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Safety in workplace

Freedom from accidents

It includes
Minimization of hazards
Healthy working conditions
Minimizing risk
ensure safety, health and welfare of people engaged
in work or employment

Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a
cross-disciplinary area concerned with
protecting the safety, health and welfare of
people engaged in work or employment and
entrants. As a secondary effect, OSH may also
protect co-workers, family members,
employers, customers, suppliers, nearby
communities, and other members of the public
who are impacted by the workplace
Maintaining a safe and healthy working
environment is not only an important human
resources issue, it's the law.
Whether they're entry-level workers, seasoned
veterans, supervisors, or plant managers,
employees need to understand
health and safety risks,
the steps they need to take to minimize those risks,
and common safety standards and
compliance procedures.
The definition reads:

"Occupational health should aim at:
the promotion and maintenance of
the highest degree of physical,
mental and social well-being of
workers in all occupations;
Moral - An employee should not have to risk injury at
work, nor should others associated with the work
Economic - many governments realize that poor
occupational safety and health performance results in cost
to the State (e.g. through social security payments to the
incapacitated, costs for medical treatment, and the loss of
the "employability" of the worker). Employing
organisations also sustain costs in the event of an incident
at work (such as legal fees, fines, compensatory damages,
investigation time, lost production, lost goodwill from the
workforce, from customers and from the wider
Legal - Occupational safety and health requirements may
be reinforced in civil law and/or criminal law; it is
accepted that without the extra "encouragement" of
potential regulatory action or litigation, many
organisations would not act upon their implied moral
A hazard is something that can cause harm if
not controlled.
The outcome is the harm that results from an
uncontrolled hazard.
A risk is a combination of the probability that a
particular outcome will occur and the severity
of the harm involved
Oganisations are required to make a risk assessment of operations.

This assessment should:
Identify the hazards
Identify all affected by the hazard and how
Evaluate the risk
Identify and prioritise the required actions
The calculation of risk is based on the likelihood or probability of the
harm occuring and the severity of the consequences.

This can be expressed mathematically
as a quantitative assessment (by assigning low, medium and high
likelihood and severity with integers and multiplying them to obtain
a risk factor,
or qualitatively as a description of the circumstances of harm
The assessment should be recorded and
reviewed periodically and whenever there is a
significant change to work practices.
The assessment should include practical
recommendations to control the risk.
The precautionary principle is an increasingly
used method for reducing potential chemical
or biological risks.

Workplace hazards are often grouped into
physical hazards,
physical agents,
chemical agents,
biological agents,
and psychosocial issues
Physical Hazards
Slips and trips
Falls from height
Workplace transport
Dangerous machinery
Heavy metals

Physical conditions:
heat and cold stress

Biological agents
temperature, humidity, lighting,
Work related stress, caused by
excessive working time
Violence from outside the organisation
emotional, verbal, and Sexual harassment

Refers to man machine system
Machine should be user friendly
Lay out should provide for easy, comfortable, safe
movement of men and materials
one examples of ergonomic design in a chemical
Temperature gauge in a reactor placed at the eye level of
Gauge is sufficiently large in size
Readings are marked in bold letters and are legible and easy to
The valve to control temperature is placed near the gauge
The operator can control the valve easily as it is at his height
He can watch the temperature variation and adjust the valve at
the same time

Panel board for instruments and the other
accessories like steering , brake, wiper knob,
horn switch etc. in an automobile.
Add other examples of common house hold
appliances.( exercise)
Ergonomic design helps to reduce accidents

It is a British Standard for occupational health
and safety management systems
Its proponents claim that an occupational
health and safety management system
(OHSMS) promotes a safe and healthy working
environment by with
consistently identify and control health and
safety risks
reduce the potential for accidents
improve overall performance
The OHSAS 18000 standards provide
organizations with the elements of an effective
OHSMS that can be integrated with other
management requirements
BS OHSAS 18001 specifies requirements for an
OH&S management system to help an
organization develop and implement a policy
and objectives
accounts legal requirements and information
about OH&S risks.
It provides generic assistance for establishing,
implementing or improving an OH&S
management system
It also demonstrates successful implementation
of BS OHSAS 18001.