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What are Carbon-Carbon Composites?

Amorphous carbon
matrix composite
Carbon matrix
reinforced by graphitic
carbon fibers
First developed in
1958, but not
intensively researched
until the Space Shuttle
Program

C/C composites are lightweight, high C/C composites are lightweight, high- -
strength composite materials capable strength composite materials capable
of withstanding temperatures over of withstanding temperatures over
3000 3000 C. C.
What are C/C Composites?
C/C composites use the strength C/C composites use the strength
and modulus of carbon fibers to and modulus of carbon fibers to
reinforce a carbon matrix to resist reinforce a carbon matrix to resist
the rigors of extreme environments. the rigors of extreme environments.
Carbon-Carbon Composites
Carbon-Carbon Composites are the
woven mesh of Carbon-fibers.
Carbon-Carbon Composites are used for
their high strength and modulus of rigidity.
Carbon-Carbon Composites' structure can
be tailored to meet requirements.
Carbon-Carbon Composites are light
weight material which can withstand
temperatures up to 3000C
Properties of C/C
Composites
Excellent Thermal Shock Resistance(Over 2000
o
C)
Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
High Modulus of Elasticity ( 200 GPa )
High Thermal Conductivity ( 100 W/m*K )
Low Density ( 1830 Kg/m^3 )
High Strength
Low Coefficient of Friction ( in Fiber direction )
Thermal Resistance in non-oxidizing atmosphere
High Abrasion Resistance
High Electrical Conductivity
Non-Brittle Failure
Production of C/C
Production of C/C
Three dimensional woven carbon fiber structure
Pressure impregnation with liquid
Heat treated at 2550C
Impregnation, DENSIFICATION and
graphitization cycle repeated
Representative Weave
Constructions
Fabrication of C/C Composites


Liquid Phase Infiltration


Chemical Vapor Deposition
PAN-based carbon fibers (the most popular type of
carbon fibers).

In this method carbon fibers are produced by
conversion of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor
through the following stages:
Stretching filaments from polyacrylonitrile
precursor and their thermal oxidation at 200C.
The filaments are held in
tension.Carbonization in Nitrogen atmosphere
at a temperature about 1200C for several
hours.
During this stage non-carbonelements (O,N,H)
volatilize resulting in enrichment of the fibers
with carbon.Graphitization at about 2500C.

Carbon-Carbon Composites
porous carbon-carbon composites
(carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF))
Porosity content 70~90% high temperature
insulation
Liquid Phase Infiltration
Preparation of C/C fiber pre-form of desired shape and
structure
Liquid pre-cursor : Petroleum pitch/ Phenolic resin/ Coal
tar
Pyrolysis (Chemical deposition by heat in absence of O2
It is processed at 5401000C under high pressure
Pyrolysis cycle is repeated 3 to 10 times for desired
density
Heat Treatment converts amorphous C into crystalline C
Temperature range of treatment :1500-3000C
Heat treatment increases Modulus of Elasticity and
Strength
Manufacturing Process :
Processing of CBCF
Discontinuous fibers
(mm in length)
Ground recycled CBCF
(rework)
binder
(phenolic resin)
water
mixer slurry moulding
water
drying
Carbonization
(950)
High temp heat
treatment
Product
99.9%
50% carbon yield
from phenolic
vacuum
(fiber alignment)
gaseous
impurities
low pressure
porous &
anisotropic
Chemical Vapor
Deposition
Preparation of C/C fiber pre-form of desired shape
and structure
Densification of the composite by CVD technique
Infiltration from pressurized hydrocarbon gases
(Methane /Propane)at 990-1210C
Gas is pyrolyzed from deposition on fibre surface
Process duration depends on thickness of pre-form
Heat treatment increases Modulus of Elasticity and
Strength
This process gives higher strength and modulus of
elasticity

Dense carbon-carbon composites
Discontinuous fibers
Continuous fibers
Impregnation with
thermosetting resins
(phenolic, furan
polyimide)
pitch
(polynuclear
aromatic
hydrocarbons)
pyrolysis Carbonization
2500
Chemical vapour
deposition
Dense
Thick
enough?
product
Limitation of CVD
Hydrocarbon Gases Infiltrating into
interfilament surfaces and cracks ,
sometimes these gases deposite on outer
cracks and leave lot of pores
Reinfiltration and densification required
Month long process(for specific
applications)
Stress-strain curve
process dependent: Fig 4.30
Form of fiber reinforcement: Fig 4.31
Fatigue property
Properties of Carbon-Carbon
http://www.hitco.com/products/corrosion/chemical/index.html
Uses of Carbon-Carbon Composites
Aircraft, F-1 racing
cars and train brakes

Space shuttle nose tip
and leading edges

Rocket nozzles and
tips



http://www.futureshuttle.com/conference/Th
ermalProtectionSystem/Curry_73099.pdf
http://www.fibermaterialsinc.com/frSW.htm
http://www.fibermateri
alsinc.com/frSW.htm
Optical Microscopy
Sample 3:
SEM Images
Sample 3:
Application
High Performance Braking System
Refractory Material
Hot-Pressed Dies(brake pads)
Turbo-Jet Engine Components
Heating Elements
Missile Nose-Tips
Rocket Motor Throats
Leading Edges(Space Shuttle, Agni missile)
Heat Shields
X-Ray Targets
Applications
Applications
NASA thermal protection systems
Nozzle throat inserts
Nosetips & leading edges
Space motor nozzles
Products
Variety of high
temperature
applications.
Heat Shields

Baffle Heat Shield

Flexi Heat Shield
Disadvantage :


Low oxidation resistance



Reacts with Oxygen at temperature above
490C
Protection Method:

Ceramic coatings(Carbides/
Nitrides/oxides of Si,Zr,Ta,Al etc.)
Physical vapor deposition
Plasma spraying
Injecting with inorganic salts , borate &
silicate glass.
Replacement of C/C matrix material by
Si-C.(inhibitors of B, Si, Zr compounds)