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GROUP 9

UNIVERSITY OF SALFORD
SCHOOL OF COMPUTING, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
MSC IN PETROLEUM & GAS ENGINEERING
PRE SSURE DI F F E RE NT I AL
DE VI CE S
OSEGHALE OKOH (GROUP LEADER)
ABDULFTAH SALEM ALDARZI
KAYODE GIWA
OKUO FIDELIS
ORIGHOYE TEDEYE
AGBUZA EROMOSELE
PRESENTATI ON OUTLI NE
Flow Measurement
Importance of Flow Measurement

Introduction to Pressure Differential Devices
Operational Principle

Types of Pressure Differential Devices
Orifice Plate
Venture Meter.
Nozzles.
Pitot Tube.
Elbow Meters.
Variable Area Meter.

Conclusion

References

FLOW MEASUREMENT
Flow measurement is an important parameter in any fluid based
industrial process, it is a measure of the quantity of fluid passing
through a particular medium of known area per unit time. It can be
measured either in volumetric or mass based units.
It is essential to know flow characteristics of a fluid for appropriate
quality control of the equipments that come in contact with this
flowing fluid and for accurate revenue calculation when the fluid is
transported via pipelines for sale.
The need for accurate flow measurement cannot be overemphasized,
therefore the knowledge of the devices is indispensable.
One category of such devices is the pressure differential flow
measurement devices
IMPORTANCE OF FLOW MEASUREMENT
I NTRODUCTI ON TO PRESSURE
DI FFERENTI AL DEVI CES
Differential Pressure devices belong to a category of flow measurement devices that
obstruct fluid flow extracting energy from the flow regime.
Energy extracted is the form of a pressure drop which is recorded using pressure
measuring devices.
Pressure drop is related to the linear velocity of the flowing fluid using Bernoullis
Principle, the linear velocity obtained is then substituted into the Continuity equation
and the flow rate obtained.
Bernouillis Principle relates pressure drop to linear velocity using the equation :


Which means:

The Continuity equation is given as;

where
= density of the fluid
P
1
= Pressure of fluid at point 1
P
2
= Pressure of fluid at point 2
P= Pressure difference of fluid
between point 1 and 2.
V
1
= Velocity of fluid at point 1
V
2
= Velocity of fluid at point 2
m = mass flow rate of the fluid in kg/s
A
1
= Area of the pipe at point 1
A
2
= Area of the pipe at point 2

I NTRODUCTI ON TO PRESSURE
DI FFERENTI AL DEVI CES



Cd is the coefficient of discharge that accounts for losses, temperature, pressure,
compresibility, Reynords number and various other effects (Nasr & Connor, 2002)
It is unique to each pressure differential device.
The formula above holds true for incompressible fluids but compressible fluids need
an additional factor that accounts for variation of density with pressure change and
other properties of the fluid this is expansion coefficient, it is dependent on the
Isentropic exponent of the fluid.
Therefore for compressible fluids, flow can be calculated using;



Where = expansibility coefficient.
TYPES OF
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE DEVICES
ORI FI CE PLATE
An Orifice Plate is a Pressure Differential Device consisting of a thin metal
plate with an Orifice located on it.
The Orifice might vary in shape, location on the metal plate and size.

Fig 1: Orifice Plate
(Orifice flow meters, 2014)
Fig 2: Schematics of Orifice Plate
(Orifice flow meters, 2014)
ORI FI CE PLATE
There are three main types of orifice plates, classified according to the shape
and location of the orifice.
Fig 3: Types of Orifice Plates
(Head Flow Meter: Orifice Plate, 2014)


The variation in shape is for improvement of the drainage property of the
Orifice plate, the eccentric and segmental variation are ideal for multi
phase flows.
TYPES
ORI FI CE PLATE
Fig 4: Installation Schematics of an Orifice Plate
(Orifice Plate Steam Traps, 2014)
INSTALLATION
Applications
Flow rate measurement in Single
and Multi phase fluid flowing
Regimes in
Water pipelines in Water
distribution Companies
Oil and Gas pipelines in
Petroleum industry

Range
Range of 4:1
Coefficient of discharge of
0.6
Advantages
Simple and Cheap
Calibration is not required
It is applicable to gas and
liquid systems


Disadvantages
Low rangeability
It is subject poor flow
regimes(formation of
Eddies)
Installation cost for
proper installationcan be
high
VENTURI METER
A Venturi meter is a device used to measure the flow velocity of
a fluid in a pipeline.
Fig 5: Venturi Effect (Venturi Effect, 2014)
Application
To measure the flow rate of oil and gas
in a pipe
For fire engine pump flow
For water and waste water applications
Range
Advantages
High efficiency and good pressure
recovery

Less sensitive to upstream disturbances

Good performance at high ratios
Disadvantages
Occupies much longer length in the line

More expensive to manufacture and install

Larger size difficult to handle
NOZZLE METER
A Nozzle meter, also a pressure differential device is formed when the
size of a classical Venturi is reduced by replacing the upstream cone
with a nozzle. This size can be still further reduced by discarding the
diffuser, the result being a nozzle. Nozzles therefore, are a compromise
design between the compact orifice plate and a good pressure drop
characteristics of the Venturi. These are two standard designs, the ISA
Nozzle and the ASME long radius nozzle. Discharge Coefficient is
about 0.9 to 0.99.

INTRODUCTION
NOZZLE METER
Openings are provided at two places 1 and 2 for attaching a differential
pressure sensor (u-tube manometer, differential pressure gauge etc.,) as show
in the diagram. A flow nozzle is held between flanges of pipes carrying the fluid
whose flow rate is being measured. The flow nozzles area is minimum at its
throat.

Fig 6: Types of Orifice Plates (Head Flow Meter: Nozzle Meter, 2014)

Applications
It is used to measure flow rates of the
liquid discharged into the atmosphere.
It is usually used in situation where
suspended solids have the property of
settling.
It is widely used for high pressure and
temperature steam flows.

Advantages
Installation is easy and is cheaper
when compared venturi-meter
It is very compact
Has high coefficient of discharge
Disadvantages
Pressure recovery is low
Maintenance is high
Installation is difficult when compared
to orifice flow meter.
Range
PI TOT TUBE
Fig 7: Pitot tube.(Bernoullis Equation 1: Pitot tube Velocity, 2014)
The impending fluid is brought to rest as the tube is placed with its open
end facing the stream of fluid and its kinetic energy converted to
pressure energy.
It measures the velocity at a point but by traversing the pipe and
measuring the velocity at several points possible to obtain the average
velocity hence the volume flowing

PRI NCI PL E OF OPERAT I ON
PI TOT TUBE
Fig 8: Single-hole Pitot Tube (BSRIA,2014) Fig 9: NPL hemispherical head pitot staticTube.
(Hemispherical head Pitot head, quarter section view, 2014)
TYPES OF PI TOT TUBE
Applications
Used to monitor gas flow in gas
network.
They are essentially exploratory
devices and are rarely used
permanently in industry.
They are of more interest to industrial
gas engineers for velocity and direction
measurements in combustion studies
and heat transfer work in industrial
furnaces.
Accuracy
Accuracy of the device is dependent on the
position of the sewing holes on the velocity
profile
Advantages
Presents little resistance to flow
inexpensive to buy
simple types can be used on different
diameter pipes
Disadvantages
Turndown is limited to approximately 4:1
by the square root relationship between
pressure and velocity
If stem is wet, the bottom holes can
become effectively blocked.
ELBOW METERS
This type of flow meter generates a
differential pressure due to the
centrifugal forces created by the
fluid flowing through the elbow. As
the fluid flows through the elbow
high pressure area appears on the
outer radii of the elbow and the
lower at the inner. The sensing
elements are installed on the inner
and the outer faces of the elbow.

Fig 10: Elbow Meter (Elbow Meter, 2014)

ELBOW METERS
For gases, the differential pressure created is very low, so an
Venturi section could be incorporated to increase the pressure as
show on the figure bellow.





Fig 11: Venturi-Elbow Meter.(Venturi-Elbow Meter, 2014) Fig 12: Sketch of an Elbow Meter( Nasr&Connor, 2002)
Applications
This type of meters is mostly used
in areas with space limitations such
as :
Compressor Stations.
Steam Flow From Boilers.

Range



Advantages
Low Cost.

Less pressure losses

Suitable where there is
space limitation
Disadvantages
Higher sensitivity to upstream
conditions than other meter types.

Poor accuracy

Noisy operation
VARI ABLE AREA METERS
( ROTAMETERS)
DESCRIPTION
A variable area meter is a meter that
measures fluid flow by allowing the cross
sectional area of the device to vary in
response to the flow, causing some
measurable effect that indicates the rate.
A typical example is the rotameter.
A rotameter consists of a tapered tube,
typically made of glass with a 'float', actually a
shaped weight, inside that is pushed up by
the drag force of the flow and pulled down by
gravity. The fluid flow raises a float in a
tapered tube, increasing the area for passage
of the fluid. The greater the flow, the higher the
float is raised. The height of the float is directly
proportional to the flowrate.
Fig 13: Basic operating principles of a rotameter
(Basic operating principles of a rotameter, 2014)
VARI ABLE AREA METERS
( ROTAMETERS)
Three main forces act on the float
The buoyancy A, which is dependent on the
density of the medium and the volume of the
float. It is constant (at constant density).
The weight G, which is dependent on the
mass of the float. Floats can be
manufactured using stainless steel,
aluminum, titanium or hard rubber, for
example.
The flow force S: The flow force changes
transitionally with a change in the flow until
a new state of equilibrium has been
achieved.
Fig 14: Forces acting on a float.(Rotameters, 2014)
VARI ABLE AREA METERS
( ROTAMETERS)
Glass Tube Rotameter :
Glass tube rotameters are typically used for simple
but reliable indication of flow rate with a high level
of repeatability. They provide flow capacities to
about 225 L/m, and are manufactured with end
fittings of metal or plastic to meet the chemical
characteristics of the fluid being metered.

Metal tube rotameter :
These devices, also known as armored meters, are
designed for applications where the temperature or
pressure exceeds the limits of glass tubes.

Plastic tube rotameter :
Plastic tubes are also used in some rotameter
designs due to their lower cost and high impact
strength. Rotameters with all plastic construction
are available for applications where metal wetted
parts cannot be tolerated, such as with de-ionised
water or corrosives
Fig 15: A Rotameter (Variable Area Technology, 2014)
Applications:
Simple flow measurement
Used industrially to monitor gas flow
rates.
Chemical injection (controls flow rate)
Boiler control (measures steam flow to a
boiler)
Rangeability and Accuracy
Accuracies as high as +/- 0.5 percent can
be obtained over 10:1 range of flow.
Advantages
Simple to install and maintain.
No external power required.
Sustained high repeatability.
Can measure very low flowrates.
Linear scale.
Wide rangeability.
They are cost effective
Disadvantages
It must always be installed vertically due to
its use of gravity
Not suitable for pulsating flows.
Due to the direct flow indication, the
resolution is relatively poor compared to
other measurement principles.
THANK YOU
GROUP 9
REFERENCES
Basic operating principles of a rotameter .(2014) Basic Rotameters.
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://www.sensorsmag.com/sensors/flow/the-basics-rotameters-1068

Bernoullis Equation 1: Pitot Tube Velocity, (2014) Bernoullis Equation 1: Pitot Tube Velocity
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://racingtech.wordpress.com/2011/12/17/bernoullis-equation-1-pitot-tube-velocity/

BSRIA.(2014) TSI/Airflow Pitot tubes
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
https://www.bsria.co.uk/instrument/sales/product/tsi-airflow-pitot-tubes/?tab=downloads

Elbow Meter.(2014) Electronic kits and Instrumental Systems
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://potran09.blogspot.co.uk/

Head Flow Meter: Nozzle Meter,(2014) Head Flow Meter: Nozzle Meter
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://openticle.com/2007/12/09/head-flow-meters-nozzle-meter/



REFERENCES
Head Flow Meter: Orifice Plate,(2014) Head Flow Meter: Orifice Plate
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://openticle.com/2007/12/09/head-flow-meters-orifice-plate/

Hemispherical head Pitot head, quarter section view, (2014) Basic Air Data: Pitot Tube
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://www.basicairdata.eu/pitot-tube.html

Nasr G. G., and Connor N, E.(2002).
Experimental and Measurement Methods

Orifice Flowmeters.(2014) Types of Steam Flowmeters
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://www.spiraxsarco.com/resources/steam-engineering- tutorials/flowmetering/types-of-steam-flowmeter.asp

Orifice Plate Steam Traps.(2014) Orifice Plate Steam Traps
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://www.wermac.org/steam/steam_venturi.html







REFERENCES
Rotameters.(2014). Flow Meters: Rotameters
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://www.krohne.com/

Variable Area Technology.(2014). Variable Area Technology: Principle of Operation.
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://www.brooksinstrument.com/flow-pressure-level-measurement-technology/variable-area.html

Venturi Effect.(2014) Venturi Effect
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venturi_effect

Venturi Elbow Meter,(2014) Venturi Elbow Meter
Retrieved 9
th
April 2014 from
http://www.southwellcontrols.com