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ELECTRICITY

Benefits of electricity are Numerous


Mishandling can cause damages to properties,
human
Under estimation of protection equipment can
further aggravate the risk
In all cases earthing is one of the important factor
during design and operation
WHAT IS EARTHING?

Earthing
Earthing is a connection done
through a metal link between the
body of electrical appliance or
neutral,into the deeper ground.
Via
The metal link is normally MS
flat or GI wire which is
penetrated to ground.
Reference Earth: Part of earth which is considered as
conductive and which Electrical Potential is zero.
EARTHING
People often assume that any grounded object is
safe to touch
A low ground resistance, itself is not a guarantee to
safety
Step and touch potential have to be assessed in the
vicinity of substation also
A serious hazard may arise due to transfer of
potential from station grid and outside locations
Transfer of potential may be due to communication
wire, conduits, pipes etc.
The danger is usually from contact i.e. touch
OBJECTIVE
To provide personal safety and vital equipment
protection
Improving system performance
To increase equipment life- protection
against surges and lightening
To minimize interruption of service and
costly downtime.
CONNECTION WITH EARTH-
In the case of star-connected system with earthed
neutrals or delta connected system with earthed
artificial neutral point: -
The neutral point of every generator and transformer
shall be earthed by connecting it to the earthing system as
defined in rule 61(4) by not less than two separate and
distinct connections.
The neutral point of a generator may be connected to
the earthing system through an impedance to limit the
fault current to the earth.
EARTHING TO BE DONE:-
Neutral of Transformer
Lightning Arrester
Body of all equipments
Cable sheathe Earthing
Structures in substations, Pole Earthing
Control Panel Earthing, Battery mid-point
Fencing of Substation

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Guiding standards IEEE 80, IS 3043,
CBIPPublication No.223 & 302
Estimation of fault current flowing between the grid
and earth (SLG or LLG fault)
Basic Objectives:
Adequacy of Ground conductor for fault current
(considering corrosion)
Step potential within tolerable
Touch (Mesh) Potential limit
Minimum Ground Resistance

o Area covered by substation
o Resistivity of soil at site and depth of
surface layer
Type of earth (Like corrosive)
Maximum earth fault current
Maximum fault current
Fault clearing time
Maximum Touch and Step potential

TOUCH POTENTIAL
Touch potential is a potential difference between
the fingers of raised hand touching the faulted
structure and the feet of the person standing on the
substation floor. The person should not get a shock
even if the grounded structure is carrying fault
current, i.e, The Touch Potential should be very
small.

As per I E rules one has to keep touch potential less
than 523 volts


STEP POTENTIAL
Step potential is the potential difference between
the feet of a person standing on the floor of the
substation, with 0.5 m spacing between the feet
(one step), through the flow of earth fault current
through the grounding system.

Touch Potential And Step Potential


COMPONENTS OF EARTHING SYSTEM

Conductor material, size
Copper, MS, GI (minm. Cross section
100 sq mm, 200 sq mm (corrosive)
Earthmat, Grid spacing- 3 to 8 mtr
Risers for equipment
Earth Electrodes (high conductivity with
low underground corrosion)- 3 to 5 mtr
Adequacy for 30-50 years of service
ROD ELECTRODE
Earth Electrodes
PIPE ELECTRODE



























CALCULATION OF RESISTANCE OF ROD / PIPE
ELECTRODE

ohms in resistance R
cm in rod of dia d
cm in rod of length L
ohmmeter in soil of y resistivit where
ohms
4
log

d
L
e
L 2
100
R


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R= [(/A)]/4
Where
R = Resistance in ohms
= resistivity of soil in ohm-metre
A = Area on both sides of plate in m2.

CALCULATION OF RESISTANCE OF PLATE
ELECTRODE
MEASUREMENT OF EARTH RESISTANCE
The measurement of earth resistance is done using three
terminal or four terminal methods

Four Terminal: Four spikes are driven in straight line into the
ground at equal intervals. The two outer spikes are
connected to current terminals of earth meggar and the two
inner spikes to potential terminals of the meggar. Then the
earth resistance is measured by rotating the meggar till a
steady value is obtained.

Three Terminal: Two temporary electrodes are spikes are
driven in straight line one for current and the other voltage at
a distance of 30 mtr and 15 mtr from the earth electrode
under test
Measurement of Earth Resistivity
Three Terminal Method
a) Power stations - 0.5 ohms
b) EHT Stations - 1.0 ohms
c) 33KV SS - 2 ohms
d) DTR Structures - 5 ohms
e) Tower foot resistance - 10 ohms

Permissible values of earth resistance
Earthing Audit
Measure of Earth Resistance
every year
10-15% of earth mat is to be
inspected after 15 years of
service