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Tutorial:

Configuring Oracle on Linux For


Peak Performance
Todays Presentation
Introduction to Oracle technology
Installing Oracle
Managing your database
Optimizing your database
Where to get more information
About The Author
10+ years experience with Oracle technology
Lots of Oracle DBA experience on Unix
platforms
Mostly e-business and ERP systems
Presenter at Oracle user groups and
conferences
Author of various white papers
Linux believer
Todays Goals
Get a basic understanding of How Oracle
Works
Learn the proper way to install Oracle
Gain access to accurate information
Oracle Quick Start
Learn basic Oracle concepts
Install Oracle software
Create a default database
Make the default database usable
Create application schema
Develop application
Big picture issues (backups, capacity planning)
An Introduction to
Oracle Technology
Platform independence
Database terminology
Important files
Oracle process architecture
Environment variables
Optimal flexible architecture
Interacting with a database
Platform Independence
Abstraction of platform-specific issues
Generic and platform-specific documentation
Oracle skills transfer well from one platform
to another
Database Terminology
Key fundamentals
Learn them correctly
Many Oracle-isms
Terminology
DBA
Stands for database administrator
Involved in logical design of a
database
Performs the physical design and
implementation
Assists developers with difficult
database issues
Responsible for ensuring good
performance, proper security, as well
as backup and recovery strategies
Terminology
Database
A collection of operating system files that
make up one physical data store or node
Many different types of data, each with its
own attributes, can be stored in one database
Terminology
Database Name
Every Oracle database has a name
Eight characters or less
Default global domain name is .WORLD
Best to give each database a unique name and
use one common domain
Terminology
Instance
A set of operating system processes and
shared memory structures which allow an
application to access data in a database
Terminology
Instance Name
Also known as SID (System Identifier)
Applications identify which instance they
wish to access by name
The convention is to give an instance the
same name as the database it accesses
Terminology
Stands for System Global Area
A collection of shared memory structures
created by an Oracle instance
Each process of the instance attaches itself to
the SGA upon startup
SGA
Terminology
Starting the Database
Opening a database so that applications may
access it
Done by starting up an instance and mounting
it to the database
Terminology
Net8 or SQL*NET
Networking infrastructure that allows
applications to access databases on remote
servers
Was called SQL*Net before Oracle8
Renamed to Net8
Terminology
Client/Server
Oracle internally uses a client/server
architecture
The application accessing Oracle is seen as
the client, the Oracle server process is a
server
Terminology
Username
Each user in an Oracle database has a unique
name up to 30 characters in length
Separate usernames in the database do not
need to map to separate real-life users
Terminology
Schema
A separate namespace for database objects
such as tables, indexes and stored procedures
Every database object resides in one schema
Each database user has one schema with the
same name as their username
Username = schema
Terminology
Data Dictionary
Repository of information indicating all of
the users defined in the database and all of
the objects they own
A set of database tables with names like
user$ and tab$
Terminology
SYS and SYSTEM
SYS user owns all of the internal structures that
make up the data dictionary for the database
SYS user has all privileges on the database
SYSTEM user has DBA privileges also
Terminology
Control Files, Data Files, Redo Logs
and Parameter Files
The physical files that make up an Oracle
database
Terminology
Tablespace
A named collection of one or more physical
files used for storing database objects
Mask certain implementation details from
application developers
Terminology
Extent
One contiguous chunk of physical storage
within a tablespace
Can range in size from 2 Kb to 2 Gb, but must
be contiguous
Terminology
Segment
A collection of extents that belong to one
object
Physical storage used to hold the data for an
object
Most hold the contents of a table or index,
but there are other types of segments as well
Terminology
Rollback Segment
Stores undo information for a transaction
that is still in progress
Allows Oracle to back out the transaction if
the application requests a rollback
Enables one session to update data while
another is querying the same data
Terminology
Temporary Segment
Holds a partial result set when too much data
is involved to complete the operation in
memory
Commonly used when sorting data for
ordering, grouping, or building an index
Terminology
Identifier
Most are limited to 30 bytes in length and are
case-insensitive
Unless quoted, identifiers must start with a
letter and may include letters, digits and
certain special characters like _, $, and #
Terminology
The Files That Control an
Oracle Instance
Parameter file
Password file
The Files That Make Up a Database
Control files
Data files
Online redo logs
Archived redo logs
The Oracle Process Architecture
Database
Instance
Net8
Applications
The Oracle Instance
Shared global area (SGA)
Daemon processes
Server processes
Oracle Daemons
Process Monitor PMON
System Monitor SMON
Log Writer LGWR
Database Writer DBWn
Checkpoint CKPT
Archiver ARCH
Recoverer RECO
Job Queue SNPn
Lock LCKn
Oracle Process Architecture
Making an Oracle
Database Available
1. Start an instance
2. Mount the database
3. Open the database
Accessing a Local Database
1. Application forks an Oracle server process
2. Environment variable indicates which local
database to access
3. setuid bit allows server process to attach to
SGA, read data files
4. Application communicates with server
process via IPC
Accessing a Remote Database
1. Net8 client resolves alias to hostname, port,
and instance name (in the case of TCP/IP
protocol; other protocols supported)
2. Net8 client sends a request to the Net8
listener on the database server
3. Net8 listener on database server forks an
Oracle server process
4. Application communicates with server
process using any supported protocol
Environment Variables
ORACLE_HOME
LD_LIBRARY_PATH
PATH
ORACLE_SID
TWO_TASK
NLS_LANG
ORA_NLS33
ORACLE_BASE
DBA
$ORACLE_HOME
Location of Oracle software installation
For example: /u01/app/oracle/product/8.0.5
Always required
$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
Location of Oracle shared libraries
Must include $ORACLE_HOME/lib
For example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/8.0.5/lib
Always required
$PATH
Location of Oracle executables
Must include $ORACLE_HOME/bin
For example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/8.0.5/bin
Always required
$ORACLE_SID
Name of local Oracle instance to access
For example: MYDB
Overridden if application specifies Net8 alias
or if $TWO_TASK is set
Required if application does not specify Net8
alias and $TWO_TASK is not set
$TWO_TASK
Net8 alias for local or remote Oracle instance
to access
For example: MYDB
Overridden if application specifies Net8 alias
explicitly
Optional
$NLS_LANG
Language and character set of client
application
Format is
language_territory.CHARSETNAME
For example: american_america.US7ASCII
See platform-specific installation guide for a
list of supported settings
Required when default character set is not
being used
$ORA_NLS33
Location of Oracle client NLS character set data
Typically
$ORACLE_HOME/ocommon/nls/admin/data
For example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/8.0.5/ocommon/nls/admin/data
Required when default character set is not being
used
$ORACLE_BASE
Location of OFA directory structure
For example: /u01/app/oracle
An optional convenience
$DBA
Location of instance-related administrative
files
For example: /u01/app/oracle/admin
An optional convenience
Optimal Flexible Architecture
A set of best practices for installing Oracle
Developed by Oracle Consulting and refined
over the years
Observed reasonably well by the Oracle
Installer
See platform-specific administrators
reference for complete OFA specification
OFA Guidelines
Assigning and naming mount points
Directory hierarchies
Naming conventions for all files
Naming conventions for tablespaces
Policies for assigning segments to tablespaces
OFA Benefits
A standardized methodology
A good naming convention
Files organized in an easy-to-find manner
Support for multiple databases or Oracle
releases on one server
Separation of Oracle software and database
files
Ability to distribute I/O across many physical
devices
Key Directories in an
OFA-Compliant Installation
$ORACLE_BASE
$ORACLE_BASE/product/<version>
$ORACLE_BASE/admin/$ORACLE_SID
pfile
bdump
cdump
udump
create
<mount point>/oradata/<dbname>
Accessing an Oracle Database
(as a DBA)
SQL*Plus
Server Manager
Enterprise Manager
Installing Oracle
Prepare the server
Install the Oracle software
Create a database
Complete the server configuration
Our Installation Environment
Oracle 8.0.5 Standard Edition
Red Hat Linux 5.2
You are welcome to use other versions of
Oracle or other distributions of Linux, but
you may need to deviate from these steps
Oracle 8i
Just became available in late July
Installs very differently than Oracle 8.0.5
Released too late to include in this presentation
Prepare the Server
1. Meet the software requirements
2. Meet the hardware requirements
3. Meet the kernel parameter requirements
4. Create a Linux group for DBAs
5. Create a software owner Linux account
6. Create mount points
7. Choose a local bin directory
Prepare the Server (continued)
8. Mount the CD ROM
9. Create the /etc/oratab file
Install the Oracle Software
1. Edit software owners login script
2. Log out and back in to set environment
3. Verify that TCP/IP is working
4. Ensure there is enough storage space
available
Install the Oracle Software (continued)
5. Run the Oracle Installer to install software
a. Choose a custom install
b. Choose to install software without creating a
database
c. Choose a language for database messages
d. Choose the products to install
e. Choose the DBA and osoper groups

Install the Oracle Software (continued)
6. Add enhancements to the oraenv script
7. Add enhancements to the dbshut script
8. Perform certain steps as the root user
9. Double check file permissions
Create a Database
1. Choose a database block size
2. Tweak an Installer script to get the desired
block size
Create a Database (continued)
3. Run the Oracle Installer to create a database
a. Choose a custom install
b. Choose to create database objects
c. Choose relevant products for database creation
d. Choose to create a filesystem-based database
e. Specify the mount point for the database
f. Choose the character sets for the database
g. Choose database passwords
h. Choose whether to load SQL*Plus help and
demo
Create a Database (continued)
4. Configure the Net8 listener
5. Prepare a tnsnames.ora file
6. Improve the parameter file
7. Relocate data files and redo logs to balance
I/O
8. Configure the temporary tablespace
9. Configure rollback segments
10.Create application tablespaces
11.Create application schemas and roles
Complete the Server Configuration
1. Update the /etc/oratab file
2. Remove hardcoding from software owners
login script
3. Create separate Linux accounts for database
users
4. Configure automatic database start on server
reboot
Managing Your Database
Starting and stopping
Connectivity and troubleshooting
Schemas and users
Tablespaces and segments
Fault tolerance and backups
Opening and Closing a Database
Invoking Server Manager
Authentication
STARTUP
SHUTDOWN
Starting and Stopping the
Net8 Listener
Invoking the listener control tool
START
STOP
RELOAD
Logs and Trace Files
Instance alert log
Trace files for daemons
Trace files for server processes
Net8 logs
Net8 Connectivity Problems
TNS: could not resolve service name
TNS: unable to connect to destination
TNS: no listener
ORACLE not available
TNS: listener could not resolve SID given in
connect descriptor
Schemas and Users
Application owner schemas
Contain application schema objects
Not used by end users
Individual Oracle users
Database authenticates end users
Synonyms reference application objects
Privileges to access application objects
Commonly used in client/server systems
Schemas and Users (continued)
Generic Oracle users
Application authenticates end users
Synonyms reference application objects
Privileges to access application objects
Commonly used in web-based systems
Tablespace Functions
Tablespace Contents Name in Default Database
Data dictionary and Oracle internals SYSTEM
Rollback segments RBS
Temporary segments TEMP
Oracle and third party tools TOOLS
Unclassified user segments USERS
Application tables n/a
Application indexes n/a
Assigning Application Segments
to Tablespaces
Use separate tablespaces for each application
Place tables and indexes in separate
tablespaces
Separate segments that grow or shrink rapidly
from more static ones
Separate segments that are created and
dropped frequently from longer lived ones
Give large segments their own tablespace
Segment Storage Parameters
Name Purpose
initial Size of the initial extent
next Size of the next extent to be allocated
pctincrease Factor by which to increase the size of each
successive next extent
minextents Initial number of extents to allocate
maxextents Maximum number of extents the segment is
allowed to have
pctfree Space to leave empty in each new block to allow
for updates that cause data to take up more space
pctused How much space in a block must be free before
additional data will be inserted
Choosing Storage Parameters For
Segments to Maximize Performance and
Minimize Fragmentation
Set the default storage clause for each
tablespace as follows:
INITIAL 128k, 4m, or 128m
NEXT Same as INITIAL
MINEXTENTS 1
MAXEXTENTS 1024
PCTINCREASE 0
Choosing Storage Parameters For
Segments to Maximize Performance and
Minimize Fragmentation (continued)
When creating segments, assign them to a
tablespace but do note specify storage
parameters
Optimizing storage parameters was much more complicated
with earlier versions of Oracle, but starting with Oracle 7.3
this task became greatly simplified.
Make Your Database Fault Tolerant
Store multiple control files on separate
devices
Store multiple members of each online redo
log group on separate devices
Store data files on RAID filesystems
Eliminate single points of failure wherever possible.
Backing Up an Oracle Database
Export
Cold Backups
Hot Backups
Recovery Manager
Optimizing Your Database
Tuning applications
Sizing the SGA
Balancing I/O
Tuning sorts
Configuring rollback segments
Tuning Database Applications
Use bind variables to reduce parsing
Tune queries so Oracle can run them efficiently
Use tools like EXPLAIN PLAN and TKPROF
Look inside the SGA while application is running
Tune application logic to make the most of
SQL and PL/SQL
Application tuning usually gives the biggest bang for the buck when
optimizing Oracle systems. Reducing running time from 18 hours to ten
minutes by changing one line of code is not uncommon.
Sizing the SGA
Size the buffer cache
Set the db_block_buffers parameter
Query v$sysstat to check hit ratio
Consider checking extended LRU statistics
Size the shared SQL area
Set the shared_pool_size_parameter
Consider use of bind variables and PL/SQL when
sizing
Maximize cache hit ratios while keeping the entire SGA in
physical memory at all times.
Balancing I/O
Assign segments to tablespaces carefully
Distribute data files across physical devices
Query v$filestat to check I/O counts
Adjust file placement as needed
Tuning Sorts
Set sort_area_size parameter
Assign all users a temporary tablespace
Set content type of temporary tablespace to
TEMPORARY
Set storage parameters on temporary
tablespace
Configuring Rollback Segments
Lots of small segments for OLTP
A few large segments for batch
Usually, need to mix the two
Where To Get More Information
Oracle documentation
Other publications
Oracle Technology Network
Oracle user groups
Free web resources