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Chapter 10
8051 Serial Communication
2
Objective
8051 (serial communication)
programmer bit bit

IBM PC 8051
8051 RS232 PC COM port
RS232
MAX232 IC
8051 registers
8051
3
Sections
10.1 Basics of serial communication
10.2 8051 connection to RS232
10.3 8051 serial communication programming
4
Section 10.1
Basics of Serial Communication
5
8051 and PC
The 8051 module connects to PC by using RS232.
RS232 is a protocol which supports half-duplex,
synchronous/asynchronous, serial communication.
We discuss these terms in following sections.
PC 8051
COM 1 port
RS232
MAX232
UART
6
Simplex vs. Duplex Transmission
Simplex transmission: the data can sent in one
direction.
Example: the computer only sends data to the printer.


Duplex transmission: the data can be transmitted
and receive
Transmitter Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver Receiver
Transmitter
7
Half vs. Full Duplex
Half duplex: if the data is transmitted one way at a
time.


Full duplex: if the data can go both ways at the
same time.
Two wire conductors for the data lines.
Transmitter
Receiver
Receiver
Transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
Receiver
Transmitter
8
Figure 10-2. Simplex, Half-, and Full-
Duplex Transfers
Half Duplex
Full Duplex
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver
Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
9
Parallel vs. Serial
Computers transfer data in two ways:
Parallel
data is sent a byte or more a time (fast)
Only short distance between two systems
The 8-bit data path is expensive
Example: printer, hard disks
Serial
The data is sent one bit at a time (slow)
Long distance (rarely distortion)
cheap
The data can be transferred on the telephone line (by using
modem.)
10
Figure 10-1. Serial versus Parallel Data
Transfer (1/2)
Sender Receiver Sender Receiver
Serial Transfer Parallel Transfer
D0
D7
11
Figure 10-1. Serial versus Parallel Data
Transfer (2/2)
Sender Receiver Sender Receiver
Serial Transfer Parallel Transfer
D0-D7 D0
Other control lines
Other control lines
12
Serial Communication
How to transfer data?
Sender:
The byte of data must be converted to serial bits using a
parallel-in-serial-out shift register.
The bit is transmitted over a single data line.
Receiver
The receiver must be a serial-in-parallel-out shift register to
receive the serial data and pack them into a byte.
11101000001011
A
register
8-bit
character
register
8 1
parallel-in
serial-out
serial-in
parallel-out
13
Asynchronous vs. Synchronous
Serial communication uses two methods:
In synchronous communication, data is sent in blocks
of bytes.



In asynchronous communication, data is sent in bytes.
byte byte byte byte
01011111
preamble
01010101
sender receiver
byte
sender receiver
start bit stop bit
byte byte
14
UART & USART
It is possible to write software to use both methods,
but the programs can be tedious and long.
Special IC chips are made for serial
communication:
USART (universal synchronous-asynchronous
receiver-transmitter)
UART (universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter)
The 8051 chip has a built-in UART.
15
8051 Serial Communication
The 8051 has serial communication capability
built into it.
Half-duplex
Asynchronous mode only.
How to detect that a character is sent via the line
in the asynchronous mode?
Answer: Data framing!

16
Framing (1/3)
Each character is placed in between start and stop
bits. This is called framing.
Figure 10-3. Framing ASCII A (41H)
stop
bit
start
bit
mark
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
D7 D0
goes out last goes out last
Time (D0 first)
mark
17
Framing (2/3)
The LSB is sent out first.
The start bit is 0 (low) and always one bit.
The stop bits is 1 (high).
The stop bit can be one (if 8 bits used in ASCII) or
two bits (if 7 bits used in ASCII).
In asynchronous serial communication, peripheral chips
and modems can be programmed for data that is 7 or 8
bits.
When there is no transfer, the signal is 1 (high),
which is referred to as mask.
18
Framing (3/3)
We have a total of 10 bits for each character:
8-bits for the ASCII code
2-bits for the start and stop bits
25% overhead
In some systems in order to maintain data integrity,
the parity bit is included in the data frame.
In an odd-parity bit system the total number of bits,
including the parity bit, is odd.
UART chips allow programming of the parity bit for
odd-, even-, and no-parity options.
19
Data Transfer Rate (1/2)
How fast is the data transferred?
Three methods to describe the speed:
Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes
per second.
The rate of data transfer is stated in Hz (used in modem).
Date rate is defined as the number of bits transferred
per second.
Each signal has several voltage levels.
The rate of data transfer is stated in bps (bits per second).
Effective data rate is defined as the number of actual
data bits transferred per second.
Redundant bits must be removed
20
Data Transfer Rate (2/2)
The data transfer rate depends on communication
ports incorporated into that system.
Ex: 100-9600 bps in the early IBM PC/XT
Ex: 56K bps in Pentium-based PC
The baud rate is generally limited to 100kHz.
21
Example of Data Transfer Rate (1/2)
Data is sent in the following asynchronous mode:
2400 baud rate
each signal has 4 voltage levels (-5V, -3V, 3V, 5V)
one start bit, 8-bit data, 2 stop bits
mark
stop
bit
start
bit
mark
00
10
01
10
00
11
11 11
Time (D0 first)
8-bit character
stop
bit
22
Example of Data Transfer Rate (2/2)
2400 baud = 2400 signals per second =2400 Hz
4 voltage level: Log
2
4=2
2 bits is sent in every signal change
Data rate = 2 * 2400 Hz = 4800 bps
Effective ratio = 8 / (1+8+2) =8/11
Effective data rate = data rate * effective ratio =
4800 * 8 /11=3490.9
23
RS232 Standard
RS232 is an interfacing standard which is set by
the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) in
1960.
RS232 is the most widely used serial I/O interfacing
standard.
RS232A (1963), RS232B (1965) and RS232C (1969),
now is RS232E
Define the voltage level, pin functionality, baud
rate, signal meaning, communication distance.
24
RS232 Voltage Level
The input and output voltage of
RS232 is not of the TTL compatible.
RS232 is older than TTL.
We must use voltage converter (also
referred to as line driver) such as
MAX232 to convert the TTL logic
levels to the RS232 voltage level,
and vice versa.
MAX232, TSC232, ICL232
logic 0
-3V
-25V
3V
25V
logic 1
undefined
RS 232 Voltage
25
MAX232
MAX232 IC chips are commonly referred to as
line drivers.
PC 8051
COM 1 port
RS232
MAX232
UART
RS232 voltage
level
TTL voltage
level
TTL voltage
level
26
RS232 pins
Figure 10-4 shows the RS232 connector DB-25.
Table 10-1 shows the pins and their labels for the
RS232 cable.
DB-25P : plug connector (male)
DB-25S: socket connector (female)
Figure 10-5 shows DB9 connector and Table 10-2
shows the signals.
IBM version for PC.
All the RS 232 pin function definitions of Tables
10-1 and 10-2 are from the DTE point of view.
27
Figure 10-4. RS232 Connector DB-25
14
1
25
13
28
Table 10-1: RS232 Pins (DB-25) for DTE (1/2)
Pin Description
1 Protective ground
2 Transmitted data (TxD)
3 Received data (RxD)
4 Request to send (RTS)
5 Clear to send (CTS)
6 Data set ready (DSR)
7 Signal ground (GND)
8 Data carrier detect (DCD)
9/10 Reserved for data testing
11 Unassigned
12 Secondary data carrier detect
13 Secondary clear to send
29
Table 10-1: RS232 Pins (DB-25) for DTE (2/2)
Pin Description
14 Secondary transmitted data
15 Transmit signal element timing
16 Secondary received data
17 Receive signal element timing
18 Unassigned
19 Secondary request to sent
20 Data terminal ready (DTR)
21 Signal quality detector
22 Ring indicator
23 Data signal rate select
24 Transmit signal element timing
25 Unassigned
30
Figure 10-5. DB-9 9-Pin Connector
6
1
9
5
31
Table 10-2: IBM PC DB-9 Signals for DTE
Pin Description
1 Data carrier detect (DCD)
2 Received data (RxD)
3 Transmitted data (TxD)
4 Data terminal ready (DTR)
5 Signal ground (GND)
6 Data set ready (DSR)
7 Request to send (RTS)
8 Clear to send (CTS)
9 Ring indicator (RI)
32
RS232 Handshaking Signals
Many of the pins of the RS232 connector are used
for handshaking signals.
DTR (data terminal ready)
DSR (data set ready)
RTS (request to send)
CTS (clear to send)
RTS and CTS are hardware control flow signals.
DCD (carrier detect, or data carrier detect)
RI (ring indicator)
They are not supported by the 8051 UART chips.
33
Communication Flow (1/2)
Telephone is ringing
Connection between two
modems is set
PC is ready
modem is ready
PC wants to sent data
modem is ready to receive
transmit data
PC (DTE) modem (DCE)
DTR
DSR
RTS
CTS
TxD, RxD
RI
DCD
34
Communication Flow (2/2)
While signals DTR and DSR are used by the PC
and modem, respectively, to indicate that they are
alive and well.
TRS and CTS control the flow of data.
When the PC wants to send data, it asserts RTS.
If the modem is ready (has room) to accept the data,
it sends back CTS.
If, for lack of room, the modem does not activate
CTS, and PC will deassert DTR and try again.
35
DTE and DCE
Communication Equipments are classified as
DTE (data terminal equipment)
Terminals and computers that send and receive data
DCE (data communication equipment)
Communication equipment (only for transfer data)
Ex: modem
TxD
RxD
DTE
RxD
TxD
DCE
GND
PC
Com1 modem
GND
TxD
RxD
DTE
RxD
TxD
DCE
GND
PC Com1
modem
GND
Telephone
Line
DTE view
DCE view
36
IBM PC/compatible COM ports
IBM PC has 2 COM ports.
Both COM ports have RS232-type connectors.
For mouse, modem
We can connect the 8051 serial port to the COM
port of a PC for serial communication experiments.
PC 8051
COM 1 port
RS232
MAX232
UART
DTE view DTE view
37
Null Modem Connection
The simplest connection between a PC and
microcontroller requires a minimum of three pins,
TxD, RxD, and GND.
Figure 10-6 shows null modem connection
TxD
RxD
DTE
TxD
RxD
DTE
ground
PC
Com1
8051-based
board
TxD
RxD
DTE
TxD
RxD
DTE
ground
PC
Com1
PC
Com1
38
RS422 & RS485
By using RS232, the limit distance between two
PCs is about 15m.
It works well even the distance=30m.
If you want to transfer data with long distance (ex:
300m), you can use RS422 or RS485.
39
Section 10.2
8051 Connection to RS232
40
TxD and RxD pins in the 8051
In 8051, the data is received from or transmitted to
RxD: received data (Pin 10, P3.0)
TxD: transmitted data (Pin 11, P3.1)
TxD and RxD of the 8051 are TTL compatible.
The 8051 requires a line driver to make them
RS232 compatible.
One such line driver is the MAX232 chip.
41
Figure 4-1. 8051 Pin Diagram
PDIP/Cerdip
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
P1.0
P1.1
P1.2
P1.3
P1.4
P1.5
P1.6
P1.7
RST
(RXD)P3.0
(TXD)P3.1
(T0)P3.4
(T1)P3.5
XTAL2
XTAL1
GND
(INT0)P3.2
(INT1)P3.3
(RD)P3.7
(WR)P3.6
Vcc
P0.0(AD0)
P0.1(AD1)
P0.2(AD2)
P0.3(AD3)
P0.4(AD4)
P0.5(AD5)
P0.6(AD6)
P0.7(AD7)
EA/VPP
ALE/PROG
PSEN
P2.7(A15)
P2.6(A14)
P2.5(A13)
P2.4(A12)
P2.3(A11)
P2.2(A10)
P2.1(A9)
P2.0(A8)
8051
(8031)
input event
data transfer
start/stop
42
MAX232 (1/2)
MAX232 chip converts from RS232 voltage levels
to TTL voltage levels, and vice versa.
MAX232 uses a +5V power source which is the same
as the source voltage for the 8051.
8051
MAX232
P3.1
TxD
DB-9
P3.0
RxD
11 11
10 12
14
13
2
3
5
43
MAX232 (2/2)
MAX232 has two sets of line drivers.
Figure 10.7 shows the inside of MAX232.
MAX232 requires four capacitors ranging from 1 to 22
mF. The most widely used value for these capacitors is
22mF.
MAX233 performs the same job as the MAX232
but eliminates the need for capacitors.
Note that MAX233 and MAX232 are not pin
compatible.
Figure 10.8 (a) shows the inside of MAX233
Figure 10.8 (b) shows the connection to the 8051
44
Figure 10-7 (a): Inside MAX232
MAX232
16
1
3
4
5
2
6
14
13
7
8
11
12
10
9
15
Vcc
C1
C2
+
+
+
+
C3
C4
TTL side RS232 side
T1IN
R1OUT
T2IN
R2OUT
T1OUT
R1IN
T2OUT
R2IN
45
Figure 10-7: (b) MAX232s Connection to
the 8051 (Null Modem)
8051
MAX232
P3.1
TxD
DB-9
P3.0
RxD
11 11
10 12
14
13
2
3
5
RS232-compatible
TTL-compatible
46
Figure 10-8: (a) Inside MAX233
MAX233
7
15
10
11
16
5
4
18
19
2
3
1
20
6
Vcc
12
17
14
9
TTL side RS232 side
T1IN
R1OUT
T2IN
R2OUT
T1OUT
R1IN
T2OUT
R2IN
13
47
Figure 10-8: (b) MAX233s Connection to
the 8051 (Null Modem)
8051
MAX233
P3.1
TxD
DB-9
P3.0
RxD
11 2
10 3
5
4
2
3
5
RS232-compatible
TTL-compatible
48
Section 10.3
8051 Serial Communication
Programming
49
PC Baud Rates
PC supports several
baud rates.
You can use netterm,
terminal.exe, stty, ptty
to send/receive data.
Hyperterminal
supports baud rates
much higher than the
ones list in the Table.
110 bps
150
300
600
1200
2400
4800
9600 (default)
19200
Note: Baud rates supported by
486/Pentium IBM PC BIOS.
50
Baud Rates in the 8051 (1/2)
The 8051 transfers and receives data serially at
many different baud rates by using UART.
UART divides the machine cycle frequency by 32
and sends it to Timer 1 to set the baud rate.
Signal change for each roll over of timer 1
XTAL
oscillator
12
32
By UART
Machine cycle
frequency
28800 Hz
To timer 1
To set the
Baud rate
921.6 kHz
11.0592 MHz
Timer 1
51
Baud Rates in the 8051
Timer 1, mode 2 (8-bit, auto-reload)
Define TH1 to set the baud rate.
XTAL = 11.0592 MHz
The system frequency = 11.0592 MHz / 12 = 921.6 kHz
Timer 1 has 921.6 kHz/ 32 = 28,800 Hz as source.
TH1=FDH means that UART sends a bit every 3 timer
source.
Baud rate = 28,800/3= 9,600 Hz
52
Example 10-1 (1)
With XTAL = 11.0592 MHz, find the TH1 value needed to have the
following baud rates. (a) 9600 (b) 2400 (c) 1200
Solution:
With XTAL = 11.0592 MHz, we have:
The frequency of system clock = 11.0592 MHz / 12 = 921.6 kHz
The frequency sent to timer 1 = 921.6 kHz/ 32 = 28,800 Hz
(a) 28,800 / 3 = 9600 where -3 = FD (hex) is loaded into TH1
(b) 28,800 / 12 = 2400 where -12 = F4 (hex) is loaded into TH1
(c) 28,800 / 24 = 1200 where -24 = E8 (hex) is loaded into TH1

Notice that dividing 1/12th of the crystal frequency by 32 is the
default value upon activation of the 8051 RESET pin.
53
Table 10-4: Timer 1 TH1 Register Values
for Various Baud Rates
Baud Rate TH1 (Decimal) TH1 (Hex)
9600 -3 FD
4800 -6 FA
2400 -12 F4
1200 -24 E8
Note: XTAL = 11.0592 MHz.
54
Registers Used in Serial Transfer Circuit
SUBF (Serial data buffer)
SCON (Serial control register)
PCON (Power control register)
You can see Appendix H (pages 416-417) for
details.
PC has several registers to control COM1, COM2.
55
SBUF Register
Serial data register: SBUF
MOV SBUF,#A ;put char A to transmit
MOV SBUF,A ;send data from A
MOV A,SUBF ;receive and copy to A
An 8-bit register
Set the usage mode for two timers
For a byte of data to be transferred via the TxD line, it must be
placed in the SBUF.
SBUF holds the byte of data when it is received by the 8051;s
RxD line.
Not bit-addressable
56
SCON Register
Serial control register: SCON
SM0, SM1 Serial port mode specifier
REN (Receive enable) set/cleared by software to
enable/disable reception.
TI Transmit interrupt flag.
RI Receive interrupt flag.
SM2 = TB8 = TB8 =0 (not widely used)
SM0 SM1 SM2 REN TB8 RB8 TI RI
(LSB) (MSB)
* SCON is bit-addressable.
57
SM0, SM1
SM1 and SM0 determine the framing of data.
SCON.6 (SM1) and SCON.7 (SM0)
Only mode 1 is compatible with COM port of IBM PC.
See Appendix A.3.

SM1 SM0 Mode Operating Mode Baud Rate
0 0 0 Shift register Fosc./12
0 1 1 8-bit UART Variable by timer1
1 0 2 9-bit UART Fosc./64 or Fosc./32
1 1 3 9-bit UART Variable
58
SM2
SCON.5
SM2 enables the multiprocessor communication
for mode 2 & 3.
We make it 0 since we are not using the 8051 in a
multiprocessor environment.
SM2=0 : Single processor environment
SM2=1 : multiprocessor environment


59
REN (Receive Enable)
SCON.4
Set/cleared by software to enable/disable reception.
REN=1
It enable the 8051 to receive data on the RxD pin of the 8051.
If we want the 8051 to both transfer and receive data, REN
must be set to 1.
SETB SCON.4
REN=0
The receiver is disabled.
The 8051 can not receive data.
CLR SCON.4
60
TB8 (Transfer Bit 8)
SCON.3
TB8 is used for serial modes 2 and 3.
The 9
th
bit that will be transmitted in mode 2 & 3.
Set/Cleared by software.
61
RB8 (Receive Bit 8)
SCON.2
In serial mode 1, RB8 gets a copy of the stop bit
when an 8-bit data is received.
62
TI (Transmit Interrupt Flag)
SCON.1
When the 8051 finishes the transfer of the 8-bit
character, it raises the TI flag.
TI is raised by hardware at the beginning of the
stop bit in mode 1.
Must be cleared by software.
63
RI (Receive Interrupt)
SCON.0
Receive interrupt flag. Set by hardware halfway
through the stop bit time in mode 1. Must be
cleared by software.
When the 8051 receives data serially via RxD, it
gets rid of the start and stop bits and place the byte
in the SBUF register.
Then 8051 rises RI to indicate that a byte.
RI is raised at the beginning of the stop bit.
64
Figure 10-9. SCON Serial Port Control
Register (Bit Addressable)
SM0 SCON.7 Serial port mode specifier
SM1 SCON.6 Serial port mode specifier
SM2 SCON.5 Used for multiprocessor communication. (Make it 0)
REN SCON.4 Set/cleared by software to enable/disable reception.
TB8 SCON.3 Not widely used.
RB8 SCON.2 Not widely used.
TI SCON.1 Transmit interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the beginning of
the stop bit in mode 1. Must be cleared by software.
RI SCON.0 Receive interrupt flag. Set by hardware halfway through the
stop bit time in mode 1. Must be cleared by software.
Note: Make SM2, TB8, and RB8 = 0.
SM0 SM1 SM2 REN TB8 RB8 TI RI
65
Transfer Data with the TI flag (1/2)
The following sequence is the steps that the 8051
goes through in transmitting a character via TxD:
1. The byte character to be transmitted is written into the
SBUF register.
2. It transfers the start bit.
3. The 8-bit character is transferred one bit at a time.
4. The stop bit is transferred.
SBUF
TxD
bit by bit
8-bit char
UART
TI
66
Transfer Data with the TI flag (2/2)
Sequence continuous:
5. During the transfer of the stop bit, the 8051 raises the
TI flag, indicating that the last character was
transmitted and it is ready to transfer the next character.
6. By monitoring the TI flag, we know whether or not the
8051 is ready to transfer another byte.
We will not overloading the SBUF register.
If we write another byte into the SBUF before TI is raised, the
untransmitted portion of the previous byte will be lost.
We can use interrupt to transfer data in Chapter 11.
7. After SBUF is loaded with a new byte, the TI flag bit
must be cleared by the programmer.
67
Programming the 8051 to Transfer data
Serially (1/2)
1. Use the timer 1 in mode 2
MOV TMOD,#20H
2. Set the value TH1 to chose baud rate. Look at the
Table 10-4.
MOV TH1,#FDH ;Baud rate = 9600bps
3. Set SCON register in mode 1.
MOV SCON,#50H
4. Start the timer.
SETB TR1
68
Programming the 8051 to Transfer data
Serially (2/2)
5. Clear TI flag.
CLR TI
6. The character byte to be transferred serially is
written into the SBUF register.
MOV SBUF,#A
7. Keep monitoring the Transmit Interrupt (TI) to
see if it is raised.
HERE: JNB TI, HERE
8. To transfer the next character, go to Step 5.
TI=0
transfer data
raise when sending
the stop bit
69
Example 10-2
Write a program for the 8051 to transfer letter A serially at 4800
baud, continuously.
Solution:
MOV TMOD,#20H ;timer 1, mode 2
MOV TH1,#-6 ;4800 baud rate
MOV SCON,#50H ;8-bit,1 stop,REN enabled
SETB TR1 ;start timer 1
AGAIN: MOV SBUF,#A ;letter A to be transferred
HERE: JNB TI,HERE ;wait for the last bit
CLR TI ;clear TI for next char
SJMP AGAIN ;keep sending A
70
Example 10-3 (1/2)
Write a program to transfer the message YES serially at 9600
baud, 8-bit data, 1 stop bit. Do this continuously.
Solution:
MOV TMOD,#20H ;timer 1, mode 2
MOV TH1,#-3 ;9600 baud
MOV SCON,#50H
SETB TR1
AGAIN:MOV A,#Y ;transfer Y
ACALL TRANS
MOV A,#E ;transfer E
ACALL TRANS
MOV A,#S ;transfer S
ACALL TRANS
SJMP AGAIN ;keep doing it
71
Example 10-3 (2/2)
;serial data transfer subroutine
TRANS:MOV SBUF,A ;load SBUF
HERE: JNB TI,HERE ;wait for last bit to transfer
CLR TI ;get ready for next byte
RET
72
Receive Data with the RI flag (1/2)
The following sequence is the steps that the 8051
goes through in receiving a character via RxD:
1. 8051 receives the start bit indicating that the next bit
is the first bit of the character to be received.
2. The 8-bit character is received one bit at a
time.When the last bit is received, a byte is formed
and placed in SBUF.
SBUF
RxD
bit by bit
8-bit
character
UART
RI
73
Receive Data with the TI flag (2/2)
Sequence continuous:
3. The stop bit is received. During receiving the stop bit,
the 8051 make RI=1, indicating that an entire character
was been received and must be picked up before it
gets overwritten by an incoming character.
4. By monitoring the RI flag, we know whether or not the
8051 has received a character byte.
If we fail to copy SBUF into a safe place, we risk the loss of
the received byte.
We can use interrupt to transfer data in Chapter 11.
5. After SBUF is copied into a safe place, the RI flag bit
must be cleared by the programmer.
74
Programming the 8051 to Receive data
Serially (1/2)
1. Use the timer 1 in mode 2
MOV TMOD,#20H
2. Set the value TH1 to chose baud rate. Look at the
Table 10-4.
MOV TH1,#FDH ;Baud rate = 28800bps
3. Set SCON register in mode 1.
MOV SCON,#50H
4. Start the timer.
SETB TR1
75
Programming the 8051 to Receive data
Serially (2/2)
5. Clear RI flag.
CLR RI
6. Keep monitoring the Receive Interrupt (RI) to
see if it is raised.
HERE: JNB RI, HERE
7. When RI is raised, SBUF has the whole byte.
Move the content of SBUF to a safe place.
MOV A,SBUF
8. To receive the next character, go to Step 5.
RI=0
receive data
raise when getting
the stop bit
76
Example 10-4
Program the 8051 to receive bytes of data serially, and put them in
P1. Set the baud rate at 4800, 8-bit data, and 1 stop bit.
Solution:
MOV TMOD,#20H ;timer1, mode 2 (auto reload)
MOV TH1,#-6 ;4800 baud
MOV SCON,#50H ;8-bit, 1 stop, REN enabled
SETB TR1 ;start timer 1
HERE: JNB RI,HERE ;wait for char to come in
MOV A,SBUF ;save incoming byte in A
MOV P1,A ;send to port 1
CLR RI ;get ready to receive next byte
SJMP HERE ;keep getting data
77
Example 10-5 (1/4)
Assume that the 8051 serial port is connected to the COM port
of the IBM PC, and on the PC we are using the terminal.exe
program to send and receive data serially.
P1 and P2 of the 8051 are connected to LEDs and switches,
respectively.
Write an 8051 program to
(a) send to the PC the message We Are Ready,
(b) receive any data sent by the PC and put it on LEDs
connected to P1, and
(c) get data on switches connected to P2 and send it to
the PC serially.
The program should perform part (a) once, but parts (b) and
(c) continuously.
Use the 4800 baud rate.
78
Example 10-5 (2/4)





Solution:
ORG 0
MOV P2,#0FFH ;make P2 an input port
MOV TMOD,#20H
MOV TH1,#0FAH ;4800 baud rate
MOV SCON,#50H
SETB TR1 ;start timer 1
MOV DPTR,#MYDATA ;load pointer for message
TxD
RxD
P1
P2
LED
SW
To
PC
COM
port
8051
79
Example 10-5 (3/4)
MOV DPTR,#MYDATA ;load pointer for message
H_1: CLR A
MOVC A,@A+DPTR ;get the character
JZ B_1 ;if last character get out
ACALL SEND
INC DPTR
SJMP H_1 ;next character
B_1: MOV A,P2 ;read data on P2
ACALL SEND ;transfer it serially
ACALL RECV ;get the serial data
MOV P1,A ;display it on LEDs
SJMP B_1 ;stay in loop indefinitely
(a)
(c)
(b)
80
Example 10-5 (4/4)
;-----------serial data transfer. ACC has the data
SEND: MOV SBUF,A ;load the data
H_2: JNB TI,H_2 ;stay here until last bit gone
CLR TI ;get ready for next char
RET
;-------------- Receive data serially in ACC
RECV: JNB RI,RECV ;wait here for char
MOV A,SBUF ;save it in ACC
CLR RI ;get ready for next char
RET
;---------------The message to send
MYDATA:DB We Are Ready,0
END
81
Doubling the Baud Rate in the 8051
There are two ways to increase the baud rate of
data transfer in the 8051:
1. To use a higher frequency crystal.
It is not feasible in many situations since the system crystal is
fixed.
Many new crystal may not be compatible with the IBM PC
serial COM ports baud rate.
2. To change a bit in the PCON register.
This is a software way by setting SMOD=1.
82
PCON Register
SMOD Double baud rate. If Timer 1 is used to generate
baud and SMOD=1, the baud rate is doubled
when the Serial Port is used in modes 1,2,3
GF1,GF0 General purpose flag bit.
PD Power down bit. Setting this bit activates Power
Down operation in the 80C51BH. (precedence)
IDL Idle Mode bit. Setting this bit activates Idle Mode
operation in the 80C51BH.
SMOD
-- -- -- GF1 GF2 PD IDL
(LSB) (MSB)
* PCON is not bit-addressable. See Appendix H. p410
83
SMOD Flag of the PCON Register
Power control register: PCON
MOV A, PCON
SETB ACC.7
MOV PCON,A ;we dont want to modify other bits
An 8-bit register
Not bit-addressable
SCOM=0: default
SCOM=1: double the baud rate
See Table 10-5
84
Table 10-5: Baud Rate Comparison for
SMOD = 0 and SMOD =1
TH1 (Decimal) (Hex) SMOD = 0 SMOD = 1
-3 FD 9,600 19,200
-6 FA 4,800 9,600
-12 F4 2,400 4,800
-24 E8 1,200 2,400
Note: XTAL = 11.0592 MHz.
XTAL
oscillator
12
16
32
Machine
cycle freq.
921.6 kHz
57600 Hz
28800 Hz
To
timer 1
to set
baud
rate
11.0592 MHz
SMOD = 1
SMOD = 0
85
Baud Rates for SMOD=0
When SMOD=0, the 8051 divides 1/12 of the
crystal frequency by 32, and uses that frequency
for timer 1 to set the baud rate.
XTAL = 11.0592 MHz
The system frequency = 11.0592 MHz / 12 = 921.6 kHz
Timer 1 has 921.6 kHz/ 32 = 28,800 Hz as source.
TH1=256 - Crystal frequency/(12*32*Baud rate)
Default on reset
See Appendix A, page 363
86
Baud Rates for SMOD=1
When SMOD=0, the 8051 divides 1/12 of the
crystal frequency by 16, and uses that frequency
for timer 1 to set the baud rate.
XTAL = 11.0592 MHz
The system frequency = 11.0592 MHz / 12 = 921.6 kHz
Timer 1 has 921.6 kHz/ 16 = 57,600 Hz as source.
TH1=256 - Crystal frequency/(12*16*Baud rate)
87
Example 10-6 (1/2)
Assuming that XTAL = 11.0592 MHz for the following program,
state (a) what this program does, (b) compute the frequency used by
timer 1 to set the baud rate, and (c) find the baud rate of the data
transfer.
Solution:
(a) This program transfers ASCII letter B (01000010 binary)
continuously.
(b) and (c) With XTAL = 11.0592 MHz and SMOD = 1
11.0592 / 12 = 921.6 kHz machine cycle frequency.
921.6 /16 = 57,600 Hz frequency used by timer 1 to set the baud rate.
57,600 / 3 = 19,200, the baud rate.
88
Example 10-6 (2/2)
MOV A,PCON
SETB ACC.7
MOV PCON,A ;SMOD=1, double baud rate
MOV TMOD,#20H ;Timer 1, mode 2,auto reload
MOV TH1,#-3 ;19200 baud rate
MOV SCON,#50H ;8-bit data,1 stop bit, RI enabled
SETB TR1 ;start Timer 1
MOV A,#B ;transfer letter B
A_1:CLR TI ;make sure TI=0
MOV SBUF,A ;transfer it
H_1:JNB TI H_1 ;check TI
SJMP A_1 ;do again
89
Example 10-7
Find the TH1 value (in both decimal and hex) to set the baud rate to
each of the following: (a) 9600 Hz (b) 4800 Hz if SMOD =1
Assume that XTAL = 11.0592 MHz.
Solution:
With XTAL = 11.0592 and SMOD = 1,
11.0592 / 12 = 921.6 kHz machine cycle frequency.
921.6 /16 = 57,600 Hz frequency used by the timer 1
(a) 57,600 / 9600 = 6 TH1 = -6 or TH1 = FAH.
(b) 57,600 / 4800 = 12 TH1 = -12 or TH1 = F4H.
90
Example 10-8
Find the baud rate if TH1 = -2, SMOD = 1, and XTAL = 11.0592
MHz. Is this baud rate supported by IBM/compatible PCs?
Solution:
With XTAL = 11.0592 and SMOD = 1, we have timer 1 frequency
= 57,600 Hz. The baud rate is 57,600 / 2 = 28,800. This baud rate is
not supported by the BIOS of the PC; however, the PC can be
programmed to do data transfer at such a speed. The software of
many modems can do this. Also, Hyperterminal in Windows 95
(and higher) supports this and other baud rates.
91
You are able to (1/2)
Contract and compare serial versus parallel
communication
List the advantages of serial communication over
parallel
Explain serial communication protocol
Contrast synchronous versus asynchronous
communication
Contrast half- versus full-duplex transmission
Explain the process of data framing
92
You are able to (2/2)
Describe data transfer rate and bps rate
Define the RS232 standard
Explain the use of the MAX232 and MAX232
chips
Interface the 8051 with an RS232 connector
Discuss the baud rate of the 8051
Describe serial communication features of the
8051
Program the 8051 for serial data communication
93
Homework
Chapter 10 Problems3,8,15,36,38,39,47