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Failure of Civil Structures

-a case study of beam failure

By, Michael Joseph (120040097) Hardik Gupta (120040117) Division-2 ( 3 rd year Civil Engineering)

The Problem

Burnaby Supermarket

Construction Failure

Tackling the situation

Impacts of Improvement

 

A

beam

is

a structural element which is primarily

capable of withstanding

load

by

resisting

bending.

The

beam/girder

gives

horizontal

support

to

the

structure.

But

there

are

situations

where

the

assumptions,

of

its

load

bearing

capacity,

go

wrong

which

results in the failure of the structure.

Figure: A bridge girder failure
Figure: A bridge girder failure

A beam failure rattles the support of the slab it holds which may result in the collapse of the whole roof to the floor since the vertical loads will no longer be transferred through the beams to the columns.

The Problem

Burnaby Supermarket

Construction Failure

Tackling the situation

Impacts of Improvement

Figure: Failure possibilities in a

beam

The Problem Burnaby Supermarket Construction Failure Tackling the situation Impacts of Improvement Figure: Failure possibilities in

As can be seen from the figure, the beam has many critical points for its failure which can happen due to excessive compression, tension or shear force.

The Problem Burnaby Supermarket Construction Failure Tackling the situation Impacts of Improvement Figure: Failure possibilities in

Figure: Beam

cross-section

The Problem Burnaby Supermarket Construction Failure Tackling the situation Impacts of Improvement Figure: Failure possibilities in

Figure: Shear failure near the ends

The Problem Burnaby Supermarket Construction Failure Tackling the situation Impacts of Improvement Figure: Failure possibilities in

Figure: Tension/Compression failure

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The Problem

Burnaby Supermarket

Construction Failure

Tackling the situation

 

On

April

23,

1988 the

rooftop parking deck of a supermarket

collapsed

at

Station

Square

in

Burnaby,

British

Columbia,

Canada.

Five minutes after

the

opening

ceremony,

four

bays

of

the

roof

structure

came

plummeting

to

the

ground.

The

collapse was

Impacts of Improvement

The Problem Burnaby Supermarket Construction Failure Tackling the situation On April 23, 1988 the rooftop parking

Figure: Parking roof collapse due to beam failure

attributed to a failure in the beam and beam-column assembly. At such a location, the beam
attributed to a failure in the beam and
beam-column assembly. At such a
location, the beam experiences
negative bending. There were a
number of technical and procedural
errors or that led to the collapse of the
roof structure. The Commissioner's
report states that the principle causes
of failure were an undersized steel
Figure: Bending moment diagram for the beam
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beam and inadequate buckling

resistance of the beam compression

The Problem

Burnaby Supermarket

Construction Failure

Tackling the situation

Impacts of Improvement

In this case, the supporting cold-formed steel beams

collapsed during the construction. The

collapse occurred while concrete was being placed onto steel decking on the second floor of the structure. The steel beams, without shoring, supported the

steel decking. Documents of American Iron and Steel Institute indicated that the beams were overstressed for construction loads. After the collapse,

part of the structure was rebuilt using

thicker beams. For the reconstruction, the slab was shored. Such engineering

designs should take care to obtain the proper codes and design documents.

The Problem Burnaby Supermarket Construction Failure Tackling the situation Impacts of Improvement In this case, the

Figure: Beam failure

The Problem Burnaby Supermarket Construction Failure Tackling the situation Impacts of Improvement In this case, the

Figure: Bending moment diagram for the beam

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The Problem

Burnaby Supermarket

Construction Failure

Tackling the situation

Impacts of Improvement

The current code of practice for beam construction has been specified in BS 5950 called "Structural Use of Steelwork in Building". This

code gives specific guidance on the strength and stiffness of steel structures

for buildings to allow numerical calculations to be made. Beam capacity is checked by comparing the ultimate strength with factored loadings. It checks the strength of a structure by ensuring ultimate strength is not less than working load x load factor.

Cross sections, employed for beams, are usually open

sections in which material is distributed in the flanges, i.e. away from their centroids, to improve their resistance to in-plane bending stresses. Open sections are also convenient to connect beams to adjacent members. In the ideal case, where the beams are restrained laterally, their bending strength about the major axis forms the principal design consideration. Though they

possess high major axis bending strength, they are relatively weak in their minor axis bending and twisting. Surfaced plates have been developed for use in steel- concrete-steel double-skin beam elements, which help in providing higher resistance to a structure. Apart from these design considerations one can

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always have a thicker beam with higher area in order to increase its strength.

The Problem

Burnaby Supermarket

Construction Failure

Tackling the situation

Impacts of Improvement

“Beam is one of the most important part of any civil structure. An increase in the strength of the beam, only helps the

structure in sustaining a

higher amount of load, thus providing with a higher safety index for the

design.

The Problem Burnaby Supermarket Construction Failure Tackling the situation Impacts of Improvement “Beam is one of