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# Projectile Motion

Lecture 4
Dr. Tamer A. Tabet
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS II

Dr. Tamer A. Tabet
Course Code: KT00503
SEMS -2- 2012/2013, Wedn. 19/03/2013
Venue: DKP 3
Time: 8.00 10.00 AM.
Lecture 5
PROJECTILE MOTION
MATH II
University Malaysia Sabah
Dr. Tamer A. Tabet
2013
Part 1.
Summary
Part 2.
Introduction
Projectile Motion:
Motion through the air without a propulsion
Examples:
Part 1.
Motion of Objects Projected
Horizontally
v
0
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
Motion is accelerated
Acceleration is constant,
and downward
a = g = -9.81m/s
2

The horizontal (x)
component of velocity is
constant
The horizontal and vertical
motions are independent of
each other, but they have a
common time

g = -9.81m/s
2
ANALYSIS OF MOTION
ASSUMPTIONS:
x-direction (horizontal): uniform motion
y-direction (vertical): accelerated motion
no air resistance
QUESTIONS:
What is the trajectory?
What is the total time of the motion?
What is the horizontal range?
What is the final velocity?
x
y
0
Frame of reference:
h
v
0

Equations of motion:
X
Uniform m.
Y
Accel. m.
ACCL. a
x
= 0 a
y
= g = -9.81
m/s
2
VELC. v
x
= v
0
v
y
= g t
DSPL. x = v
0
t y = h + g t
2

g
Trajectory
x = v
0
t
y = h + g t
2

Eliminate time, t
t = x/v
0
y = h + g (x/v
0
)
2

y = h + (g/v
0
2
) x
2
y = (g/v
0
2
) x
2
+ h

y
x
h
Parabola, open down
v
01
v
02
> v
01
Total Time, t
y = h + g t
2

final y = 0
y
x
h
t
i
=0
t
f
=t
0 = h + g (t)
2
Solve for t:
t = 2h/(-g)
t = 2h/(9.81ms
-2
)

Total time of motion depends
only on the initial height, h
t = t
f
- t
i
Horizontal Range, x
final y = 0, time is
the total time t
y
x
h
t = 2h/(-g)
x = v
0
2h/(-g)

Horizontal range depends on the
initial height, h, and the initial
velocity, v
0

x
x = v
0
t
x = v
0
t
VELOCITY
v
v
x
= v
0
v
y
= g t
v = v
x
2
+ v
y
2

= v
0
2
+g
2
t
2

tg = v
y
/ v
x
= g t / v
0

FINAL VELOCITY
v
v
x
= v
0
v
y
= g t
v = v
x
2
+ v
y
2

v = v
0
2
+g
2
(2h /(-g))
v = v
0
2
+ 2h(-g)

tg = g t / v
0
= -(-g)2h/(-g) / v
0
= -2h(-g) / v
0

is negative
(below the
horizontal line)

t = 2h/(-g)
HORIZONTAL THROW - Summary
Trajectory Half -parabola, open
down
Total time
t = 2h/(-g)

Horizontal Range
x = v
0
2h/(-g)
Final Velocity
v = v
0
2
+ 2h(-g)
tg = -2h(-g) / v
0
h initial height, v
0
initial horizontal velocity, g = -9.81m/s
2
Part 2.
Motion of objects projected at an
angle
v
i
x
y

v
ix
v
iy
Initial velocity: vi = v
i
[]

Velocity components:
x- direction : v
ix
= v
i
cos
y- direction : v
iy
= v
i
sin
Initial position: x = 0, y = 0
x
y
Motion is accelerated
Acceleration is constant, and
downward
a = g = -9.81m/s
2

The horizontal (x) component of
velocity is constant
The horizontal and vertical
motions are independent of each
other, but they have a common
time
a = g =
- 9.81m/s
2
ANALYSIS OF MOTION:
ASSUMPTIONS
x-direction (horizontal): uniform motion
y-direction (vertical): accelerated motion
no air resistance
QUESTIONS
What is the trajectory?
What is the total time of the motion?
What is the horizontal range?
What is the maximum height?
What is the final velocity?
Equations of motion:
X
Uniform motion
Y
Accelerated motion
ACCELERATION
a
x
= 0 a
y
= g = -9.81 m/s
2
VELOCITY
v
x
= v
ix
= v
i
cos
v
x
= v
i
cos

v
y
= v
iy
+ g t
v
y
= v
i
sin + g t
DISPLACEMENT
x = v
ix
t = v
i
t cos
x = v
i
t cos
y = h + v
iy
t + g t
2
y = v
i
t

sin + g t
2
Equations of motion:
X
Uniform motion
Y
Accelerated motion
ACCELERATION
a
x
= 0 a
y
= g = -9.81 m/s
2
VELOCITY
v
x
= v
i
cos

v
y
= v
i
sin + g t
DISPLACEMENT
x = v
i
t cos y = v
i
t

sin + g t
2
Trajectory
x = v
i
t cos
y = v
i
t

sin + g t
2

Eliminate time, t
t = x/(v
i
cos )

y
x
Parabola, open down
2
2 2
2 2
2
cos 2
tan
cos 2 cos
sin
x
v
g
x y
v
gx
v
x v
y
i
i i
i
O
+ O =
O
+
O
O
=
y = bx + ax
2
Total Time, t
final height y = 0, after time interval t
0 = v
i
t

sin + g (t)
2
Solve for t:
y = v
i
t

sin + g t
2
0 = v
i
sin + g t

t =
2 v
i
sin
(-g)
t = 0 t
x
Horizontal Range, x
final y = 0, time is
the total time t
x = v
i
t cos
x = v
i
t cos
x
x
y
0
t =
2 v
i
sin
(-g)
x =

2v
i
2
sin cos
(-g)

x =
v
i
2
sin (2

)
(-g)
sin (2

) = 2 sin cos
Horizontal Range, x
x =
v
i
2
sin (2

)
(-g)
(deg) sin (2

)
0 0.00
15 0.50
30 0.87
45 1.00
60 0.87
75 0.50
90 0
CONCLUSIONS:
Horizontal range is greatest for the
throw angle of 45
0

Horizontal ranges are the same for
angles and (90
0
)
Trajectory and horizontal range
2
2 2
cos 2
tan x
v
g
x y
i
O
+ O =
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 20 40 60 80
15 deg
30 deg
45 deg
60 deg
75 deg
v
i
= 25 m/s
Velocity
Final speed = initial speed (conservation of energy)
Impact angle = - launch angle (symmetry of parabola)
Maximum Height
v
y
= v
i
sin + g t
y = v
i
t

sin + g t
2
At maximum height v
y
= 0
0 = v
i
sin + g t
up
t
up
=
v
i
sin
(-g)
t
up
= t/2
h
max
= v
i
t
up
sin + g t
up
2
h
max
= v
i
2

sin
2
/(-g) + g(v
i
2

sin
2
)/g
2

h
max
=

v
i
2

sin
2

2(-g)
Projectile Motion Final Equations
Trajectory
Parabola, open down

Total time

t =

Horizontal range

x =

Max height

h
max
=
(0,0) initial position, v
i
= v
i
[] initial velocity, g = -9.81m/s
2
2 v
i
sin
(-g)
v
i
2
sin (2

)
(-g)
v
i
2

sin
2

2(-g)
Forces in Two Dimensions
Force is also represented in x-y components.
Finding the total velocity
Use the pythagorean theorem to find the
resultant velocity using the components (V
x

and V
y
)
Use SOH CAH TOA to find the direction
Vx
V
y
V
Example 2
A cat chases a mouse across a 1.0 m high
table. The mouse steps out of the way and the
cat slides off the table and strikes the floor 2.2
m from the edge of the table. What was the
cats speed when it slid off the table?
What do we know and what are we looking for?
x= 2.2 m
y= -1.0m (bc the cat falls down)

2.2m
1
.
0

m

Vx= ?????
What are we looking for??
How do we find Vx?
Equation for horizontal motion:

We have xso we need t.

How do we find how long it takes for the cat to hit the
ground?

Use the vertical motion kinematic equations.

t v x
x
=
Vertical Motion
y= -1.0m
a=-9.81 m/s^2
What equation should we use?

Rearrange the equation, to solve for t then plug in
values.

2
2
1
at y = A
s
s
m
m
a
y
t 45 .
81 . 9
) 0 . 1 ( 2 2
2
=

= =
Horizontal equation

Rearrange and solve for
Vx:

Cats Speed is 4.89 m/s

s
m
s
m
t
x
v
x
89 . 4
45 .
2 . 2
= = =
t v x
x
=
Cliff example
A boulder rolls off of a cliff and lands 6.39
seconds later 68 m from the base of the cliff.
What is the height of the cliff?
What is the initial velocity of the boulder?
How high is the cliff?
y= ? a=-9.81 m/s
2
t = 6.39 s V
x
=?
V
y,i
= 0 x= 68 m

2
2
1
at y =
m
s
m
at y 200 ) 39 . 6 )( 81 . 9 (
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
= = =
The cliff is 200 m high
What is the initial velocity of the boulder?
The boulder rolls off the cliff horizontally

Therefore, we are looking for Vx

t v x
x
=
s
m
s
m
t
x
v
x
6 . 10
39 . 6
68
+ = = =
Important Concepts for Projectiles Launched
Horizontally
Horizontal Components Vertical Components
Horizontal Velocity is
constant throughout the
flight

Horizontal acceleration is
0
Initial vertical velocity is 0
but increases throughout
the flight

Vertical acceleration is
constant: -9.81 m/s
2

Projectiles Launched at An Angle
Projectiles Launched
Horizontally
Projectiles Launched at
an Angle
V
x
is constant
Initial V
y
is 0
V
x
is constant
Initial V
y
is not 0
V
i

V
x,i

V
y,i

V
i
= V
x
Components of Initial Velocity for Projectiles
Launched at an angle
Use soh cah toa to find the V
x,i
and V
y,i

i
i x
v
v
h
a
,
) cos( = = u
( )
i
i y
v
v
h
o
,
sin = = u
( ) u cos
, i i x
v v =
V
i

V
x,i

V
y,i

( ) u sin
, i i y
v v =
Revise the kinematic equations again
Horizontal Motion Vertical Motion
( ) ( )
2
2
1
sin t a t v y
i
A + A = A u
( ) u cos
, i i x x
v v v = =
( ) t v t v x
i x
A = A = A u cos
y a v y a v v
i i y f y
A + = A + = 2 )) sin( ( 2
2 2
,
2
,
u
( ) at v at v v
i i y f y
+ = + = u sin
, ,
What do we know?

x= 42.0 m
= 25
V
i
= 23.0 m/s
V
y
at top = 0
t=?
y=?
42.0 m
25
What can we use to solve the problem?
Find t using the horizontal eqn:
x=v
x
t = v
i
cos()t

How to find y?
V
y,f
= 0 at top of the balls path
What equation should we use?

y a v v
i y f y
A + = 2
2
,
2
,
( )
( )
s
s
m
m
v
x
v
x
t
i x
0 . 2
25 )(cos 23 (
0 . 42
cos
= =
A
=
A
= A
u
( )
( )
m
s
m
s
m
a
v
a
v v
y
i
i y f y
8 . 4
81 . 9 2
25 sin ) 23 ( 0
2
) sin ( 0
2
2
2
2
2
,
2
,
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

= A
u
Cliff example
A girl throws a tennis ball at an angle of 60North of East from
a height of 2.0 m. The balls range is 90 m and it is in flight for
6 seconds.
What is the initial horizontal velocity of the ball?
What is the initial vertical velocity of the ball?
What is the total initial velocity of the ball?
How high above the initial position does the ball get?
What is the vertical velocity of the ball 2 seconds after it is thrown?

What is the initial horizontal velocity of the ball?
x= 90 m
=60
Total time= 6 s
Horizontal velocity is
constant: Vx

t v x
x
=
East 15
6
90
s
m
t
x
V
x
= = =
What is the initial vertical velocity of the ball?
i Vx
i Vy
,
,
tan = u
North 26 98 . 25 ) 15 )( 60 tan(
,
s
m
s
m
V
i y
= = =
Vx,i
Vy,i

Vi

What is the total initial velocity of the ball?
2
,
2
,
2
i y i x i
V V V + =
East of North 60 at 30 26 15
2 2
= + =
s
m
V
i
Vx,i
Vy,i

Vi
How high above the ground does the ball get?
At the top of the parabola, Vy
is 0so use the revised
kinematic equations

Add 2m to get the height
above the ground: 36.65 m
y a v v
i y f y
A + = 2
2
,
2
,
( )
m
s
m a
v v
y
i y f y
45 . 34
81 . 9 2
26 0
2
2
2
2
,
2
,
=
|
.
|

\
|

= A
What is the vertical velocity of the ball 2
seconds after it is thrown?
V
y,i
=+26 m/s
a= -9.81 m/s
2
t = 2 seconds
s
m
s
s
m
s
m
at v v
i y f y
4 . 6 ) 2 )( 81 . 9 ( 26
2
, ,
+ = + = + =
Important Concepts for Projectiles Launched at
an Angle
At the top of the parabola, neither the objects
velocity nor its acceleration is 0!!!!!
Only V
y
is 0
V
x
is constant throughout the flight
Horizontal acceleration is always 0
Vertical acceleration is always -9.81 m/s
2

QUESTIONS FOR
DISCUSSION
Projectile Motion Example
Q1:
Let's say you're on top of a cliff, which drops vertically 150 m to
the ocean below. You throw a ball with an initial speed of 8.40
m/s at an angle of 20 degrees above the horizontal
(a) How long does it take before it hits the water?
(b) How far is it from the base of the cliff to the point of impact?
As usual, be as systematic as possible. Draw a diagram, choose
a coordinate system, and organize your data.
X info. y info.

Initial
position
x
o
= 0 y
o
= +150 m
Final
position
x = ? y = 0
Initial
velocity
v
ox
= +v
o
cos(q)
= +7.893 m/s
v
oy
= +v
o
sin(q)
= +2.873 m/s
Acceler
ation
a
x
= 0 a
y
= -9.8 m/s
2

(a) How long does it take before it hits the water?
Use the y-information to find the time of flight. One method
is to do it in two steps, first calculating the final y-velocity
using the equation:
v
y

2
= v
oy
2
+ 2 a
y
(y - y
o
)
This gives v
y

2
= 2.873
2
+ 2 (-9.8) (-150) =
2948.3 m
2
/ s
2
.
Taking the square root gives: v
y
= +/- 54.30
m/s.
Remember that the square root can be positive or negative. In
this case it's negative, because the y-component of the velocity
will be directed down when the ball hits the ground.
Now find the time using:
v
y
= v
oy
+ a
y
t
So, -54.30 = 2.873 - 9.8 t, which gives t = 5.834 seconds.
Rounding off, the ball was in the air for 5.83 s.
b) How far is it from the base of the cliff to the point of
impact?
Plug the time we just calculated into the equation:
x - x
o
= v
ox
t + a
x
t
2

x = (7.893) (5.834) = 46.0 m.
Problem 2:

The formula h (t) = -16 t
2
+ 32 t + 80 gives the height h above
ground, in feet, of an object thrown, at t = 0, straight upward from
the top of an 80 feet building.

a - What is the highest point reached by the object?

b - How long does it take the object to reach its highest point?

c - After how many seconds does the object hit the ground?

d - For how many seconds is the height of the object higher than 90
feet?
Solution to Problem 2:

a - The height h given above is a quadratic function. The graph of h
as a function of time t gives a parabolic shape and the maximum
height h occur at the vertex of the parabola. For a quadratic function
of the form h = a t
2
+ b t + c, the vertex is located at t = - b / 2a.
Hence for h given above the vertex is at t

t = -32 / 2(-16) = 1 second.

1 second after the object was thrown, it reaches its highest point
(maximum value of h) which is given by

h = -16 (1)
2
+ 32 (1) + 80 = 96 feet

b - It takes 1 second for the object to reach it highest point.

c - At the ground h = 0, hence the solution of the equation h = 0
gives the time t at which the object hits the ground.

-16 t
2
+ 32 t + 80 = 0

The above quadratic equation has two solutions one is negative and
the second one is positive and approximately equal to 3.5 seconds.
So it takes 3.5 seconds for the object to hit the ground after it has
been thrown upward. The graphical meanings to the answers to
parts a, b and c can be shown.
d - The object is higher than 90 feet for all values of t satisfying the inequality
h > 90. Hence

-16 t
2
+ 32 t + 80 > 90

The above inequality is satisfied for

0.4 < t < 1.6 (seconds)

The height of the object is higher than 90 feet for

1.6 - 0.4 = 1.2 seconds.

The graph below is that of h in terms of t and clearly shows that h is greater
than 90 feet for t between 0.4 and 1.6 seconds.

Question 3
If you toss a ball upward in a train moving at constant speed, it
returns to its starting place. Will the ball do the same if the
train is accelerating?

A. Yes
B. No
If you toss a ball upward in a train moving at
constant speed, it returns to its starting place.
Will the ball do the same if the train is
accelerating?

A. Yes
B. No

Question 2
When a rifle is being aimed at a distant target,
the barrel should be lined up so that it
points

A. Slightly higher than the target
B. Exactly at the target
C. Slightly lower than the target

When a rifle is being aimed at a distant target,
the barrel should be lined up so that it points

A. Slightly higher than the target
B. Exactly at the target
C. Slightly lower than the target
ASSIGNMENT 1

SUBMISSION: DUE 5
th
of April
Lets look at an example:
Q1. A football is kicked from the ground to a position downfield. If
the ball is kicked with a speed of 20 m/s at a 45 degree angle, how
long will it be in the air? How far will the ball travel?
Q2) A bullet has a speed of 350 m/sec as it leaves a rifle. If it is
fired horizontally from a cliff 6.4 m above a lake, how far does the
bullet travel before striking the water?
Q3) A player kicks a football at an angle of 37
o
with the horizontal
and with an initial speed of 48 ft/sec. A second player standing at a
distance of 100 ft from the first in the direction of the kick starts
running to meet the ball at the instant it is kicked. How fast must he
run in order to catch the ball before it hits the ground?
Q4) A projectile shot at an angle of 60
o
above the horizontal
strikes a building 80 ft away at a point 48 ft above the point of
projection. (a) Find the initial velocity, (b) Find the magnitude
& direction of the velocity when it strikes the building.
PROJECTILE MOTION - SUMMARY
Projectile motion is motion with a constant
horizontal velocity combined with a constant
vertical acceleration
The projectile moves along a parabola