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State the respiratory structures in humans & some
animals;
Make an inference on the various adaptations of
the respiratory structures;
Describe the characteristics of respiratory
surfaces in humans & other organisms;
Describe the breathing mechanisms in humans &
other organisms.
Compare & contrast the human respiratory
system with that of other organisms.
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BREATHING - Involvement of inhalation
of O2 & exhalation of CO2
Each organisms have their special
structure with the adaptation for
gaseous exchange:-
Large surface area to volume ratio
increase the rate of exchange
Very thin walls one cell thick
A rich supply of blood covered with
blood capillaries
A moist surface easier for the gases to
diffuse
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Unicellular organisms
Amoeba & Paramecium
Have a large surface area to
volume ratio, the external area
is fully permeable to the gases
No need specific respiratory
sturucture
Gases diffuse in & out of the
organisms over the whole cell
membrane.
Depends on the concentration
of respiratory gases in & out of
the cell
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A bony fish has four pairs of gills,
support by a bony arch

The gills consist of two rows of gill
filament numerous gill lamela

Each gill lamela is folded into gill
plate, have thin walls & well
supplied with blood capillaries to
increase the surface area of the
gills
Characteristics :-
bony/gill arches to support the
filaments
Filaments numerous (increase the
surface area for gaseous exchange)
Thin membrane (to ease the gases
absorption)
Many blood capillaries (efficients
transportation)
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Breathing Mechanism of Fish
Open its mouth lower the floor of the
mouth- volume of the mouth is increased
the pressure inside the mouth falls below
that of the external pressure- water with
high conc. of O2 enter-operculum close.

Floor of the mouth is raise up - Gaseous
exchange occurs as water flows past the
gills the pressure in the mouth is
increased. water then passes out though
the operculum operculum then opens
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BREATHING MECHANISM
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INSECTS
The body is protected by the exoskeleton,
which is impervious to the gases.

Air reaches the body cells via an
elaborated system of branching tubes
called tracheae (singular : trachea)

Air enters the tracheae through a series of
openings along the sides of the body
spiracles

Reinforced with the chitin, the trachea are
subdivided in numerous tiny tracheoles
(singular : tracheole) thin, permeable
walls & intimate contact with the body cells

Tracheal system provides a large surface
area for gaseous exchange

O2 dissolves in the fluid found in the
tracheoles & passes directly to the body
cells through diffusion
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BREATHING MECHANISM OF INSECTS
The rhythmic expansion & contraction of
the abdominal wall help to drive the air in
& out of the body

Contraction flattens the body, decreases
the volume of the trachea, force the air
out

Abdomen expands, air is drawn into the
trachea through the spiracles

Each spiracle is controlled by a system of
valves operated by tiny muscles

The level of CO2 in the body determines
the size of the spiracles aperture

Some insect (such as grasshopper) have
air sacs connected to the trachea that can
pump the air throughout the tracheal
system
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AMPHIBIANS
Respire through 4 different
organs the gills, lungs, skin &
mucous lining of the mouth
have moist surfaces & have a
good supplies of the blood
capillaries
The tadpoles breathe through the
skin & gills.
The adult frog lungs, skin &
mucous lining of the mouth
many blood capillaries
Many folds inside the lung sacs
increase the respiratory surface
In water, O2 enters through its
skin
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Inspiration nostrils open, the
mouth closes, the glottis closses
& the floor of the mouth cavity is
lowered
Air pressure inside the mouth
reduced. Air is drawn through the
nostrils into the mouth cavity
The noistrils close & the floor of
the mouth cavity is raised to
force the air through the glottis
into the lungs.
The lungs expand & gaseous
exchange takes place.
Expiration nostrils open, the
muscles of the body wall contract
to force the air from the lungs to
the mouth cavity & nostrils
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Consist of a series of tube-like
structures connecting a pair of lungs
Nasal passage, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi (singular : bronchus),
bronchioles & alveoli (singular :
alveolus)

Lungs large sac-like organs, made
up of mainly the bronchioles, alveoli &
a network of blood capillaries
Left lung 2 lobes, right lungs 3
lobes

A double membrane called the pleura
surrounds each lungs.
Outer pleural membrane attached to
the chest wall, inner pleural
membrane attached to the lungs.
Each lungs is packed with 1.5 2.5
million of alveoli.
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Adaptation of the
alveoli for gaseous
exchange :
A large surface area
Very thin walls
A moist surface
A rich supply of
blood
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BREATHING MECHANISM OF HUMANS
The diaphragm is a dome-shaped sheet of
muscles that separates the thorax from the
abdomen

2 sets of intercostal muscles are located
between the ribs external & internal
intercostal muscles

INSPIRATION/INHALATION
The external intercostal contract while the
internal relax. the ribs & sternum move
upwards & outwards
The diaphragm muscles contract & flatterns

The movement of the ribs & the diaphragm
increase the volume of the thoracic cavity
Increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity
until it is less than the atmospheric pressure
air drawn into the lungs
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BREATHING MECHANISM OF HUMANS
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EXPIRATION/EXHALATION
The internal intercostal muscles
contract while the external relax
ribs & sternum move downwards &
inwards back to its resting
position

The diaphragm muscles relax &
arches upwards.

The movement of the rib cage & the
diaphragm decrease the volume of
the thoracic cavity increases
the pressure inside until it is
greater than the atmospheric
pressure.

Air is forced out of the lungs.
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COMPARISON BETWEEN
THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM WITH THAT OF
OTHER ORGANISMS
ORGANISM RESPIRATORY
STRUCTURE
CHARACTERISTICS OF
ADAPTATION
BREATHING MECHANISM
Protozoa None
Large TSA minute
size
PM is thin & moist,
>rate of diffusion
None
Fish Gills
Numerous lamella - >
the TSA for diffusion.
Gill filament thin,
moist membranes with
a network of blood
capillaries.
Action of the
floor of the
mouth & the
operculum
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ORGANISM RESPIRATORY
STRUCTURE
CHARACTERISTICS OF
ADAPTATION
BREATHING MECHANISM
Insects Tracheal
system
Many fine branches
of tracheoles to
increase the TSA
A layer of moisture
on the walls of the
tracheoles.
Action of
abnominal
muscles
(rhythmic
movement)
Amphibia
ns
Skin,
mouth,
lungs
Thin & moist
respiratory surfaces

Network of blood
capillaries in the skin.
Action of
muscles in
the mouth
cavity.
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ORGANISM RESPIRATORY
STRUCTURE
CHARACTERISTICS OF
ADAPTATION
BREATHING MECHANISM
Human Lungs
Numerous alveoli
Thin & moist alveoli
epithelium
Network of blood
capillaries at the
alveoli of lungs
Action of
intercostal
muscles &
diaphragm
muscles
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