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Economy and Work


A Philippine Population Report
showed that despite the fact that
abortion is illegal in the country
and condemned by the Catholic
church, one in six pregnancies
ends in abortion. The report adds
that the prevalence of abortion in
the Philippines is higher than
other Asian countries like Japan,
Bangladesh and India
To console us is the fact that our
abortion prevalence is lower than
that in Vietnam, China, Mongolia
and South Korea. The common
denominator in our situation is
pregnancy that is ill timed,
unplanned and unintended. This
calls for family solidarity, more
enlightened social science
education and a return to
traditional values.

Jess Sison, Malaya, 6 Oct 2002

Formal requisites of marriage

- minimum age is 18 but
parental consent is
necessary for those below
21 years
- authorit of the solemnizing
officer (judge or priest)
- a valid marriage license
(good for 120 days)

Formal requisites of marriage

- a marriage ceremony which
takes place with the
appearance of the
contracting parties before
the solemnizing officer

Formal requisites of marriage

- mutual declaration that they
take each other as husband
and wife in the presence of
not less than two witnesses
of legal age.

How does the law define

- A special contract of
permanent union between a
man and a woman entered
into in accordance with the
law for the establishment
of conjugal and family life

Forms of Marriage

1. Monogamy - a man can
only take one spouse at a

2. Polygamy - plural

Three Forms of polygamy

1. Polygyny - the marriage of
one man to two or women
at the same time

2. Polyandry - the marriage of
a woman to two or more men
at the same time (Pacific
Islands, Central Africa)

According to Julius Caesar, it
was customary among the
ancient Britons for brothers, and
sometimes for fathers and sons,
to have their wives in common.

Three Forms of polygamy

3. Group marriage - a form of
polyamory in which more than two
persons form a family unit, with all the
members of the group marriage being
considered to be married to all the
other members of the group marriage,
and all members of the marriage
share parental responsibility for any
children arising from the marriage.

Selection of Marriage Partners

1. Endogamy - norms which
dictate that one should
marry within ones clan or
ethnic group (i.e. religious
group, locality , or social

2. Exogamy norms which
dictate that one must marry
outside ones clan or ethnic

Other norms regarding the
selection of marriage partners

1. Levirate - norm that
prescribes the widow to
marry the brother or
nearest kin of the
deceased husband

2. Sororate norm that
prescribes a widower to
marry the sister or nearest
kin of the deceased wife (Inuit
people of Northern Alaska)

Family Classifications

Based on internal
organization or membership

1. Nuclear - the primary or
elementary family which is
composed of a husband, wife
and children

2. Extended family
composed of two or more
nuclear families,
economically and socially
related to each other

Two Kinds of Nuclear
Families (according to

1. Family of Orientation (origin)
the family into which one
is born , reared or

2. Family of procreation the
family established through
marriage (husband, wife ,
sons, and daughters

Two Types of Family

1. Conjugal Family
spouses and offsprings are more
important than relatives

2. Consanguineal Family
relatives are more important
than relatives spouses and

Based on Descent

1. Patrilineal affiliates a
person with a group of
relatives through his or
her father

Based on Descent

2. Matrilineal affiliates a
person with a group of
relatives through his or her
mother; property is often
passed from mothers to
daughters and the custom of
matrilocal residence may be
practiced. (example: leadership
succession in some tribes in

Based on Descent

3. Bilateral affiliates a person
with a group of relatives related
both to his and her parents

Based on Residence

1. Patrilocal requires that a
newly married couple to live
with or near the domicile of
the parents of the groom

2. Matrilocal requires that a
newly married couple to live
with or near the domicile of
the parents of the bride

Based on Residence

3. Bilocal gives the couple
a choice of staying with
either the grooms parents
or the brides

4. Neolocal allows the newly
married couple to re side
independently of the parents
of either groom or bride

Based on Residence

4. Avuncolocal - prescribes
that the newly married couple
reside with or near the
maternal uncle of the groom

Based on Authority

1. Patriarchal - one in which the
authority is vested on the
oldest male in the family, often
the father

2. Matriarchal - one in which the
authority is vested on the
mothers kin

Based on Authority

3. Egalitarian one in which the
husband and the wife exercise
more or less equal amount of

Coller claims that the
Philippine family patterns are
moving from sacred familism to
secular familism

Sacred familism
characterized by adherence to
traditional moral values , the
presence of an authoritarian
figure who is status
dominated, gemeinchaft
interaction and a
traditionalistic, simple
technology with a peasant type
of economy

Secular familism
characterized by members of
the family who still aim
success of the family as their
goal but whose definition of
success has changed into a
secular material sort
What is religion?

Etymologically, religion comes
from the Latin word religare
which means to bind together

According to Edward B. Tylor
(1968), religion came about as
people tried to comprehend
occurrences and conditions
which they could not understand
or explain
What is religion?

Durkheim (1969) - religion is a
unified system of beliefs and
practices relative to sacred

- sacred things ( tree, rock,
animals, book, cows, and
people) are separated
from the mundane aspects of
everyday life
What is religion?

Giddens: all religions involve a
set of symbols which arouses
feelings of reverence and awe,
and are linked to ceremonial

The nature of Religion

- a universal and pervasive

- an integrated part of the human

- interwoven with the social,
cultural, economic and political
What do you think is the main
function of religion? What can
it do for you?
Elements of Religion

1. Beliefs

What do Muslims and Christians
have in common?

How about the indigenous
religions of non-Christian ethnic
Elements of Religion

2. The Sacred and the Profane

Sacred supernatural and
sacred entities that evoke
reverence, awe, happiness, joy,
sorrow, fear or ecstasy

Profane irreverence for sacred
things as manifested in greed,
selfishness, and adultery

Can you give some examples?
Elements of Religion

3. Rituals and Ceremonies

Can you give some examples of
religious rituals and

Rituals are repetitive patterns of
behavior for the regulation of
and order in social life
Elements of Religion

4. Moral Community

- community of believers or
a church who share
common beliefs, rituals,
and subjective experiences
to heighten group
Split level Christianity

A term coined by Fr. Bulatao to
emphasize a situation where two
or more conflicting thought-and-
behavior-system co-exist within
the same person
The Occult: Magic and Faith

Occult comes from the Latin
word occultus which means
mysterious things and practices
derived from supernatural forces

Examples: astrology, magic,
witchcraft, numerology, crystal
ball gazing, spiritism, and
fortune telling
Researches on Filipino

In 1980, the UST Social Research
Center conducted a study on the
religiosity of the Filipino youth
(15-24). The study revealed the
following results:

1. There is a weak association
between religious attitude and
Researches on Filipino

2. More urban Catholic youth
respondents are moderate to
strong believers of doctrines
than the rural youth. There is
no marked difference in their
attitudes in morality.
Church, Ecclesia,
Denomination, Sect and Cult
Church - the dominant religion
of society with an elaborate
formal bureaucratic structure
with its hierarchy of church
officials and well-developed
dogmas and ritual
Church, Ecclesia,
Denomination, Sect and Cult
Ecclesia official religion;
integrated into the dominant
culture and claims the
members of society as its
Church, Ecclesia,
Denomination, Sect and Cult
Sect a group that has broken
away from the parent church ;
membership is limited and
drawn mostly from the lower
Church, Ecclesia,
Denomination, Sect and Cult
Cult similar to the sect but it is
usually a smaller sized group
that is loosely organized and
transient, drawn together by a
dominant charismatic leader
Church, Ecclesia,
Denomination, Sect and Cult
Denomination a conventional
and respectable organization
which has positive relations to
society and accepts the
legitimacy of other religions
(e.g. Iglesia ni Kristo,
Dont let schooling interfere with your

- Mark Twain
What is education?
- The social institution through
which society provides its
members with important
knowledge, including basic
facts, job skills, and cultural
norms and values
What do you think are the
functions of education?
Functions of Education
1. To transmit the cultural
2. To help individuals select
social roles and train them for
the roles they have chosen
3. To integrate into the cultural
mainstream the various sub-
culture and identities
4. To serve a source of social
and cultural innovation
Education: A Global
December 30, the Cuzco Region,
High in the Andes Mountains of
Peru, families send their
children to local schools. But
loca can mean 3 miles away or
more , and there are no buses,
so these children almost all from
poor families, walk at least an
hour each way. Schooling is
required by law, but in the rural
December 30, the Cuzco Region,
highlands, some parents prefer
to keep their children at home
where they can help with the
farming and livestock.
Education in the Philippines
DepEd statistics show that out of
100 children who enter Grade 1,
only 43 finish high school. Of this
number only 23 pursue college or
higher technical education while
the others are forced to look for jobs.
Of the 23 who manage to get tertiary
education, only 14 are able to
complete college.
Key Issues in Philippine
1. Quality of Education
2. Accessibility of education
3. Government budget for
4. Mismatch
The Economy

It is how the human and
natural resources are
developed and utilized in the
production, processing,
distribution, and consumption
of material goods and services
Components of Sociology of

1. Property the rights and
duties of one person as
against all other persons
and groups with respect to
some scarce goods

Private Property - relatively free
from direct state controls
Components of Sociology of

Public Property - subject to
governmental restraints and is
controlled by the respective
subsystem of government

2. Technology consists of
knowledge, skills, and
attitudes necessary to convert
available resources into
objects people need or want
Components of Sociology of
3. Division of labor - the
differentiation of functions
performed by the individual
member and small groups
of the society

4. Organization of work
application of sociological
principles to the study of
economic structure,
changes in these structures,
and the values and
ideologies related to them
Globalization, Poverty and
Social Conflict