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Chapter 7 Solutions and Colloids


7.2
Solubility


Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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Solubility is

the maximum amount of solute that dissolves in a
specific amount of solvent.
expressed as grams of solute in 100 grams of solvent
water.
g of solute
100 g water


Solubility
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Unsaturated Solutions
Unsaturated solutions

contain less than the
maximum amount of
solute.

can dissolve more solute.



Dissolved
solute
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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Saturated Solutions
Saturated solutions

contain the maximum
amount of solute that
can dissolve.

have undissolved solute
at the bottom of the
container.

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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Supersaturated Solutions
Supersaturated solutions

An unstable solution that
contains an amount of
solute greater than the
solute solubility.

Also has undissolved
solute at the bottom of
the container.

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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At 40C, the solubility of KBr is 80 g/100 g H
2
O.
Identify the following solutions as either
1) saturated or (2) unsaturated. Explain.

A. 60 g KBr added to 100 g of water at 40C.

B. 200 g KBr added to 200 g of water at 40C.

C. 25 g KBr added to 50 g of water at 40C.
Learning Check
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A. 2 Amount of 60 g KBr/100 g water is less than the
solubility of 80 g KBr/100 g water.

B. 1 In 100 g of water, 100 g KBr exceeds the
solubility of 80 g KBr water at 40C.

C. 2 This is the same as 50 g KBr in 100 g of water,
which is less than the solubility of 80 g KBr/100
g water at 40C.
Solution
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Effect of Temperature on Solubility
Solubility
Depends on
temperature.
Of most solids
increases as
temperature
increases.
Of gases decreases
as temperature
increases.
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A. Why could a bottle of carbonated drink possibly
burst (explode) when it is left out in the hot sun ?

B. Why do fish die in water that is too warm?

Learning Check
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A. The pressure in a bottle increases as the gas
leaves solution as it becomes less soluble at high
temperatures. As pressure increases, the bottle
could burst.

B. Because O
2
gas is less soluble in warm water, fish
cannot obtain the amount of O
2
required for their
survival.
Solution
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Solubility and Pressure
Henrys Law states
the solubility of a gas
in a liquid is directly
related to the
pressure of that gas
above the liquid.
at higher pressures,
more gas molecules
dissolve in the liquid.