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# INTRODUCTION TO SOLAR ELECTRICITY

Describe the solar energy.
List and explain the benefits of solar
electricity.
Explain solar cells, modules and array.
Understand the electrical specification of
solar module.
Understand and able to use the I-V curve.
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General Definition: The energy from the sun
that reaches the earth.

Solar heating Solar electricity
generation of electricity
from the sunlight with the
use of solar cells
heating effect of sunlight to
meet the human needs such as
for drying wet clothes and crops
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Clean energy - no carbon dioxide or other
harmful gases are released
Flexible can be designed to the size of
application needed, can also be installed in
rural areas
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Device that converts sunlight to DC electricity

The configurations of a number of solar cells
wired in series and parallel to produce a
certain amount of voltage and current are
called solar modules.

A number of solar modules wired together in
series or in parallel or in both series and
parallel to produce a larger desired amount of
voltage and current are called solar arrays
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All solar modules are rated according to the
peak power of the solar modules.
The peak power = expected value of power
delivered by the solar module under the
Standard Test Condition (STC).
STC is the international standard of reference
ratings and conditions for solar module.
Under STC, solar module is rated 1000 W/m
of solar radiation and 25 C of cell
temperature
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Solar radiation is the amount of sunshine that
reaches the earth.
it is referred to by many names such as solar
Measured in units of watts per square meter
(W/m2) or kilowatts per meter square
(kW/m2)
The data of solar radiation can be obtained
from the local meteorological department.
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I-V curve is a performance curve that shows
the output characteristics of a solar module.
shows three important points which are the
maximum power point, open circuit voltage
and short circuit current

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The y-axis of the I-V curve in Figure 2.9
represents the current (I) produces by the
solar module depending on voltage.
The x-axis represents voltage (V) produces
by the solar module at different values of
currents.
The power produced by the solar module can
be determined by multiplying the current by
the voltage (P=IV)
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Figure below shows the I-V curve for a solar
module rated at peak power of 42 watts at STC. If
this module is charging a battery at 12 volts as
shown at Point A, determine the value of the
current from the module and then calculate the
output power from the module.
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Current from the module = 3.2 A

Power from the module :-

P=IV
=(3.2)(12)
=38.4W
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Find one datasheet of any solar module. Then
use the I-V curve in that datasheet to :

1. Determine the value of the current from the
module and
2. Calculate the output power from the
module.(Assume this module is charging a
battery at 12 volts and 6 volts.)
3. State the value of the short circuit current
and open circuit voltage of the module.
*This assignment is worth 5% of the total carry mark.
*Please submit on or before 14
th
January 2014.
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