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Presentation on DBMS & RDBMS

Submitted by :-
Bhalodia Sanket
Jethwa Gautam
Mavani Hardik

Submitted to :- Dr. Jaydip chaudhary

Contents :
What is Data?
What is Database?
Database Management System
Relational Database Management
System (RDBMS)
What is Data?
Data are values of qualitative or quantitative vari
ables, belonging to a set of items.

Data in computing are represented in a structure,
often tabular , a tree or a graph structure. Data are
typically the results of measurements and can
be visualised using graphs or images.

Data Measurement Chart
Data Measurement Size
Bit Single Binary Digit (1 or 0)
Byte 8 bits
Kilobyte (KB) 1,024 Bytes
Megabyte (MB) 1,024 Kilobytes
Gigabyte (GB) 1,024 Megabytes
Terabyte (TB) 1,024 Gigabytes
Petabyte (PB) 1,024 Terabytes
Exabyte (EB) 1,024 Petabytes
What is Database?
Databases are designed to offer an
organized mechanism for storing,
managing and retrieving information.
They do so through the use of tables.

Database Management System (DBMS)
What is DBMS?
Types of database organisation
Component of DBMS
DBMS architecture
Database model
Functions of DBMS
The Advantages of a DBMS
The Disadvantages of a DBMS
Application of DBMS
A Database management system provides three views
of database of data
Database Languages
The Examples of DBMS
Products of DBMS

What is Database Management
System (DBMS) ?
A database management system (DBMS) is a
software package designed to define, manipulate,
retrieve and manage data in a database.

A database is the back-end of an application. A
DBMS receives instruction from a DBA and
accordingly instructs the system to make the
necessary changes. Any change in storage
mechanism and formats are performed without
modifying the entire application.
Types of database
Relational Database
Data is organized as logically independent tables.
Relationships among tables are shown through shared data.
Flat Database
Data is organized in a single kind of record with a fixed
number of fields.
Object Oriented Database
Data is organized with similarity to object oriented
programming concepts. An object consists of data and
Hierarchical Database
Data is organized with hierarchical relationships.
Component of DBMS
Component of DBMS (Cont.)
The hardware is the physical computer system that allows
access to data.
The software is the actual program that allows users to
access, maintain and update data. In addition, the software
controls which user can access which parts of the data in
the database.
The data in a database is stored physically on the storage
devices. In a database, data is a separate entity from the
software that accesses it.
In a DBMS, the term users have a broad meaning. We can
divide users into two categories: end users and application
The last component of a DBMS is a set of procedures or
rules that should be clearly defined and followed by the
users of the database.


Database architecture is logically divided into two

a) Logical two-tier Client / Server architecture

b) Logical three-tier Client / Server architecture

a) Logical two-tier Client / Server architecture
Two-tier Client / Server architecture is used for User Interface
program and Application Programs that runs on client side.
b) Three-tier Client / Server Architecture
Three-tier Client / Server database architecture is
commonly used architecture for web applications.
Database Model

A Database model defines the logical design of data. The model
describes the relationships between different parts of the data.
In history of database design, three models have been in use.

a) Hierarchical Model

b) Network Model

c) Relational Model
a) Hierarchical Model
In this model each entity has only one parent but can have
several children . At the top of hierarchy there is only one entity
which is called Root.
b) Network Model

In the network model, entities are organised in a graph, in which
some entities can be accessed through several path .

c) Relational Model

In this model, data is organised in two-dimensional tables called
relations. The tables or relation are related to each other.
Function of DBMS
Data dictionary management.
Data storage management.
Data transformation and presentation.
Security management.
Multiuser access control.
Backup and recovery management.
Data integrity management.
Database access languages and application
programming interfaces.
Database communication interfaces.
Advantages of a DBMS
Improved availability
Minimized redundancy
Program and file consistency
Improved security

Disadvantages of a DBMS

Application of DBMS
Airlines and railways
Credit card transactions
Health care information systems and electronic patient record
Digital libraries and digital publishing
Human resources

A database management system
provides three views of the database data
Database Languages
Data Description Language (DDL)

Data Manipulation Language (DML)

The basic functions performed by DDL are: -

Create tables, files, databases and data dictionaries.
Integrity constraints on various tables.
Security and authorization information of each table.
Specify the structure of each table.
Overall design of the Database.
Data Description Language (DDL):
A language that enables users to access or manipulate
data (retrieve, insert, update, delete) as organized by a certain
Data Model is called the Data Manipulation Language
(DML). It can be of two types: -

1. Procedural DML - It describes what data is needed and
how to get it.

2. Non Procedural DML - It describes what data is needed
without specifying how to get it.
Data Manipulation Language
Examples of DBMS
Computerized library systems
Automated teller machines
Flight reservation systems
Computerized parts inventory systems

Product of DBMS
MS Access
Oracle (8,8i,9i,11i,10g)
Microsoft SQL Server
Postgre SQL

Relational Database Management
System (RDBMS)
Meaning of RDBMS
RDBMS Design
RDBMS Vendors
Dr.E.F.codds Rules for RDBMS
Advantages of RDBMS over DBMS

Meaning of RDBMS

A relational database consists of a collection of tables that
store particular sets of data.

The concept of a relational database derives from the
principles of relational algebra, realized as a whole by the
father of relational databases, E. F. Codd.

The invention of this database system has standardized the
way that data is stored and processed.

A relational DBMS is special system software that is used to
manage the organization, storage, access, security and
integrity of data. This specialized software allows application
systems to focus on the user interface, data validation and
screen navigation. When there is a need to add, modify,
delete or display data, the application system simply makes a
"call" to the RDBMS.

TYPES includes,
Hierarchical databases
Network databases

RDBMS Design
A relational DBMS stores information in a set of "tables", each
of which has a unique identifier or "primary key". The tables
are then related to one another using "foreign keys". A foreign
key is simply the primary key in a different table.
RDBMS Vendors
Computer Associates INGRES
Oracle Corporation Oracle
Microsoft Corporation MS Access
Microsoft Corporation SQL Server
PostgreSQL Dvlp Grp PostgreSQL
Sybase Sybase 11
There are many different vendors that currently produce relational
database management systems (RDBMS).
In DBMS, there is no
relationship concept
It is used to establish the relationship concept
between two database objects, i.e., tables
It cant implement constraints
in table and no security of data.
It implements constraints in table and no
security of data.
It supports Single User only It supports multiple users
It treats Data as Files internally It treats data as Tables internally
It supports 3 rules of
E.F.CODD out off 12 rules
It supports minimum 6 rules of E.F.CODD
It requires low Software and
Hardware Requirements.
It requires High software and hardware
Examples: FoxPro examples:Oracle,mysql,DB2.
Dr. E. F. Codd's Rules for
Rule 0: The Foundation rule
Rule 1: The information rule
Rule 2: The guaranteed access rule
Rule 3: Systematic treatment of null values
Rule 4: Active online catalog based on the relational model
Rule 5: The comprehensive data sublanguage rule
Rule 6: The view updating rule
Rule 7: High-level insert, update, and delete
Rule 8: Physical data independence
Rule 9: Logical data independence
Rule 10: Integrity independence
Rule 11: Distribution independence:
Rule 12: The no subversion rule

Advantages of RDBMS over DBMS
Improved Reliability
Reduced Network traffic
Improved Security
Improved Performance
Data Sharing