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Modul-1
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CONTENTS
Modul-1 Introduction & Background
Modul-2 LTE Physical layer
Modul-3 LTE Network & Protocol
Architecture
Modul-4 Practical Deployment Aspects
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CONTENTS
Modul-1
Cellular wireless system evolution
Service evolution & user expectations
Global mobile broadband growth
Comparison b/w LTE and other technologies
What is LTE ?
Requirements of LTE
Key features of LTE
LTE Spectrums
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Where is the mobile industry going ?
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International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT)-2000 introduced global
standard for 3G.
Systems beyond IMT-2000 (IMT-Advanced) is set to introduce
evolutionary path beyond 3G.
Mobile class targets 100 Mbps with high mobility and nomadic/local area class
targets 1 Gbps with low mobility.
3GPP and 3GPP2 are currently developing evolutionary/revolutionary
systems beyond 3G.
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
3GPP2 Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB)
IEEE 802.16 based WiMAX is also evolving towards 4G through
802.16m
Beyond 3G
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Release 99/Rel-4 (Mar.2002) : UMTS/WCDMA
Rel-5 (Mar.2002) : HSDPA
Rel-6 (Mar.2005) : HSUPA
Rel-7 (2007) : DL MIMO, IMS, optimized real-time services (VoIP,
gaming, push-to-talk)
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
3GPP work on the Evolution of the 3G Mobile System started in
Nov2004.
Standardized in the form of Rel-8.
Spec finalized and approved in January 2008.
Target deployment in 2010.
LTE-Advanced study phase in progress.
3GPP Evolution
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Standardization Timeline for 3GPP LTE
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3GPP Roadmap
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CDMA2000-1X (1999)
CDMA2000-1X EV-DO (2000)
EV-DO Rev. A (2004) : VoIP
EV-DO Rev. B (2006) : Multi-carrier
Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB), f.k.a. EV-DO Rev. C :
Based on EV-DO, IEEE 802.20 and FLASH-OFDM
Spec finalized in April 2007.
Commercially available in early 2009.
3GPP2 Evolution
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3G CDMA Evolution
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LTE is A Parallel Evolution Path to 3G
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IEEE 802.16 Evolution
802.16e-2005
(End 2005)
OFDM+OFDMA
802.16
(2001)
802.16a
(2003)
802.16-2004
(June 2004)
OFDM
802.16e
OFDMA
Fixed Wireless Broadband
Air Interface : 10 66 GHz
802.16 Amendment
Fixed Wireless Broadband
MAC & PHY : 2 11 GHz
NLOS based upon OFDM
802.16 Revision PAR for 802.16,
802.16a
Fixed Wireless Broadband System
Profiles, Errata for 2 11 GHz
(Formerly 802.16 REVd)
Changes to 802.16e ratified that
allowed for a unified profile
completed and mobility support
802.16 Amendment for Combined
Fixed and Mobile wireless
broadband at vehicular speeds in
Licensed bands from 2 6 GHz
Waiting for corrigendum
WiMAX Forum Interoperability
Profiles
WiMAX Certification
Korea
developing a
parallel effort
WiBro
July 04
Korea Govt
Decision Convergence
WiBro w 802.16e
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Service Evolution & User Expectations
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User Expectations
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Mobile Operator Expectations
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Global Mobile Broadband Subscription Forecast 2013
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Mobile Broadband Subscriber Forecast, Sources : GSM Association, Analysis Mason
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Need for Network Evolution
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Future Services Empowered by LTE
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Experience Comparison
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Comparison b/w HSPA+ and LTE System Architecture
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Peak Rates for Downlink & Uplink Over Time
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Latency of Different Technologies
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LTE vs UMB vs Mobile WiMAX - Summary
3GPP LTE 3GPP2 UMB Mobile WiMAX
Channel Bandwidth 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 MHz 5, 7, 8.75 and 10 MHz
DL multiple access OFDMA OFDMA OFDMA
UL multiple access SC-FDMA OFDMA and CDMA OFDMA
Duplexing FDD and TDD FDD and TDD TDD
Subcarrier mapping Localized Localized and distributed Localized and distributed
Subcarrier hoping Yes Yes Yes
Data modulation QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM
QPSK, 8PSK, 16QAM, and
64QAM
QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM
Subcarrier spacing 15 KHz 9.6 KHz 10.94 KHz
FFT size (5 MHz) 512 512 512
Channel coding
Convolutional coding and turbo
coding
Convolutional coding, turbo
coding and LDPC coding
Convolutional coding and
convolutional turbo coding.
Block turbo coding and LDPC
coding optional
MIMO
Multi-layer precoded spatial
multiplexing space-time/
frequency block coding,
switched transmit diversity and
cyclic delay diversity

Multi-layer precoded spatial
multiplexing, space-time transmit
diversity, spatial division multiple
access and beamforming.

Beamforming, Space-time
coding and spatial
multiplexing.
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What is LTE ?
The next step in the evolution of 3GPP
radio interfaces to deliver
Global Mobile Broadband
A plan first conceived in 2004
Standardization based on clearly
defined performance targets
Standardization based on clearly
defined economic targets
Standardization based on improved
use of radio spectrum
Standardization based on simplified
system design
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LTE General
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Requirements of LTE (1/4)
Downlink
Uplink
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Requirements of LTE (2/4)
Latency
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Requirements of LTE (3/4)
Bandwidth
Scalable bandwidth of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz shall be supported.
Interworking
Interworking with existing UTRAN/GERAN systems and non-3GPP system
shall be ensured.
Interruption time for handover between E-UTRAN and UTRAN/GERAN shall
be less than 300 ms for RT services, and less than 500 ms for NRT services.
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS)
MBMS shall be further enhanced and is then reffered to as E-MBMS.
Cost
Reduced CAPEX and OPEX including backhaul shall be achieved.
Cost effective migration from release 6 UTRA radio interface and architecture
shall be possible
All the interfaces specified shall be open for multi-vendor equipment
interoperability.
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Requirements of LTE (4/4)
Mobility
Optimized for low mobile speed (0 ~ 15 km/h)
Higher mobile speeds shall be supported (incl. high speed train)
Spectrum allocation
Operation in paired FDD dan unpaired spectrum TDD is possible.
Co-existence
Co-existence in the same geographical area and co-location with
GERAN/UTRAN shall be ensured.
Quality of Service
End-to-end QoS shall be supported.
Network synchronization
Time synchronization of different network sites shall not be mandated.
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LTE Enabling Technologies
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
Frequency domain equalization
SC-FDMA (Single Carrier FDMA)
MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output)
Multicarrier channel-dependent resource
scheduling
Fractional frequency reuse
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Key Features of LTE
Multiple access scheme
DL : OFDMA with CP (Cyclic Prefix)
UL : Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) with CP
Adaptive modulation and coding
DL/UL modulations : QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM
Convolutional code and Rel-6 turbo code
Advanced MIMO spatial multiplexing techniques
(2 or 4) x (2 or 4) downlink and uplink supported
Multi-user MIMO also supported
Support for both FDD and TDD
H-ARQ, mobility support, rate control, security and etc.
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LTE Standard Specifications
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Spectrum Flexibility
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Current 3GPP bands early LTE
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LTE Global Spectrum Considerations
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Global LTE Commitments