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ACTIVITY 2.

2
To determine the melting and freezing point
of naphthalene, C
10
H
8
Boiling tube, 250 cm3 beaker, stirring
thermometer, tripod stand, retort stand and
clamp, Bunsen burner, stopwatch, conical
flask, wire gauze
Naphthalene, C
10
H
8
, tap water
1) A boiling tube was filled with naphthalene,
to a depth of 3 cm and a thermometer was
put into it.

2) The boiling tube was suspended in a beaker
half-filled with water using a retort stand and
a clamp. The level of Naphthalene in the
boiling tube was ensured to be below level of
water in the beaker
3) The water was heated and the naphthalene
was stirred slowly with the thermometer .
When the temperature of naphthalene
reached 60 C, the stopwatch started.

4) The temperature and state(s) of the
naphthalene were recorded at half-minute
interval until the temperature of the
naphthalene reached 90 C
Thermometer
Boiling tube
Water
Naphthalene, C
10
H
8
1) The boiling tube in activity A was removed
from the water bath. The outer surface of the
boiling tube was dried and immediately it was
put into a conical flask. The naphthalene ,
C
10
H
8
, was stirred continuously.

The temperature and state(s) of the
naphthalene were recorded at half-minute
intervals until the temperature dropped to
about 60 C



Time
(min)


0.0


0.5


1.0


1.5


2.0


2.5


3.0


3.5


4.0

Temperature
(C)


61.0


65.0


67.0


71.0


80.0


80.0


80.0


83.o


89.0

State

Solid

Solid

Solid

Solid

Solid
and
Liquid

Solid
and
liquid

Solid
and
liquid

Liquid

Liquid


Time
(min)


0.0


0.5


1.0


1.5


2.0


2.5


3.0


3.5


4.0

Temperature
(C)


87.0


84.0


81.0


80.0


80.0


80.0


80.0


76.0


73.0

State

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid
and
solid

Liquid
and
solid

Liquid
and
solid

Liquid
and
solid

Solid

Solid
The flat section in each graph indicates a
change of state. The temperature remains
constant as the heat energy is used to change
the state of napthalene
1) To ensure that naphthalene is heated
evenly / naphthalene is flammable

2) a) to ensure an even cooling and minimize
the heat loss to the surrounding

b) to avoid supercooling



3) The melting and freezing point of naphthalene

4) In the heating curve of naphthalene, the heat
energy absorbed by the particles is used to
overcome the forces between the particles so
that the solid can turn into liquid.

In the cooling curve of naphthalene, the heat
loss to surrounding is exactly balanced by the
heat energy liberated as the particles attract one
another to form a solid
The melting and freezing point of
naphthalene are the same which is __C