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RICE PREFERENCES OF FARMERS

AND RURAL CONSUMERS


MY 2014 WORLD FOOD PRIZE BORLAUG-RUAN INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE

Aparna S. Ajjarapu
Market Research Team, Social Sciences Division (SSD)
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baos, Philippines
WORLD FOOD PRIZE
BORLAUG-RUAN INTERNSHIP
Established by Nobel Peace Prize Winner,
Norman Borlaug and philanthropist, John Ruan

Aims to encourage young people to get
involved in issues relating to food insecurity and
improving global food systems

24 high school students selected across
America for an eight-week all expense paid
internship experience at research centers
across the globe

Selected from Ames, IA and stationed in the
Philippines at IRRI, SSD under the supervision of
Dr. Alice Laborte
1. Introduction
2. Project objective
3. Methods
-Rice preferences of rural consumers
-Rice preferences of farmers
4. Results
- Rice preferences of rural consumers
- Rice preferences of farmers
5. Further Research
6. Application
7. Cultural Experiences



OUTLINE
The population of the Philippines is estimated to be
at 100 million with the annual growth rate at 2%,
one of the highest in the world

Rice is a staple food in the Philippines; annual rice
consumption is 119 kg per person

IRRI is working to breed higher yielding rice varieties
to meet the demands of the increasing population

An assessment of preferred rice varieties and traits
of the different actors in the rice value chain is very
important
INTRODUCTION


Appraisal of the rice preferences of farmers
and rural consumers in Nueva Ecija
province, Philippines
PROJECT OBJECTIVE
STUDY AREA
Nueva Ecija Province

Top rice growing province in
the Philippines

Population: 2 million

Rice area: 315 thousand ha

Average rice yield: 5.3 t/ha
(National average: 3.9 t/ha)





METHODS:
RICE PREFERENCES OF
RURAL CONSUMERS
METHODS
1. Developed and tested the rice
preferences questionnaire.
-Socio-demographic
information
-Rice consumption
-Rice trait rating and ranking
task
Includes questions
regarding
2. Interviewed 15 consumers
from Guimba Market and 15
consumers from Muoz Market.
Criteria for selection of
respondents:
-not a farmer/does not own a
farm
3. The interview location was
identified with GPS device.
*Map by Mr. Neale Paguirigan
Location of market interview
5. Measured whiteness,
transparency and milling
degree of rice samples using a
milling/whiteness meter.
6. Data analysis.
4. Purchased rice
samples bought by
respondents. A total of 17
rice samples were
collected from 14 stores
from both markets.
Milling/whiteness meter
Interviewing rice consumers
*Guimba Market
Interviewing rice consumers
*Muoz market
Meeting National Food Authority staff
METHODS:
RICE PREFERENCES OF FARMERS
METHODS
1. Developed individual
farmer survey and focus group
discussion guide (FGD).
-Socio-demographic
information
-Rice seed preference
-Rice trait rating/ranking
task
Interview/
discussion topics
2. Six farmers (4 females and 2
males) were selected for the
FGD. The farmers were
individually interviewed and the
FGD was conducted afterwards.
Criteria for selecting farmers:
-Farming for past 5yrs or more
- Women actively involved in
farming/making decisions
- Farmers are not seed growers

3. Data analysis.
Location of FGD
*Map by Mr. Neale Paguirigan
Tampak Village
Interviewing farmers
Conducting focus group discussion
RESULTS:
RURAL CONSUMER
PREFERENCES
Table 1. Profile of respondents
Table 2. Rice purchase and consumption habits
Table 3. Rice purchases
Table 4. What characteristics do you like about current rice
you buy that should not be changed in the future?
Top three considerations of consumers when buying rice
1. Low price
2. Soft texture
3. High volume expansion
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
20 30 40 50
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

P
e
r
c
e
n
t

W
h
i
t
e
n
e
s
s

(
%
)

Price(pesos/kg)
Guimba Market
Muoz Market
(R = 0.56)
Graph 1.
Whiteness vs. Price
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
20 30 40 50
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

P
e
r
c
e
n
t

T
r
a
n
s
p
a
r
e
n
c
y

(
%
)

Price (pesos/kg)
Guimba Market
Muoz Market
Graph 2.
Transparency vs. Price
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
20 30 40 50
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

M
i
l
l
i
n
g

D
e
g
r
e
e

Price (pesos/kg)
Guimba Market
Muoz Market
(R = .57)
Graph 3.
Milling Degree vs. Price
Most important consideration for consumers when
buying rice is price

Softness of cooked grains is the most important rice
characteristic to consumers

Rice price is not correlated with whiteness, milling
degree and transparency for Guimba Market

Rice price is moderately correlated with milling degree
and whiteness for Muoz Market

Results from this study show a slight increase in whiteness
of purchased rice from 40% (Abansi et al, 1992 data
collected in 1987) to 46% (this study)
SUMMARY
RESULTS:
RICE PREFERENCES OF FARMERS
Table 1. Socio-demographic information
Table 2. Top three rice varieties preferred by farmers
*Characteristics of rice varieties as perceived by farmers
Table 3. Characteristics of preferred rice seed varieties
*Data from rice varietal release data base
Table 4. Characteristics of preferred rice varieties
Figure 1. Rating of stress tolerance and agronomic traits
0 1 2 3 4 5
High yielding
Heavy grains
Sturdy spikelets
Short duration
Disease resistant
Pest resistant
Flood resistant
Drought resistant
Resistant to lodging
Rating
A
g
r
o
n
m
i
c
/
S
t
r
e
s
s

T
o
l
e
r
a
n
c
e

T
r
a
i
t
s

Dry Season
Wet season
Figure 2.
Rating of grain quality traits
0 1 2 3 4 5
White and translucent
Grains don't easily break
Long and slender grains
Reasonably priced/cheap
High milling recovery
High demand/marketable
Aromatic/smell
Easy to cook
Expands when cooked
Soft
Rating
G
r
a
i
n

Q
u
a
l
i
t
y

T
r
a
i
t
s

Table 5. Top rice characteristics preferred by farmers
1. High yielding
2. High demand and marketable
3. High milling recovery
4. Heavy grains
5. Translucent and white
6. Drought resistant during dry season
Table 6.
SUMMARY
NSIC Rc 222 is preferred by farmers during
both the wet and dry seasons

Most important consideration of farmers in
selecting varieties is high yield

Preferred varieties have amylose content
between 20.5-24



The rice samples collected from this study
will be sent to the grain quality and nutrition
lab for analysis

The results will be matched with the rice
preferences of other actors in the rice value
chain
FURTHER WORK
The results from this project will be combined with
those of surveys on other rice value chain actors
conducted by the Market Research Team.

Combined analyses will be provided to rice
breeders at IRRI so that they can include priority
traits into new varieties of rice they are developing.
APPLICATION
Cebu City Trip
o Observed interviews for the rice
preferences of rice retailers and
wholesalers/suppliers.

Tour of Grain Quality Lab
Sorting impurities of rice
samples
Physical
characteristics(color, grain
length)
Measuring rice expansion
after cooking
Measuring amylose content


OTHER EXPERIENCES
Getting a tour of grain
quality lab
CULTURAL EXPERIENCES
CULTURAL EXPERIENCES
CULTURAL EXPERIENCES
CULTURAL EXPERIENCES
The International Rice Research Institute
The Social Science Division
Alice Laborte
Lina Diaz
Lydia Damian
Ludy Velasco
Neale Paguirigan
Claire Custudio
The World Food Prize
Lisa Fleming, Director of Global Youth Programs
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thank you.

Any Questions?