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1
Biblical Hermeneutics Grammatical-
Historical Overview
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Hiram E. Sutton
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Biblical Hermeneutics Table of Content Overview
Table of Content 1
Study of Supporting Peripheral areas Affecting Hermeneutics
Personal Introduction
Goal
Objective's
Course Introduction
Who should take this course
Hermeneutically Teaching the Word
Merrill C Tenny Quote
Terms to be Familiar With
What is Hermeneutics
What is Exegesis
What is Eisegesis
What do you think about the state of todays church (Movie)
Bible knowledge Survey
Discerning the Will of God
Objections to learning proper Bible Interpretation
The Internal Claims of Scripture
Biblical Spiritual Qualifications of an Interpreter
EXPECT PERSECUTION FOR SPEAKING BIBLICAL TRUTH
Why are there so many different Christian Bible interpretations?
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Table of Content Overview 2
Study of Hermeneutics
INTERPRETING THE BIBLE OBJECTIVELY (Movie)
Which Bible Version to Study From
What is Hermeneutics
Source of Biblical Interpretation
Benefits of Hermeneutics
Inappropriate Methods by Dr. Bob Utley, Professor of
Hermeneutics (Retired)
The Interpretation Process
The Language of the Bible
The Literal Interpretation Principle of the Bible Types and Antitypes
The Grammatical Principle
The Cultural Principle
The Contextual Principle
The Historical Principle
Scripture Interprets Scripture Principle
The Progressive Principle
The Accommodation Principle
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Table of Content Overview 3
Study of Hermeneutics
The One Interpretation Principle

The Harmony of Scripture Principle
The Genre
Figures of Speech in the Bible
Interpretation of Prophecy Principles 1
Interpreting Prophecy according to the law of double reference
Interpretation of Prophecy Language Principle
Interpretation of Prophecy Historical Background Principle
Interpretation of Prophecy Passage Parallel Principle
Types and Antitypes
References used for this Presentation
Recommended Books / Websites


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Goal
Reduce Biblical Ignorance among
Believers

http://www.theologicalstudies.org/page/page/1572910.htm
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Objectives
Enable believers:
To defend the faith (2 Pet 3:15)
To contend for the faith (Jude 3)
Prepare for discipleship and teaching work (Matt 28:19)
To enable believers to correctly interpret scripture on their
own
Correctly discern between good and evil (1 John 4:1, Eph
4:14, Heb 5:13-14)
To equip and build others within the church (Eph 4:11-12,
Acts 18:24-26)
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Introduction

The fact that God has spoken in Holy Scripture is at
the heart of our faith.
Therefore its important for us to make certain what God has
said
This task should not be approached carelessly or half
heartily but with fear, trembling and prudence
Upon the correct interpretation of the Bible rests the
doctrine of the foundation of our faith i.e., doctrinal
understanding of person of Christ, salvation,
sanctification, the nature of God, the study of prophecy
and other important biblical doctrines and ultimately our
eternal destiny
The correct interpretation can be done only if we have
carefully, thoroughly and systematically apply the
system of bible interpretation which will yield the
meaning that the bible writer intended to convey as they
wrote under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit
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Introduction
Further, we need to know the correct method of
Biblical Interpretation so that we do not confuse
the voice of God with that of man
This should leads us to the questions:

1. How do we bridge the linguistic, cultural, and
historical gaps between us today and that of the
writers of the Bible


2. What are the guiding principles that will help us
build the bridge as we address these gaps?

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Introduction
In order for the local church to grow in
grace and knowledge of God's word,
remain healthy, be ready to address an
every changing culture, remain strong
during times of adversity. Gods whole
eternal truth must be consistency taught
by its servants, obeyed in the walk of life,
expressed in worship, utilized in the work
of service.
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Hermeneutically Teaching the Word

There is a distinct difference between preaching and teaching.

"Preaching" (Greek: ceruse) is to proclaim, publish, or herald the Good News.

Teaching (Greek didask, did-as-ko) is to systematically and objectively instruct, guide, and apply
others through the Word of God. With the direction of the Holy Spirit, both can ultimately lead to a
person's salvation.

In general, preaching should be used for the unsaved while teaching should be used for the saved. In
comparing the two, the Bible clearly places greater emphasis on teaching over preaching. Jesus himself was
often times referred to as "Teacher" (Matt. 8:19, 12:38, 19:16, 22:24) or "Rabbi" (John 1:38). Additionally,
many New Testament passages allude to teaching more clearly:

"Command and teach these things." (1 Timothy 4:11)

"You must teach what is in accord with sound doctrine." (Titus 2:1)

"Those who oppose him he must gently instruct..." (2 Timothy 2:25)

However, we are not to neglect preaching. Jesus tells us to, "Go into all the world and preach the good
news to all creation." (Mark 16:15). Paul tells us to, "Preach the Word; be prepared in season and out of
season, correct, rebuke and encourage -- with great patience and careful instruction." (2 Timothy 4:2)

Within our society today one can clearly see two distinct types of pastors and ministers within our
churches.

There are those who "preach" the Word
Then there are those who "teach" the Word.

The Study of Hermeneutics can and will enable the servant in the Lord to be a workman thats equip to
perform the ministry God call has called them to. (2 Tim 2:15) A teacher or preacher who employs
hermeneutics no doubt will be more effective for the cause of Christ in both preaching and teaching believers.
(Eph4:11-12)
(http://www.bibleteacher.org/con_4.htm)
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Who should take this course
All of those who have been Born
again by the Spirit of God so that
we may effectively engage in the
good works of God in which we
where save to serve in. (Eph 2:10)
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"The Bible was written in an environment
that is now unfamiliar to most of its
readers. The individual realization of the
modern world with its new facilities,
products, and problems is quite different
from the social and economic conditions
described in the Bible. Some of its
language is puzzling, and can easily be
misconstrued if one does not have some
explanation of the ancient background."

Merrill C. Tenney
Keep in Mind
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Terms to Be familiar with
Hermeneutics

Exegesis

Eisegesis
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What is Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics is the science and art of biblical
interpretation to discover what the authors
intended meaning was, when he wrote under
the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
It is a science because there exists a systematic,
mechanical, and formulated approach to the
interpretation process.
It is an art because it involves an individual's talent,
skills, and knowledge to perform the task of
interpreting the Scriptures.
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"What is Biblical Exegesis?"
Exegesis is the application of hermeneutics
which seeks to extract from the Scriptural
text that meaning which is already present.
(Roy B. Zuck, Basic Bible Interpretation,
p.22)

Good biblical exegesis is actually commanded in
scripture. Study [be diligent] to show thyself
approved unto God, a workman that needeth not
to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth
(2 Timothy 2:15).
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Eisegesis
Eisegesis - A subjective method of interpretation
by which one introduces their own opinions into the
text.

This typically is done at the expense of either the
language (Hebrew, Greek) and or context of
passage or the historical setting or the context of
the subject as found in the whole of scripture

Avoid this method at all Cost

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What do you think about the state of todays church?

The purpose of showing you this video is give you a sense a mission and
focus as it pertains to the study of Hermeneutics

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Bible knowledge Survey 1
According to a Gallup Poll:

Only half of adults interviewed nationwide could name any of
the four Gospels of the New Testament.

Just 37% of those interviewed could name all four Gospels.

Only 42% of adults were able to name as many as five of the
Ten Commandments correctly.

Seven in ten (70%) were able to name the town where Jesus
was born, but just 42% could identify him as the person who
delivered the Sermon on the Mount.
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Bible knowledge Survey 2
Researcher George Barna has also documented the
lack of Bible knowledge in the United States:

38% of Americans believe the entire Bible was written several
decades after Jesus' death and resurrection (While this is true
of the New Testament, the entire Old Testament was written
hundreds of years before the birth of Jesus Christ).

12% of adults believe that Noah's wife was Joan of Arc.

49% believe that the Bible teaches that money is the root of all
evil. (The love of money is said to be the root of all types of
evil).

75% believe that the Bible teaches that God helps those who
help themselves. 10
http://www.theologicalstudies.org/page/page/1572910.htm
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Bible knowledge Survey 3
Consider the following statistics regarding born again
believers:[1]

35% believe that Jesus Christ was crucified but He never had a
physical resurrection
28% believe that when Jesus Christ lived on earth He committed sins
46% claim that Satan is not a living being but is a symbol of evil.
1/3 believes if a person is good enough, then he or she earn a place in
Heaven.
1 out of 4 believes it doesnt matter what faith you follow because all
religions teach the same lessons.
52% reject the existence of the Holy Spirit.
Only 5% adults have a biblical worldview.
Only 9% born between the yrs. 1984-2002 base their moral choices
on the Bible.
Only 32% born between the yrs. 1965-1983 say that moral truth is
absolute.

[1] The Barna Group of Ventura, California: www.barna.org
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Discerning the Will of God as to the need
for Accurate Biblical Interpretation (1)
1 Chron 12:32
32 Of the sons of Issachar, men who understood the times, with
knowledge of what Israel should do, (i.e. what God wanted to
accomplish)

Eph 5:15-17
15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise,
16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.
17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of
the Lord is. (i.e. what God wants to accomplish through us)
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Discerning the Will of God as to the need for Accurate Biblical
Interpretation (2)
Discerning the Will of God
Keeping in mind the points discussed in the video; the Gallop Poll survey and Barna surveys and lets discuss the
will of God using 1 Chron 12:32 and Eph 5:15-17 to understanding the mind of God for the times we live and the
course of action that we should be pursuing.

1 Chron 12:32
32 Of the sons of Issachar, men who understood the times, with knowledge of what Israel should do,

Understood = biynah / bee-naw n comes from the root Hebrew verb bene. The verb and its derivatives are used
247 times. The background idea of the verb is to discern


1. The men of Issachar were the fewest of all, only 200.

2. They understood the natural times:
, could discern the face of the sky, were weather-wise, could advise their neighbors in the proper times for
ploughing, sowing reaping, etc.


3. They understood the ceremonial times:

the hour that
Or the ceremonial times, the times appointed for the solemn feasts; therefore they are said to call the people to
the mountain (Deut 33:19) to offer sac sacrifices of righteousness.

In this critical juncture they knew Israel ought to make David king.

It was not only expedient, but necessary; the present posture of affairs called for it.

Application :
They had discerned Gods will in this matter. These were people who saw with prophetic vision and
responded with action. Just as we should respond in the same spiritrightly discerning the need for
accurate Biblical interpretation.
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Discerning the Will of God as to the need for Accurate
Biblical Interpretation (3)
In Eph 5:15-17 Paul tells the church at Ephesus and by way of application the
church individually and universal to understand what the will of God is and act
accordingly just as the men of Issachar.

Eph 5:15-17
15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise,
16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.
17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. (i.e. what God
wants to accomplish through us)

How to Walk

Eph 5:15

15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise,

See is blep, to discern mentally, observe perceive, consider, contemplate, look to in the
sense of taking care, take heed.

Walk is peripate, to order ones behavior, to conduct ones self.

Circumspectly is akribs - akreeboce , exactly, accurately, carefully.
Believers then, are to walk (live) carefully, so as to be wise or skillful and thus please
the Lord. The manner for this careful, precise walk is making the right use of every
opportunity

Can be translated , Be constantly taking heed how accurately you are conducting
yourselves. That is, see to it that your conduct is accurate with respect to the demands of
the Word of God.
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Discerning the Will of God as to the need for
Accurate Biblical Interpretation (4)
Objective of the Walk

16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.

16 Redeeming is exagoraz - exagoradzo, (The middle
voice indicates the subject performing an action upon himself
(reflexive action) or for his own benefit. E.g., The boy
groomed himself) . to buy up.

Therefore In the middle voice as it is used here, it means, to buy
up for ones self or ones advantage. Metaphorically, it means, to
make a wise and sacred use of every opportunity for doing good,

Time kairos - kaheeros (), time as regarded in its
strategic. The idea is taking advantage of the opportunities that
present themselves. The right time; a limited period of time.

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Discerning the Will of God as to the need
for Accurate Biblical Interpretation (5)
The reason for redeeming the time

V 15 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.
Evil - poneros /ponayros , evil in active opposition to
the good, pernicious . Evil is always aggressive in its
opposition to good

Our redemption of the time is of special significance as we
approach the end of the church

The use of the word time indicates opportunity is limited
accordingly to the duration of the presented oppportunity
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Discerning the Will of God as to the need
for Accurate Biblical Interpretation (6)
17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord
is. (i.e. what God wants to accomplish through us)

(5:17) WhereFore or By Ye - Mood Imperative
The imperative mood corresponds to the English imperative, and expresses a
command

Example Jesus phrase, Repent ye, and believe the gospel (Mk.1:15) is not at
all an invitation, but an absolute command requiring full obedience on the
part of all hearers.

Unwise is aphrn (), without reason, senseless, foolish, stupid,
without reflection or intelligence, acting rashly.

Understanding is sunimi (), to set or bring together, to put the
perception with the thing perceived, to set or join together in the mind, thus,
to understand. The word speaks of reflective thinking.

The active voice represents the subject as the doer or performer of the action.
e.g., in the sentence, The boy hit the ball, the boy performs the action.


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Summary
of why we need to Discern the Will of God as to the
need for Accurate Biblical Interpretation
There are 4 four points I would like to bring to your attention:

Point 1
The ability to correctly analyze situations through discernment is what is required and
should be a normal part of the Christian life. Just as it was for the men of Issachar, so
should it be for those who are born again believers.

Point 2
Its imperative that we understand what God wants to accomplish through us. The
conception of the will of God is the basis and purpose of salvation; In other words God
save you for a reason according to his will and for his purpose.

Point 3
The new life of believers through the new birth is conducive and created to understanding
and doing the divine will of God.

Point 4
God commands that we act in accordance to his will

Point 5
AS we approach the end of the age there will be teachers instructors, laity who will
shine brightly like the brightness of the expanse of heaven, and those who lead the
many to righteousness (Dan 12:3), these will understand Dan 12:10e) how to redeem
the time.

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Objections to learning proper Bible Interpretation
Christians who don't know the rules of Bible Interpretation will still benefit on
reading the Bible.
Many Bible verses are so simple and clear that our bigger problem today is not
interpreting the difficult verses but obeying those parts of the Bible that we clearly
understand.

Objections
1. "Having rules in Bible Interpretation will take the Bible away from the common or
not highly educated Christians.

2. Some Christians don't believe that there are certain rules that they need to apply in
Bible interpretation other than just reading and praying for guidance. They feel that
such rules will take their right to be able to understand the Bible on their own, and
that they will have to depend on scholars or experts to explain the Bible for them.

First, proper interpretation only requires more time studying and a little common
sense. An average Christian who can read and follow simple instructions can
understand and apply the principles and guidelines of proper interpretation.

Second, these guidelines and principles will give everybody the tools needed to
objectively question and make an educated criticism on different interpretations of the
Bible today, even those made by Bible experts. Thus heightening ones level and ability
to discern biblical truth from error.

You will no longer be forced to follow a doctrine or a teaching that you feel is not an
accurate interpretation of the Word of God, just because it is being taught by a "teacher"
or an "expert". Or is just part of a particular denominational teaching.
Information from site http://www.bible-interpretation.com used as a base.
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The Internal Claims of the Importance of Scripture
1) The source of Scripture

GOD:

Over 3800 times the bible says, God said

2 Timothy 3:16-17 ... "All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for
teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness;
17 that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work.

2 Peter 1:20-21... "But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture
is a matter of ones own interpretation, 21 for no prophecy was ever made
by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from
God.

2) The Vitality of Scripture

Hebrews 4:12... "For the Word of God is living and active and sharper
than any two-edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and
spirit, of both joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and
intentions of the heart.
Continue
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The Internal Claims of the Importance of
Scripture
3) The Priority / Authority of Scripture in
the life of the believer

Matt 4:4 It is written, Man shall not live on bread alone,
but on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.

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4) The Light of Scripture

Ps 119:105 - Your word is a lamp to my feet And a light to my
path.

5) The Warning of Scripture

Isaiah 8:20 - To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not
according to this word , it is because there is no light in them.
2 John 9 - Anyone who goes too far and does not abide in the
teaching of Christ, does not have God; the one who abides in
the teaching, he has both the Father and the Son.

1 Tim 4:16a - Pay close attention to yourself and to your
teaching; persevere in these things
The Internal Claims of the Importance of
Scripture
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The Internal Claims of the Importance of
Scripture
The Eternal Nature of Scripture

1 Pet 1:24-25
24 For, All flesh is like grass, And all its glory like
the flower of grass. The grass withers, And the
flower falls off,
25 But the word of the Lord endures forever.
And this is the word which was preached to you. Cf
Is 40:6-8
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Biblical Spiritual Qualifications of an Interpreter(1)
1. Spiritual qualifications have an important place in the list of
qualifications and cannot be overstated.

2. The interpreter must have the same spirit (Holy Spirit) which
enabled the writers to understand their revelation from God and to
record it

1 Cor 2:14-16
14 But a natural man does not accept the things of the Spirit of
God, for they are foolishness to him; and he cannot understand
them, because they are spiritually appraised.
15 But he who is spiritual appraises all things, yet he himself is
appraised by no one.
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Biblical Spiritual Qualifications of an Interpreter(2)
3. Must be Born again (John 3:3) cf (1 Corinthians 2:14)

4. Must have a zeal that consumes: and enthusiasm
that breeds both reverence and productivity of the
things of God

1 Pet 2:1-2

1 Wherefore laying aside all malice, and all guile, and
hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speakings,
2 As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that
ye may grow thereby

Long/ desire (epipotheo /epeepotheho ) - deeply desire;
have great affection for to long for something with a deep
desire implication of recognizing a lack 2 to pursue with love 3 to
lust, harbor forbidden desire.



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Biblical Spiritual Qualifications of an Interpreter(3)
3. Must have a deep reverence for God ()
1. Prov 9:10
10 The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of
the holy is understanding

4. Must depend on the Holy Spirit to empower you to deliver Gods
Word

(Acts 1:8)
but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and
you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and
Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth.

5. Must be teachable

Prov 1:5
5 A wise man will hear, and will increase learning; and a man of
understanding shall attain unto wise counsels:
Prov 9:9
9 Give instruction to a wise man, and he will be yet wiser: teach a just
man, and he will increase in learning.
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EXPECT PERSECUTION FOR
SPEAKING BIBLICAL TRUTH
Accursed as being a divider and trouble makers when standing up for Biblical truth
within the church

Kings 18:16-18
16 So Obadiah went to meet Ahab and told him; and Ahab went to
meet Elijah.
17 When Ahab saw Elijah, Ahab said to him, Is this you, you troubler of
Israel?
18 He said, I have not troubled Israel, but you and your fathers house
have, because you have forsaken the commandments of the Lord and you
have followed the Baals.

John 15:18-19
18 If the world hates you, you know that it hated Me before it hated you.
19 If you were of the world, the world would love its own. Yet because you are
not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates
you
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Why are there so many different Christian
interpretations?
1. Unbelief

No spiritual life:
1 Cor 2:14
But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are
foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually
discerned.

Tares among Wheat
Matt 13:24-30
24 Jesus presented another parable to them, saying, The kingdom of
heaven may be compared to a man who sowed good seed in his field.
25 But while his men were sleeping, his enemy came and sowed tares among
the wheat, and went away.
26 But when the wheat sprouted and bore grain, then the tares became evident
also.
27 The slaves of the landowner came and said to him, Sir, did you not sow
good seed in your field? How then does it have tares?
28 And he said to them, An enemy has done this! The slaves said to him, Do
you want us, then, to go and gather them up?
29 But he *said, No; for while you are gathering up the tares, you may uproot
the wheat with them.
30 Allow both to grow together until the harvest; and in the time of the harvest
I will say to the reapers, First gather up the tares and bind them in bundles to
burn them up; but gather the wheat into my barn.
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Tares
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Why are there so many different
Christian interpretations?

2. Satanic blindness:
2 Cor 4:3-4
3 And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those
who are perishing,
4 in whose case the god of this world has blinded the
minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see
the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is
the image of God.

1 John 5:19
19 We know that we are of God, and that the whole
world lies in the power of the evil one.
Continue
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How Satan Blinds the Mind
Continue
Tares that Satan has planted in the church are dead in trespasses and sin
(Eph 2:1)

While in this state their habitual behavior/ walk is according to the world
system and its wisdom of which they speak from (1 John 4:5)

The characteristics of the worlds wisdom is said to be earthy, natural and
demonic (James 3:15)

While in a state of unbelief the god of this world works through them to
accomplish his will (Eph 2:2)

They are under his control (1 John 5:19b)
That is not to say all those outside of Christ are possessed by demonic
spirits in the common use of the term, but it is to say all men everywhere
who are not in Christ an obedient to him are and can be influenced by
Satan
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Those who walk in unbelief, walk according to the world system
(1 John 4:5), its wisdom (James 3:15) and according to the God of this world (Eph 2:1,
1 Jn 5:19)
Religion

Philosophies
Ethics

Morals
Education

Entertainment
Dead Person
Walking
Opinions Hopes
Aims

Thoughts

Aspirations
Impulses
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Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?

3. Cultural (World System) inroads into the church

Teachers Speaking from the world system
1 John 4:5
5 They are from the world; therefore they speak as from the world, and the
world listens to them.

Teachers that have a hostility toward God
James 4:4
4 You adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with the world is hostility
toward God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself
an enemy of God.

Teachers that have a love for the things of the world
1 John 2:15-17
15 Do not love the world nor the things in the world. If anyone loves the world,
the love of the Father is not in him.

16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the
boastful pride of life, is not from the Father, but is from the world.

17 The world is passing away, and also its lusts; but the one who does the will of
God lives forever.
Continue
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Why are there so many different Christian
interpretations?
4. Carnal Blindness

1 Cor 3:1-3

1 And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual men,
but as to men of flesh, as to infants in Christ.

2 I gave you milk to drink, not solid food; for you were not
yet able to receive it. Indeed, even now you are not yet
able,

3 for you are still fleshly. For since there is jealousy and strife
among you, are you not fleshly, and are you not walking like
mere men?
Continue
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Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
5. Lack of training

2 Peter 3:16

16 as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are
some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as
they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction.

He attributes their spurious teachings, in part, to the fact that they are untaught

Untaught - amathes /amathace/] adj: adjective pertaining to one who has not acquired
a formal education, and hence with the implication of being stupid and ignorant
uneducated, unlearned, ignorant.

Timothy is told to study to show yourself approved unto God (2 Tim 2:15)

dokimos - In the ancient world there was no banking system as we know it today, and
no paper money. All money was made from metal, heated until liquid, poured into
moulds and allowed to cool. When the coins were cooled, it was necessary to smooth off
the uneven edges. The coins were comparatively soft and of course many people shaved
them closely. In one century, more than eighty laws were passed in Athens, to stop the
practice of shaving down the coins then in circulation. But some money changers were
men of integrity, who would accept no counterfeit money. They were men of honor who
put only genuine full weighted money into circulation. Such men were called dokimos or
approved. Donald Barnhouse.

There is no shortcut to proper biblical understanding; we are commanded to study
and be taught by those God has given to the church to equip us.

Continue
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Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
6. Those who teach that are Unstable

2 Peter 3:16
as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are
some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort,
as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction.

Unstable - [asteriktos /astayriktos/] adj: adjective - pertaining to the
tendency to change and waver in ones views and attitudesunstable.

Distort - strebloo /strebloo: to twist, turn awry. 2 to torture, put to the
rack.

7. Poor hermeneutics or non at all

2 Tim 2:15
Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to
be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.
8. Heretical teaching
2 John 9
Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath
not God. He that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father
and the Son.
Continue
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Why are there so many different Christian
interpretations?
9. Failure to declare the whole counsel of God as
an antidote to the doctrine of savage wolves.

Acts 20:27-32 (see Acts 20:17-32 for full context)
27 For I did not shrink from declaring to you the whole purpose
of God.
28 Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which
the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of
God which He purchased with His own blood.
29 I know that after my departure savage wolves will come in
among you, not sparing the flock;
30 and from among your own selves men will arise, speaking
perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them.
31 Therefore be on the alert, remembering that night and day for
a period of three years I did not cease to admonish each one with
tears.
32 And now I commend you to God and to the word of His
grace, which is able to build you up and to give you the
inheritance among all those who are sanctified.
Continue
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10.Selfishness / Pride / Arrogance

2 Chron 26:16-19 (Uzziah)
16 But when he became strong, his heart was so proud that he acted corruptly, and he
was unfaithful to the Lord his God, for he entered the temple of the Lord to burn
incense on the altar of incense.
17 Then Azariah the priest entered after him and with him eighty priests of the Lord,
valiant men.
18 They opposed Uzziah the king and said to him, It is not for you, Uzziah, to burn
incense to the Lord, but for the priests, the sons of Aaron who are consecrated to
burn incense. Get out of the sanctuary, for you have been unfaithful and will have
no honor from the Lord God.
19 But Uzziah, with a censer in his hand for burning incense, was enraged; and while he
was enraged with the priests, the leprosy broke out on his forehead before the
priests in the house of the Lord, beside the altar of incense.
20 Azariah the chief priest and all the priests looked at him, and behold, he was leprous
on his forehead; and they hurried him out of there, and he himself also hastened to
get out because the Lord had smitten him.

Beware of the selfish ambition that places oneself above GOD, and the pride
that appropriates His glory. Understand that these are characteristic traits of
Satan's rebellion which transformed him into the enemy GOD.

Isaiah14:12-21
Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
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Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
11. Failure to mature:

1 Cor 3:1-2
1 And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual men, but as to men of
flesh, as to infants in Christ.
2 I gave you milk to drink, not solid food; for you were not yet able to receive it.
Indeed, even now you are not yet able,

Heb 5:11-14
11 Concerning him we have much to say, and it is hard to explain, since you have
become dull of hearing.
12 For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you have need again for
someone to teach you the elementary principles of the oracles of God, and you
have come to need milk and not solid food.
13 For everyone who partakes only of milk is not accustomed to the word of
righteousness, for he is an infant.
14 But solid food is for the mature, who because of practice have their
senses trained to discern good and evil.

Heb 6:1-3
1 Therefore leaving the elementary teaching about the Christ, let us press on
to maturity, not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works and of
faith toward God,
2 of instruction about washings and laying on of hands, and the resurrection of the
dead and eternal judgment.
3 And this we will do, if God permits.
Continue
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Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
12.Undue emphasis on tradition

Mark 7:1-13
1 The Pharisees and some of the scribes gathered around Him when they had come from Jerusalem,
2 and had seen that some of His disciples were eating their bread with impure hands, that is, unwashed.
3 (For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they carefully wash their hands, thus observing
the traditions of the elders;
4 and when they come from the market place, they do not eat unless they cleanse themselves; and there
are many other things which they have received in order to observe, such as the washing of cups and
pitchers and copper pots.)
5 The Pharisees and the scribes *asked Him, Why do Your disciples not walk according to the tradition of
the elders, but eat their bread with impure hands?
6 And He said to them, Rightly did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written: This people
honors Me with their lips, But their heart is far away from Me.
7 But in vain do they worship Me, Teaching as doctrines the precepts of men.
8 Neglecting the commandment of God, you hold to the tradition of men.
9 He was also saying to them, You are experts at setting aside the commandment of God in order to
keep your tradition.
10 For Moses said, Honor your father and your mother; and, He who speaks evil of father or mother, is
to be put to death;
11 but you say, If a man says to his father or his mother, whatever I have that would help you is Corban
(that is to say, given to God),
12 you no longer permit him to do anything for his father or his mother;
13 thus invalidating the word of God by your tradition which you have handed down; and you do many
things such as that.

Col 2:8
8 See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception,
according to the tradition of men, according to the elementary principles of the
world, rather than according to Christ.
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To quote the Obvious
It is clear that believers and unbelievers
will not have the same goals, aspirations
and love for one another. Thus
heightening the friction between the two
groups
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Why are there so many different
Christian interpretations?
12.Our Humanness; we are not
infallible

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INTERPRETING THE BIBLE OBJECTIVELY [6]

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BIBLE VERSIONS
COMPARISON OF LITERALNESS


MORE LITERAL
LESS INTERPRETATIVE
MORE WORD FOR WORD

MORE PARAPHRASE
MORE INTERPRETATIVE**
MORE CONCEPT FOR CONCEPT
Young's
Literal
NAS
ASV
Amp
ESV
KJV
NKJV

NRSV
NAB
NIV
NJB
NCV
ICB
NLT
Phillips
GNT
CEV

TLB Msg

NAS = New American Standard
Amp = Amplified Version
ASV = Authorized Standard Version 1901
ESV = English Standard Version
KJV = King James Version
NKJV = New King James Version
Youngs Literal Translation


NRSV = New Revised Std Version
NAB = New American Bible
NJB = New Jerusalem Bible
NIV = New International Version
NCV = New Century Version
ICB = International Children's Bible


NLT = New Living Translation
Phillips = J B Phillips Paraphrase
GNT = Good News Translation
CEV = Contemporary English Version
TLB = The Living Bible
MSG = The Message not recommended

Which Version to Study from
** MORE INTERPRETATIVE: For the most objective, non-biased and "pure" inductive study, do
not use paraphrased versions as your primary resource, for they provide no way to determine
whether or not the translator's interpretation of the original Greek and Hebrew is accurate. The
more literal versions such as NAS, ESV, KJV, NKJV more accurately render the words of the
original biblical authors and are therefore recommended for inductive Bible study.
http://preceptaustin.org/the_key_inductive_bible_study.htm#BIBLE VERSIONS: CHART
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Hermeneutics
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What is Hermeneutics
Hermeneutics is the science and art of
biblical interpretation to discover what the
authors intended meaning was, when he
wrote under the influence of the Holy Spirit.
It is a science because there exists a systematic,
mechanical, and formulated approach to the
interpretation process.
It is an art because it involves an individual's
talent, skills, and knowledge to perform the task
of interpreting the Scriptures.
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Source of Biblical Interpretation
(Hermeneutics)
These principles are embedded in the scripture
itself. The Bible interprets itself (scripture
interprets scripture).
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Benefits of Hermeneutics
Correct Biblical Interpretation is
Paramount in order to:

provide an objective, Biblical World view understanding
of what God has said to us through His written word.

to put aside any denominational, unscriptural traditions,
personal opinions, geographical, or cultural reasoning
that separate our minds from that of the writers of the
Bible so that we can understand what God is saying

be equipped ourselves for every good work (2 Tim 3:16-
17)


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Inappropriate Methods by Dr. Bob Utley, Professor
of Hermeneutics (Retired)
A. Ignoring the literary context of the books of the Bible and using every
sentence, clause, or even individual words as statements of truth unrelated to
the authors intent or the larger context. This is often called proof-texting.

B. Ignoring the historical setting of the books by substituting a supposed historical
setting that has little or no support from the text itself.

C. Ignoring the historical setting of the books and reading it as the morning
hometown newspaper written primarily to modern individual Christians.

D. Ignoring the historical setting of the books by allegorizing the text into a
philosophical / theological message totally unrelated to the first hearers and
the original authors intent.

E. Ignoring the original message by substituting ones own system of theology, pet
doctrine, or contemporary issue unrelated to the original authors purpose and
stated message. This phenomenon often follows the initial reading of the Bible
as a means of establishing a speakers authority. This is often referred to as
reader response (what-the-text-means-to me interpretation).
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The Interpretation Process

Within the science of interpretation
(Hermeneutics) there exists four essential
and primary steps in the interpretation
process.

1. Observation

2. Interpretation

3. Correlation

4. Application
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Observation
You will need to consult Bible references and tools during this process.

This step asks, "What does it say?" As the interpreter, we are to objectively
observe the whole picture of what we are attempting to interpret. Figuratively, we
are to act as a detective -- investigating, and examining what the passage is
saying.

Some of the questions the interpreter might ask are:

1. Who are the key figures in the book? Who is Jeremiah, Cyrus, Paul, Timothy, etc.)

2. What is the background and historical setting

3. What are the key dates?

4. When was the book written?

5. What are the key verses in the book? What are the key words?

6. What are the key events taking place? (Pentecost, Paul's conversion, Christ's resurrection)
7. What conclusions can be drawn? Must we observe Jewish customs and laws ?

8. Additionally, the interpreter will observe any key doctrines, themes, and the author's
intention in writing the book .

9. Observe the text itself, determining what is a metaphor, simile, anthropomorphism,
personification, euphemism, hyperbole, irony.
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Interpretation
This crucial step is perhaps the most difficult and time-
consuming of these three steps

You will need to consult Bible references and tools during this
process.

This step asks, "What does it mean?

Some of the questions the interpreter might ask are:

1. Who wrote the book?

2. What is the overall theme of the book? (God's grace, love, Belief etc)

3. What does the Grammar mean

4. What passages make up the context

5. Cross-referencing to compare similar passages talking about the same
subject to gain a more in-depth understanding

6. Who is the third person? Me? God? Jesus?
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CORRELATION
Correlation step should be inserted
between Interpretation and Application.

Correlation means examining how one
passage fits in with other passages on the
same topic or theme.

Use it for broader view.
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Application
1. Here we determine how the passage pertains to the life of the beliver

As Dr Roy Zuck points out...

Heart appropriation, not merely head apprehension, is the true goal of Bible study. Only in
this way can believers grow spiritually. Spiritual maturity, in which we become more like Christ,
comes not just from knowing more about the Bible. It comes from knowing more about the
Bible and applying it to our spiritual needs.

God expects that those who say they love Jesus will apply His words to their lives and
live accordingly.

(John 14:21)

21 He who has My commandments and keeps them is the one who loves Me; and he who loves
Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and will disclose Myself to him.

Heb 12:1-2
"let us also lay aside every encumbrance, and the sin which so easily entangles us, and
let us run with endurance the race that is set before us fixing our eyes on Jesus, the
Author and Perfecter of faith"

Phil 3:14
pressing "on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus")
disciplining ourselves "for the purpose of godliness for bodily discipline is only of little
profit, but godliness is profitable for all things, since it holds promise for the present life
and also for the life to come."
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The Languages of the Bible
The Bible was originally written in three
languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek.

The OT was primarily written in Hebrew

Aramaic is used in

Daniel 2:4a to 7:28.

Aramaic is found also in the Ezra 4:8-6:18, 7:12-26 and Jeremiah
10:11.

the Syrian tongueor Aramaean language, sometimes called
Chaldee. Typically this was made use of by the Persians in their
decrees and communications relative to the Jews (compare 2
Kings 18:26; Isaiah 36:11).

The New Testament is written entirely in Koinie Greek
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The Literal Interpretation Principle
We take the Bible at face value.
Isa. 7:14Born of a virgin
Micah 5:2At Bethlehem
Jer. 31:15Slaughter of the children
Hosea 11:1Called out of Egypt
Isa. 11:2Anointed with the Spirit
Zech. 9:9Entry into Jerusalem
Psa. 41:9; 55:12-14Betrayed by a friend
Zech. 13:7Disciples forsake Him
Zech. 11:12Sold for thirty pieces of silver
Zech. 11:13Potter's field bought
Isa. 50:6Spit on and scourged
Exodus 12:46; Psa. 34:20Not a bone broken
Psa. 69:21Gall and vinegar
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The Grammatical Principle Example 1
The study of word meanings, grammar, culture and
syntax of the original languages is important for a
proper understanding of Scripture.

The word meanings, grammar, and syntax of the original
languages are what is included when the Bible say's that God
breathe the scriptures (2 Timothy 3:16)
Example of Word meaning / syntax / context
John 10:30
I and the Father are
one
eg kai ho patr esmen
hen
verb, first person,
plural, present,
active, indicative
One (, hen) neuter, adjective - one
essence or nature that which; is united as
one in contrast with being divided or
consisting of separate parts; I.E. a unity
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The Grammatical Principle Example 2
TENSE ACTION EXAMPLE & EXPLANATION
PRESENT
TENSE
CONTINUOUS
ACTION
HABITUAL ACTION
OFTEN REFLECTS
A LIFESTYLE

PPPMPA: Present Tense, Passive Voice, Participle, Masculine, Plural,
Accusative

Knowledge of the tense of a verb can sometimes be critical for accurate
interpretation.

For example note 1Jo 3:9: "No one who is born of God practices (present
tense) sin (noun), because His seed abides in him and he cannot SIN (verb),
because he is born of God."

Look at the verb "SIN". At first glance the verse seems to imply that one who
is "born of God" can never commit a sin and yet all genuine believers know
that this is not a reality (cf 1Jo 1:8).

When you understand that the verb SIN is in the present tense, it becomes
clear that John is saying that one who is born of God cannot habitually commit
sins as a way of life.


The aorist and present tenses are used about equally in the NT, together
making up over 80% of all verbs and verbals. Chapman, B. (1994). Greek
New Testament Insert. (2nd ed., revised.). Quakertown, PA: Stylus
Publishing.

GREEK VERBS QUICK REFERENCE
http://www.preceptaustin.org/new_page_40.htm
1John 3:9
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The Grammatical Principle Example 2
AORIST
TENSE
EFFECTIVE ACTION
SUCCESSFUL
ACTION

SINGLE ACTION
ONE-TIME ACTION
States that an action
occurs without regard
to its duration. It is
analogous to a
snapshot which
captures an action at
specific point in time.
PPPMPA: Present Tense, Passive Voice, Participle,
Masculine, Plural, Accusative

1Peter 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ who
according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again (AAPMSN)
(5660) to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the
dead,


The AORIST TENSE conveys the truth that the believer's new birth
(indicative mood is mood of reality) has occurred at a point in the past
without specifying when this event occurred.

The passive voice indicates this new birth was produced by a Source
outside of the recipient and in context that Source is "the God & Father of
our Lord Jesus Christ".

The aorist and present tenses are used about equally in the NT, together
making up over 80% of all verbs and verbals. Chapman, B. (1994). Greek
New Testament Insert. (2nd ed., revised.). Quakertown, PA: Stylus
Publishing.
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The Grammatical Principle Culturally
Grammar may be studied culturally
Acts 16:31 Jailer converted
They said, Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you
will be saved, you and your household.

household (greek - oikos) Some have use this verse
to support infant baptism since they are part of the
household. But the Greek word included household pets
and animals non of which are candidates for baptism.
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The Grammatical Principle
according to a Language Family
Words may be studied in languages of the
same family and ancient translations

Hebrew language includes languages from Egypt to
Mesopotamia, Arabic and Aramaic are of Particular
importance for OT studies.
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The Cultural Principle
By cultural it is meant the total ways, methods, tools customs,
buildings, institutions, on their existence.

Religious Culture (gods worship)
Social
Legal
Material Culture
Tools
Objects
Dwellings
Weapons
Garments
Roman Soldiers armor Eph 6:10
Etc.

The Bible was composed in a specific culture at a particular point in
time.

The principal purpose of studying the cultural elements aids the
interpreter to know what are the original things referred to in
scripture.

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The Cultural Principle Examples
Passages may be studied culturally
Matt 5:41
When our Lord mentioned that if we were
compelled to go one mile, we should go two, He
was referring to a well known Persian custom.
When a Persian messenger carried a message of
the empire he could compel inhabitants of a
locality to carry his baggage one mile , or to
perform any service the messenger commanded.

Hence Christians out of love and not command should
help their neighbor not for the customary or accepted
one mile, but for the extra mile of love and grace
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The Cultural Principle Examples
Ex 7-11
The following is a list of Egyptian gods worship within their culture, along with the
corresponding plague:

1. Turning water into blood - Hapi, the god of the Nile river.
2. Frogs - Heqt, goddess of birth. Heqt is often depicted as a frog.
3. Gnats from dust - Geb, god of the earth or soil.
4. Flies - Kheper, god of beetles and flies.
5. Cattle - Apis, sacred bull.
6. Boils - Isis, goddess of healing.
7. Hail - Nut, sky goddess and/or Horus, falcon god / sky god.
8. Locust - Seth, god of crops.
9. 3 days of darkness - Ra, the sun god (main god of the solar faith).
10. Death of firstborn - Pharaoh who was considered a god.

The plagues were design to attack the greatest of Egyptian gods, leading to the two
greatest gods: Ra, the sun god, and Pharaoh himself.
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The Culture Principle
Social Culture
Manners / Customs
Marriage
Oldest First

Gen 29:26
Laban replied, It is not our custom here to give the
younger daughter in marriage before the older one.
The deceiver Jacob had asked for the younger
Rachels hand, but was deceived by Laban and
tricked into marrying Leah. Thus the ancient Near
Eastern tradition of the older daughter marrying
first was preserved. This custom is still adhered to
in many countries, and when a younger daughter
has an opportunity to marry, everything is done to
get the older daughter married first.
continue
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The Culture Principle
Religious Beliefs Practices
OT
Baal, Queen of Heaven, Ashtoreth, gods of Egypt

Galatians
legalism

Colossians
1 It was Jewish, stressing the need for observing Old Testament laws and ceremonies.
2 It was philosophical, laying emphasis on some special or deeper knowledge (gnsis).
3 It involved the worship of angels as mediators to God (Col 2:18).
4 It was exclusivity, stressing the special privilege and perfection of those select few
who belonged to this philosophical elite.
5 Gnosticism denied the deity of Christ, thus calling forth one of the greatest declarations
of Christs deity found anywhere in Scripture (Col 1:15-16; 2:9).

1 John
Gnostics
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The Contextual Principle
The Word of God is a perfect unit.

The global context of any verse is the entire scripture

Consider the:

verses immediately before, after, and around the passage

the book its in
the testament its in (OT / NT)

Verbal Cross Reference

Wording in one passage is similar to the wording in an other
passage
Ex Son of Man cf first and the last (Isaiah 44:6 ; Rev 1:17;
22:13)

continue
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The Contextual Principle
Conceptual Cross Reference

A verse or passage in one book has the identical
substance or content of another part of scripture
even thought there is no use of common words.

Ex., Hebrews 2 and Philippians 2 both discuss the
character of the incarnation

Ex., Romans 3 and Heb 10 discuss the atonement

life of Christ must be compared to all four gospels
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Historical Principle
All Biblical events occur in the stream of history:

How did the fall occur?

How did the Jews get to Egypt during Josephs time?

What where the events that cause the northern kingdom to be
exiled into Assyria?

What where the events that cause the southern kingdom to be
exiled into Babylon during Daniels time?

What are the events that will bring about the great tribulation?
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The Scripture Interprets Scripture Principle
This principle is best illustrated by what is known as
"topical Bible study."

There are two essential 'rules' for applying this
principle:

1) The context of the two passages must be the same

2) The plain passage must be used to guide our interpretation of
a less clear passage - not the other way around!
Continue
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The Scripture Interprets Scripture Principle
Parallel cross Reference two or more
books describe essentially the same
events

The same historical materials are covered
by Samuel(1,2), Kings, and Chronicles

The Events in the life of Christ in all four
gospels
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The Progressive Revelation Principle
The Word of God is to be understood from the Old Testament to
the New Testament as a flower unfolding its petals to the
morning sun.

God initiated revelation, but He did not reveal His truths all at one
time.

The Old Testament is the New Testament concealed, and the New
Testament is the Old Testament revealed.

In the sermon on the mount Jesus said he came to fulfill the law

In:
Luke 24:27
27 Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them
the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures.

John 5:39
39 You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal
life; it is these that testify about Me!
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The Accommodation Principle
The Bible is to be interpreted in view of the fact that it is an
accommodation of Divine truths to human minds:

God the infinite communicating with man the finite.

The Bible was written in three languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek.

The Bible was also created in space, in time, and in history so that man could
understand it.

The truths of God made contact with the human mind at a common point, the Bible,
to make God (and, indeed, all of reality) knowable.

Accommodation through Objects
Tabernacle:
Animal sacrifice

Accommodation through Nature:
Parables: Matt 13:25-30

We must be careful, not to push accommodating language about God and His
nature to literal extremes.

God does not have feathers and wings (e.g., Psalms 17:8); nor is He our literal
Father in the same sense our earthly father is.
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The One Interpretation Principle
Every verse in the Bible has only one interpretation

A verse may have many applications.

The one correct interpretation is that which mirrors
the intent of the inspired author.

Simply put, this law states that ALL biblical passages
are to be taken exactly as they read unless there is
something in the text indicating and extended
meaning is present (address the law of double ref.)



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The Harmony of Scripture Principle
No part of the Bible may be interpreted so as to
contradict another part of the Bible.
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The Genre Principle
The Genre Principle

Genre is a literary term having to do with the category or
"genus" of literature under consideration.


Here are some books of the Bible and their respective
genres:

Psalms Poetry
Proverbs - Wise Sayings
Minor/Major Prophetic Books (IsaiahMalachi) History/Prophecy
The Gospels / Acts - Biography and History
The Epistles - Teaching and Doctrine
Revelation - Eschatology and Prophecy
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Figures of Speech in the Bible
Simile: A comparison using "like" or "as." Example: "As lightning that comes from the east is
visible even in the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man" (Matthew 24:27)
Metaphor: One thing described in terms of some other thing. "Do not be afraid, little flock, for
your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom" (Luke 12:32)
Anthropomorphism: God described in human terms. "The eyes of the Lord run to and fro
throughout the whole earth" (2 Chronicles 16:9)
Words of association: One word stands for something else. Examples: "Circumcision"
meaning the Jews (Galatians 2:9, King James Version); "sword" for all weapons (Romans 8:35)
Personification: Personal qualities assigned to an object. "The mountains skipped like rams"
(Psalm 114:4)
Euphemism: Substituting an inoffensive word for a possibly harsh or crude one. "Adam lay
with his wife Eve" (Genesis 4:1) means that they had sexual intercourse
Hyperbole: Exaggeration. "If your right eye causes you to sin, gouge it out" (Matthew 5:29).
Irony: The literal meaning is opposite the real meaning. "You have become kings...! How I
wish that you really had become kings so that we might be kings with you!" (1 Corinthians 4:8)

Apocalyptic Literature:

Uses symbols that communicates absolute truth (Rev 1:20 seven stars which you saw in
My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are the angels of the
seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

Scripture gives the definitions
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Interpretation of Prophecy
Meaning and significances of:
All proper names
Events
References to:
Geography
Customs
Culture
The following is a list of names that will form the united coalition as mentioned in Ezek 38:1-6.
They can be currently identified based on the historical geographical region each group occupied
Gog is described as being of the land of Magog and as the
prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal. Most Bible scholars
believe Gog is not a name but a title, like Pharaoh or Czar. He is
a dictator who will hatch an evil plan (Ezek 38:10).
Magog = Leading Bible scholars say this is Russia and republics
of the former Soviet Union. The first century Roman historian
Josephus said the Magogites were the peoples whom the
Greeks called Scythians. Scythians were a fierce, blood-thirsty
civilization that settled north of the Baltic Sea in what is now
Russia and the European republics of the former USSR.
Rosh = Russia*
Meshech = Some Bible scholars say this is Moscow, others
believe it refers to Turkey
Tubal = Some Bible scholars say this refers to the city/region of
Tobolsk in Russia along the Tobol River; others say it refers to a
section of modern-day Turkey. (Interestingly, in 1964, massive
reserves of oil and gas were discovered in the Tobolsk region of
Siberia and people now refer to the region as the energy center
of Russia.)*
Cush = Sudan and Ethiopia Put = Libya, and possibly Algeria and Tunisia
Gomer = Turkey, but also possibly Germany and Austria Beth-togarmah = Armenia and the Turkic-speaking peoples of
Central Asia
Many peoples with you who will attack along the mountains
of Israel = Other countries will be involved in the coalition as
well, notably countries that border the mountains of Israel. This
may include Lebanon, Syria and possibly Jordan.
Persia = This was the official name of Iran until 1935
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Interpretation of Prophecy Principles
1. Interpret Literally

A. The New Testament literal method of fulfillment establishes the
literal method as Gods method in regard to unfulfilled prophecy

Isa. 7:14Born of a virgin
Micah 5:2At Bethlehem
Jer. 31:15Slaughter of the children
Hosea 11:1Called out of Egypt
Isa. 11:2Anointed with the Spirit
Zech. 9:9Entry into Jerusalem
Psa. 41:9; 55:12-14Betrayed by a friend
Zech. 13:7Disciples forsake Him
Zech. 11:12Sold for thirty pieces of silver
Zech. 11:13Potter's field bought
Isa. 50:6Spit on and scourged
Exodus 12:46; Psa. 34:20Not a bone broken
Psa. 69:21Gall and vinegar
continue
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Interpretation of Prophecy Principles
2. Interpret according to the harmony of prophecy

A. This rule is laid down in 2 Pet 1:20-21, where the author affirms,
no prophecy is of private interpretation

20 But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of
ones own interpretation,
21 for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but
men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.
The prophecies did not originate with the prophets
themselves. The word epilyses (interpretation, lit.,
unloosing) and the word ginetai (came about). The
Scriptures did not stem merely from the prophets themselves;
their writings came from God. Verse 20, then, speaks not of
interpretation, but of revelation, the source of the Scriptures.
continue
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Interpretation of Prophecy Principles
1. Scripture should be interpreted only in context, that is, a
prophecy cannot stand alone without other prophecies to aid
in its understanding.

2. Observe the time relationships

3. Interpret prophecy Christologically

A. Rev 19:10
10 Then I fell at his feet to worship him. But he *said to me, Do not do
that; I am a fellow servant of yours and your brethren who hold the
testimony of Jesus; worship God. For the testimony of Jesus is the
spirit of prophecy.

B. 1 Pet 10-11
10 As to this salvation, the prophets who prophesied of the grace that
would come to you made careful searches and inquiries,
11 seeking to know what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them
was indicating as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the
glories to follow.
continue
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Interpreting Prophecy according to the law of
double reference
Some prophetic versus focus on the immediate historical context
of the prophet, yet there is a more complete fulfillment later.

May have a primary application to the millennial kingdom or the eternal
kingdom, but are fulfilled in part in the church age.

These prophecies speak of events that are separated by time as though
they were not separated.

(J. Dwight Pentecost) "Two events, widely separated as to the time of
their fulfillment, may be brought together into the scope of one prophecy.
This was done because the prophet had a message for his own day as
well as for a future time . . . It was the purpose of God to give the near
and far view so that the fulfillment of the one should be the assurance of
the fulfillment of the other." (J. Dwight Pentecost, Things To Come [Grand
Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1964], pp. 46,47.)

continue
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Examples of the Law of Double Reference 1
Verse Immediate Reference Later Reference
Psalm 22:1 David Matt 27:46 (Christ on the Cross)
Psalm 22:6-7 David Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 53:3; Luke 23:35
(Christ)
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Examples of the Law of Double Reference - Gap
The prophet predicts two dissimilar events, widely
separated by time, as though they were one event.

Isa. 61:1-9






Isaiah 11:1-5
Verse Fulfillment: Later Reference
Isa. 61:1-2a Christ 1
st

coming
Luke 4:18-21 (Christ in the synagogue on the Sabbath)
Isa. 61:2b-9 Christ 2
nd

coming
TBF
Isa. 11:2 Christ 1
st

coming
Matt 3:16, John 1:32
Isa. 11:3

Christ 1
st

coming
John 2:25; 7:24
Isa 11:4-5 Christ 2
nd

coming
2 Thess 2:8
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Law of Double Reference -
Unforeseen Partial

The prophet predicts aspects of God's kingdom at the
end of the age. (In the final kind of double reference, the
prophet's focus is exclusively on the later event.)

New Testament authors subsequently reveal that this
prediction has been granted in a partial way to the church.
(The prophets predictions will still be fulfilled at the end of
the age.)


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Law of Double Reference - Unforeseen Partial
Examples: Jer. 31:31-34 (compare Heb. 8:8-13;10:16-18);
(Jer. 31:31-34) "The time is
coming," declares the LORD, "when I
will make a new covenant with the
house of Israel and with the house of
Judah.
(32) It will not be like the covenant I
made with their forefathers when I
took them by the hand to lead them
out of Egypt, because they broke my
covenant, though I was a husband to
them, " declares the LORD.
(33) "This is the covenant I will make
with the house of Israel after that
time," declares the LORD. "I will put
my law in their minds and write it on
their hearts. I will be their God, and
they will be my people.
(34) No longer will a man teach his
neighbor, or a man his brother,
saying, 'Know the LORD,' because
they will all know me, from the least
of them to the greatest," declares the
LORD. "For I will forgive their
wickedness and will remember their
sins no more.

Jer. 31:31-
34
describes
the spiritual
blessings
that
Israelites
will enjoy
when God
inaugurates
his New
Covenant
with them
at the end
of the age.
(Heb. 10: 16-18)
The Holy Spirit also
testifies to us about this.
First he says: (16) "This
is the covenant I will
make with them after
that time, says the Lord.
I will put my laws in
their hearts, and I will
write them on their
minds." (17) Then he
adds: "Their sins and
lawless acts I will
remember no more."
(18) And where these
have been forgiven,
there is no longer any
sacrifice for sin.

The
author of
Hebrews
declares
that these
same
blessings
have been
given to
all who
believe in
Jesus
during
the
Church
Age.


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Law of Double Reference -Unforeseen Partial
Examples: Isa. 49:6 (compare Acts 13:47)
(Isa. 49:6)
He says, It is too small a
thing that You should be My
Servant
To raise up the tribes of
Jacob and to restore
the preserved ones of
Israel;
I will also make You
a light of the nations
So that My salvation
may reach to the end of the
earth.
God says that his Servant
will restore Israel to him
and be a light to the nations
so that his salvation may
reach to the ends of the
earth.
Isaiah evidently
understood this
to refer to the
rule of Messiah in
the millennial
kingdom.
Acts 13:47
47 For so the Lord
has commanded us,
I have placed You as
a light for the Gentiles,
That You may bring
salvation to the end of
the earth.

Paul quotes
this same
passage as a
description of
the church's
mission work
to the
Gentiles. This
phase of
Messiah's
redemptive
work with the
Gentiles
(through the
Body of
Christ) was
unforeseen by
Isaiah.

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Interpretation of Prophecy Language Principle
Give careful attention to:

Language of the prophetic passage:
Figurative Psalms 2:1-3
Poetic
Symbolic Dan 7:23 beast =a nation; Dan
8:20-21 horn=king)
continue
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Interpretation of Prophecy Historical
Background Principle
Determine the historical background
of the prophet and the prophecy
continue
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Interpretation of Prophecy Passage Parallel
Principle
Search the entire body of Scripture to see
what passage parallel each other:

Day of the Lord

The Shaking of the Nations

Re-gathering of Israel
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The Types and Antitypes Principles
Type - (Greek tupos) means the mark of a stroke or blow

Method of biblical interpretation where by an figure, emblem or symbol
found in the Old Testament is seen to prefigure one found in the New
Testament.

Romans 5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until
Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of
the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.

Antitype is the fulfillment of the type

Types and antitypes are never identical but only similar

Either type or antitype may be a person, thing, or event, but
often the type is messianic and frequently related to the idea of
salvation.

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Biblical Types and Antitypes in the Law of Moses
OT Type OT Reference NT Antitype NT Reference
The people of Israel Exod. 19:6 Believers 1 Peter 2:5
The Prophet like Moses Deut. 18:17-19 The Messiah John 5:46; 6:14; 7:40; Acts
3:22-26; 7:37
Animal sacrifices Lev.1-7, Num 6:14 The cross, Heb. 7:27; 10:1-4; 1 Peter 2:24
God's presence with His
people
Exod. 40:34-38; Num. 9:15-23 The incarnation of Jesus Matt. 1:23; John 1:14; Acts
2:2-4; 1Cor. 3:10-17; 6:19
Bread of the presence
(made from manna)
Exod. 25:23-30 Jesus the bread of life John 6:32-33, 35
Altar of incense Exod. 30:1-10 The prayers of the saints Rev. 5:8; 8:3
Washing basin / laver Exod. 30:17-21; 38:8 Washing from sin in baptism /
satisfying spiritual thirst / the Holy
Spirit
Acts 2:38 / John 4:13-14 /
John 7:37-39;
Acts 1:5; 10:47
The grain offering Lev. 2 Jesus offered us His flesh to eat John 6:54-58
The high priesthood Lev. 8 A mediator between God and men 1 Tim. 2:5; Heb. 7:26-28
The Passover lamb Exod. 12:1-28, 43-49 Jesus Christ Acts 8:32: 1 Cor. 5:7;
1 Peter 1:15-19; 2:21-23.
Feast of first fruits Lev. 23:11; Deut. 16:9-12 Christ's resurrection 1 Cor. 15:20, 23
The day of atonement Lev. 16 The cross Rom. 3:25; Heb. 9:7-8, Heb
9:23-28; Heb 9:13:11-13
The bronze serpent Num. 21:5-9 The cross John 3:14-16
The smitten Rock Exod. 17:5-7 Christ 1 Cor. 10:4
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References used for this Presentation
Protestant Biblical Interpretation by Bernard Ramm (1970)
Baker Book House

Basic Bible Interpretation by Dr. Roy Zuck (1991) Chariot Victor
Publishing

Wilson Dictionary of Bible Types by Walter Lewis Wilson(1957
Eerdmans Publishing

Tense Voice Mood : Pierce, Larry

Wuests Word Studies in the Greek New Testament

Strong, James: The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible

Walvoord, John F. ; Zuck, Roy B. ; Dallas Theological Seminary:
The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the
Scriptures
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References used for this Presentation
Robertson, A.T.: Word Pictures in the New Testament

Logos Bible Software Scholar Version

Louw, Johannes P. ; Nida, Eugene Albert: Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament : Based
on Semantic Domains.

The New Manners and Customs of the Bible by Freeman, James M. ; Chadwick, Harold J.:
Manners & Customs of the Bible

GREEK VERBS
QUICK REFERENCE http://www.preceptaustin.org/new_page_40.htm

Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., & Dallas Theological Seminary. (1983-c1985). The Bible
knowledge commentary : An exposition of the scriptures (2:869). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

By J Dwight Pentecost; THINGS TO COME; A study in Biblical Eschatology

DICTIONARY OF DEITIES AND DEMONS IN THE BIBLE
Edited by Karel van der Toorn ,Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst
Toorn, K. v. d., Becking, B., & Horst, P. W. v. d. (1999). Dictionary of deities and demons in the
Bible DDD (2nd extensively rev. ed.). Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Brill; Eerdmans
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References used for this Presentation
(J. Dwight Pentecost, Things To Come [Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing
House, 1964

http://www.whitehorseinn.org

Why are there so many different Christian interpretations? Got Questions
Ministries provided the base

The Principles of Biblical Interpretation
http://74.125.45.132/search?q=cache:Sa6xDfQNzd8J:www.englewoodbaptist.co
m/docs/Lesson%252012.pdf+biblical+example+of+Contextual+Principle&hl=en
&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us

Jamieson, Robert ; Fausset, A. R. ; Fausset, A. R. ; Brown, David ; Brown,
David: A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments

http://www.crosstv.com/

Louw, Johannes P. ; Nida, Eugene Albert: Greek-English Lexicon of the
New Testament

Evans, William ; Coder, S. Maxwell: The Great Doctrines of the Bible. Enl. ed.
Chicago : Moody Press, 1998, c1974, S. 194

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Walking in
Unbelief
Religion
(POL)
Philosophies
(POL)
Ethics
POL
Morals
(LOF)
Education
(POL)
Entertainment
(LOF,LOE)
Psychology
(LOF,POL,LOE)
Hopes
Aims
(LOF,POL,LOE)
Aspirations
(POL)
Thoughts
(LOF,LOE,POL)


Impulses
You must understand that Satan is real and the spirit realm is controlling what we
perceive as truth and reality in the physical realm through the KOMOS.
Continue