% 100.0%
Total operating expense 30,000 26,600 23,650 126.8% 112.5% 100.0%
Operating Income before taxes 5,000 7,600 10,930 45.7% 69.5% 100.0%
Taxes related to operations 1,500 2,280 3,279 45.7% 69.5% 100.0%
Net Income \$ 3,500 \$ 5,320 \$ 7,651 45.7% 69.5% 100.0%

## Each financial statement element is presented as a

percentage of a base amount from a selected year.
Chapter 5, Slide #8
Year-to-Year Change Analysis

## • Use both absolute and percentages

• Guidelines:
– When an item has value in the base year and none
in the next period, the decrease is 100%
– A meaningful percent change cannot be computed
when one number is positive and the other number
is negative
– A percent change is incomputable when there is no
figure for the base year.

Chapter 5, Slide #9
Industry Variations

## • Financial components vary by type of industry

• Merchandising
– Inventory is a principal asset
– Sales may be primarily for cash or on credit
• Service
– Inventory is low or nonexistent
• Manufacturing
– Large inventory holdings
– Substantial investment in plant assets

## Chapter 5, Slide #10

Descriptive Information

• Narrative data
– Annual report
– Industry reviews
• Further explains the financial position of a firm

Comparisons

## • Provides context for analysis of ratios and

financial data
• Common types
– Trend analysis
– SIC: Standard Industrial Classification
– NAICS: North American Industry Classification
System
– Industry averages; competitor comparisons

## Chapter 5, Slide #12

Comparisons: Trend Analysis

## • A study of the financial history of a firm

• Longitudinal ratio comparison
– Falling
– Rising
– Relatively constant
• Highlight
– Effective management
– Evidence of problems

## Chapter 5, Slide #13

Comparisons: Caution

## Ratios are subject to variance from:

• Differing data
• Inconsistent formula construction
• Optional (elective) accounting treatment
• Different fiscal year-ends
• Varying financial policies
• Inconsistent basis (before or after tax)