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1 DHCP

by steffen diehl
DHCP
and how it works
2 DHCP Overview
Overview
Introduction
Basics
Case - We play DHCP Server
Problems
Tasks
Solutions
Apply what you've learned
Conclusion

3 DHCP in general
Basics
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Standard protocol
Defined by RFC 1541 (superseded by RFC
2131)
Created by the
Host Configuration Working Group
of the
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
4 DHCP techiques
Basics
Runs over UDP
Utilizing ports:
67 connections to server
68 connections to client
Extension of BOOTP (protocol used for
simple interaction)
Uses clientserver model
5 DHCP problem
Case
Got a network
Want to add new clients
DHCP-Server doesnt work
How do clients get their:
IP Address -or-
network configuration parameters (Subnet
Mask, Default Gateway, DNS and WINS)
Need replacement!!
6 DHCP server tasks I
Case - Theory
1
st
implementation goal of a DHCP Server
support of dynamic allocation of Network
Addresses
chooses and allocates an IP address
gives network configuration parameters to the
client


7 DHCP parts of a DHCP Server
Case - Theory
Need 2 databases
Address Pool is the database which holds IP
addresses and other network configuration
parameters
Binding database keeps mapping between
an Ethernet address and Address Pool entries

8 DHCP client conditions
Case - Theory
All interactions are initiated by a client
Server only replies
obtain an IP address automatically in
NW options
configuring the host to the network is
done by a simple handshake

9 DHCP steps in becoming part of the network I
Case in practice
Client broadcasts DHCPDISCOVER
One or more servers return DHCPOFFER
with available Address and NW
Information
Clients chooses one offer that it likes best
broadcasts DHCPREQUEST to identify
chosen Server/lease
DHCPREQUEST also to renew lease

10 DHCP steps in becoming part of the network II
Case - in practice
Server sends
DHCPACK
Lease is finalized
Client starts using IP
DHCPNAK
Client resumes from DHCPDISCOVER point
If client doesnt want IP - DHCPDECLINE
is sent
DHCPRELEASE gives IP back into pool

11 DHCP types of assigning addresses I
Case - Theory
Static/Manual allocation
Server allocates IP chosen by the Admin
Server configuration includes
IP-Address -and-
MAC-Address
for every client
DHCP only used to convey assigned address
to client

12 DHCP types of assigning addresses II
Case - Theory
Automatic allocation
IP address is permanently associated with a
MAC address
till administrator intervenes the infinite lease
Dynamic allocation
Like Automatic allocation
Except:
server tracks leases
give IP addresses whose lease has expired to
other DHCP clients
end
13 DHCP lease duration
Case - Theory
Client is responsible to renew/release IP
Lease timestamps:
Total lease duration
T1 (0.5 * duration_of_lease)
client enters the RENEWING state
contacts the server that originally issued network
address
T2 (0.875 * duration_of_lease)
client enters the REBINDING state
attempts to contact any server

14 DHCP problems
Case - Theory
Lease duration
Client holds IP when not connected
Clients retire
Servers/Databases should have constant IPs
Analyze the NW
Often changing clients?
Servers/databases?
Enough IP Addresses available?

15 DHCP server tasks II
Case - Theory
By using the fitting Methods
implementation goals 2-4 of a DHCP Server
server should be able to recycle the IP address when
the lease period is expired
A network administrator should not configure each
client/user interaction of each client should not be
required.
support of static allocation and an infinite lease

can also be realized!!!!
16 DHCP find a solution!!!
Case - in practice
Servers:
WEB-Server 192.168.1.1
Access Point 192.168.1.2
Lecturers via Ethernet:
Range from .100 to .102
Students via WLAN:
Range from .200 to .230

back
17 DHCP negative aspects
Conclusion
Insecurity of UDP
Broadcast of messages
Risk of wrong configuration causing
High traffic
Waste of IP Addresses
A lot more work than expected
Detailed and precise analysis before
implementation needed

18 DHCP positive aspects
Conclusion
works well if you have to manage a lot of mobile
users:
people with laptops working in and out of the office
hosts coming and going with a great amount of
frequency
perfect when Network parameters have changed
only one point you have to work at
sharing a limited pool of IP addresses
Mixture of allocation types can be used
19 DHCP the end
Conclusion

Thank you for your attention


any questions??
20 DHCP
Refrences
RFC 2131, Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol
RFC 2322, Management of IP numbers by
peg-dhcp
www.ietf.org, Internet Engineering Task
Force
www.microsoft.com, Microsoft Knowledge
Base Article - 169289