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NEONATOLOGY

DR Sana
ACROCYNOSIS
Chest appears pink,
palms and soles are blue
Skin and mucosa spared
Transient self limiting
Differentiate from
central cyanosis
Seen in babies with cold
stress
BREAST ENGORGEMENT
Bilateral fullness with no
signs of redness, warmth
Milky discharge called
witchs milk
Resolves spontaneously
Stimulation of breast
tissue by maternal
hormones
CAPILLARY REFILL TIME
Blanching the skin by
gentle pressure over the
sternum
Normal recovers within 3
seconds
Integral part of newborn
assessment of perfusion
Over extremities
influenced by temperature
CAPUT SUCCEDANEUM
Diffuse, soft, puffy scalp
swelling
Crossing the suture line
Present at birth
No tests or treatment
required
Subsides spontaneously
FEEDING CUES
Mouthing-getting hands,
fingers to face and mouth
Lip smacking
Periods of alertness and
drooling
Cry is a late and last of
hunger signs in newborn
SKIN PEELING
Diffuse scaling and
peeling
Underlying skin is
normal and moist
Seen from second day of
life
Post term babies

SKIN TAGS
Prominent,
pedunculated skin lesions
1 to 2 cm
No inflammation,
painless
Hearing assessment
should be done if
craniofacial anomalies
present
VERNIX CASEOSA
Creamy white substance
Full term babies
Facilitates passage
through birth canal,
maintains body
temperature, antioxidant
CEPHALOHEMATOMA
Firm scalp swelling, clear
edges not crossing the
suture lines
Hardens gradually
May develop jaundice
Aspiration not
recommended
ORAL THRUSH
White, curdish plaques
over tongue
Bleed on scraping
Feeding difficulty
Treatment oral nystatin
PUSTULES
Periumbilical area
Adjacent erythema
Staphlococcus aureus
Topical antibiotic and
oral therapy
SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS
Greasy yellow plaques
on scalp
Pruritis infrequent like
atopic dermatitis
Gental scrubing,
applying Vaseline, topical
steroids may be used
UMBILICAL GRANULOMA
Well-circumscribed,
moist, pinkish
May produce drainage
to irritate skin
Responds to silver
nitrate if small
ACHONDROPLASIA
Short limb dwarfism, upper
to lower segment
ratio>1.7:1
Coarse facies, frontal
bossing, short hands
Recurrent otitis media,
respiratory problems
Prenatal ultrasound, DNA
tests

CONGENITAL GLAUCOMA
Bilateral enlargement of
globe(buphthalmos)
Elevated intraocular
pressure
Photophobia, excessive
tearing
Treatment
trabeculotomy
COLLODION BABY
Tight, shiny, hard
inelastic scale
Ectropion and eclabium
Risk of infection,
dehydration, fluid loss,
electrolyte imbalance
Nursed in high humidity,
application of petroleum
CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC
HERNIA
Intestinal loops in left
hemithorax
Absence of intestinal gas
Occurs with
polyhydroamnios
Infants should be
intubated at birth
NEC STAGE II
Cystic gas pattern within
the walls of small
intestine described as
pneumatosis intestinalis
METABOLIC SCREENING
Heel prick with sample
taken on filter paper
Congenital
hypothyroidism,
galactosemia, cystic
fibrosis,CAH, G6PD
deficiency
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