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# Materials and Components

## It is the cross-sectional area of a wire with a

diameter of 1 mil.

1 circular mil

1 cmil = d (mils)
It is a material in which electrons can move
easily from one atom to the next.

Conductor
It is a component that allows us to control
whether the current is On or Off in a circuit.

Switch
A carbon-film resistor is color-coded with red,
green, black, and gold stripes. What are its
resistance and tolerance ?

25 10%
It is the amount of work required to move an
electron between two points that have a
potential difference of one volt.

1 eV (electron volt)
The entire group of magnetic filed lines, which
can be considered flowing outward from the
north pole of a magnet, is called ?

Magnetic Flux
It is a very small capacitance that exists between
any two conductors separated by an insulator.

Stray capacitance
It is the inability of a capacitor to discharge
completely to zero. It is sometimes called
battery action or capacitor memory.

Dielectric
absorption
It is the temperature at which a magnetic
material loses its ferromagnetic properties.

Curie temperature
It is a component that can store electric charge.

Capacitor
It is a type of resistor whose construction
consists of a thin spiral film of metal on a
ceramic substrate.

Metal-film resistor
It is the ability of one coil to induce a voltage in
another coil nearby.

Mutual inductance
The charge of 5 C moves past a given point in 1
s. How much is the current ?

5 A

=

=
5
1
= 5
When a ferromagnetic substance is magnetised
there are small changes in dimensions. This
phenomenon is called

Magnetostriction
The core of a coil has a length of 10 cm. The self
inductance is 8 mH. If the core length is
doubled, all other quantities remaining the
same, the self inductance will be ?

4 mH

Inductance is inversely proportional to the core length.
It is the study of the production and behaviour
of materials at very low temperatures (below
150 C, 238 F or 123 K).

Cryogenics

It is a two-terminal variable resistor used to vary
the amount of current in a circuit.

Rheostat

Substances that have very high resistance, of the
order of many megaohms, are classed as ?

Insulators.
It is the fraction of total flux from one coil linking
another coil nearby.

Coefficient of
Coupling.
It is a type of resistor made of finely divided
carbon mixed with a powdered insulating
material in the correct proportion to obtain the
desired resistance value.

Carbon-composition
resistor.
The minority carrier life time and diffusion
constant in a semiconducting material are 100
s and 100 cm
2
/s respectively. The diffusion
length of carriers is ?

0.1 cm

Diffusion length = sqrt(Carrier life time x Diffusion constant)
= (100 x 10
-6
x 100)
0.5
= 0.1 cm.
In anti-ferromagnetic materials, the graph of
susceptibility versus temperature shows a sharp
maximum at a certain temperature. This
temperature is known as ?

Neel Temperature
If the diameter of a wire is doubled, its current
carrying capacity becomes ?

4 (Four) times

Current carrying capacity depends on area of cross-section.
It is a three-terminal variable resistor used to
vary the voltage between the center terminal
and one of the outside terminals.

Potentiometer
The law J = E, where J is current density, is
electrical conductivity and E is field strength is ?

Ohms Law

It is the current that flows in a circular path
through the cross section of the iron core in a
transformer.

Eddy Current

It is the small inductance of any length of

Stray inductance

It is a free electron and a hole which are created
when a valence electron gains enough energy to
leave its covalent bond in a silicon crystal.

Electron-hole pair

It is an electrical pressure or force that exists
between two points.

Potential Difference
or Voltage

How much is the inductance of a coil that
induces 40 V when its current changes at the
rate of 4A/s ?

10 H

=

/
=
40
4
= 10

It is the ability of a material to concentrate
magnetic flux.

Relative
Permeability

It is the ability of an insulator to concentrate
electric flux.

Relative
permittivity
The high-voltage circuit for a color picture tube
can have 30 kV across 500 pF of capacitance.
Calculate the stored energy.

0.225 J

=
1
2
=
500 10
12
(30 10
3
)
2
= 0.225
It is the ability of a dielectric to withstand a
potential difference without internal arcing.

Dielectric Strength

It states that the polarity of an induced voltage
must be such that it opposed the current that
produces the induced voltage.

Lenzs Law

The wavelength of light emitted by GaAs laser is
8670 x 10
-10
m. If h = 6.626 x 10
-34
Js, velocity of
light = 3 x 10
8
m/s and eV = 1.602 x 10
-19
J, the
energy gap in GaAs is ?

1.43 eV

=

=
6.626 10
34
3 10
8
8670 10
10
1.602 10
19
= 1.43

It is a type of resistor whose construction
consists of a thin spiral layer of carbon on an
insulated substrate.

Carbon-film
resistor

Material which lack permanent magnetic
dipoles are known as ?

Diamagnetic

Diamagnetic materials have no permanent magnetic dipoles.
It is a device that uses the concept of mutual
inductance to step up or step down an
alternating voltage.

Transformer
It is a semiconductor that has been doped with
impurity atoms to alter the characteristics of the
material, mainly its conductivity.

Extrinsic
semiconductor
It is the sharing of valence electrons between
neighboring atoms in a silicon crystal or other
crystalline structure.

Covalent bonding
It is the current that flows through the dielectric
of a capacitor when voltage is applied across the
capacitor plates.

Leakage current
It is the name of for nonmetallic materials that
have the ferromagnetic properties of iron.

Ferrite
How much is the resistance of 100 ft of No.2
gage copper wire with resistivity of 10.4 cmil-
/ft and the cross-sectional area of 1022 cmil ?

R=1.02

=

= 10.4

x
100
1022
= 1.02
It is a method of demagnetizing a material by
using an alternating current.

Degaussing
It is a factor that indicates how much the
resistance of a material changes with
temperature.

Temperature
Coefficient
It is the absence of a valence electron in a
covalent bond structure.

Hole
The rule that resistivity of conductors can be
separated into two parts viz. temperature
independent and temperature dependent is
known as ?

Matthiessen's rule
It is a graph showing how the power rating of a
resistor decreases as its operating temperature
increases.

Derating Curve
It is a type of magnet in which it needs current
from an external source to maintain its magnetic
field.

Electromagnet
It is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net
electric charge, either positive or negative,
resulting from a loss or gain of electrons.

Ion

It is an electromagnet wound in the form of a
doughnut. It has no magnetic poles and the
maximum strength of the magnetic field is
concentrated in the iron core.

Torroid

It is a resistor whose resistance value changes
with changes in its operating temperature.

Thermistor

It is a semiconductor material with only one
type of atom.

Intrinsic
semiconductor

A parallel plate capacitor has its length, width
and separation doubled. It fringing effects are
neglected, to keep the capacitance same, the
dielectric constant must be ?

Halved

=

, when dimensions are changed, A become four times and d becomes twice.
Since
0
is constant,
r
must be halved to keep C constant.

A tungsten wire has a 14- resistance at 20C.
Calculate its resistance at 120C. = 0.005.

21

=
0
+
0
= 14 + 14 0.005 100 = 21
It is the maximum allowable percent difference
between the measured and coded values of
resistance.

Tolerance
It is an atom with three valence electrons.

Trivalent atom
The law that

(where K is thermal
conductivity, is electrical conductivity and T is
absolute temperature) for all metals is equal to a
universal constant is known as

Lorentz Law
It is the electric or magnetic effect on one body
on another without any physical contact
between them.

Induction
It is a fusion of elements without chemical
action between them.

Alloy
Above a certain temperature, the specific heat
of a metal becomes constant. This temperature
is called ?

Debye
Temperature
It is an electrical discharge brought on by the
ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor
that is electrically energized.

Corona Discharge
With a flux of 10,000 Mx through a
perpendicular area of 5 cm, what is the flux
density in Gauss?

2000 G

=

=
10,000
5
= 2000
It is a type of resistor whose construction
consists of resistance wire wrapped on an
insulating core.

Wire-wound
resistor
It is the resistance of a metal conductor whose
cross-sectional area is 1 cmil and whose length
is 1 ft.

Specific Resistance
It is the effect that describes a small voltage
generated across the width of a conductor that
is carrying current in an external magnetic field.

Hall Effect
It is a discharge which occurs when one of the
charged objects comes into contact with
another dissimilarly charged object.

Electrostatic
Discharge
What is the output voltage of a battery that
expends 3.6 J of energy in moving 0.5 C of
charge ?

7.2 V

=

=
3.6
0.5
= 7.2
It is a graph showing how the flux density, B, in
teslas, increases with the field intensity, H, in
ampere-turns/meter.

B-H magnetization
curve
The merger of hole and free electron is called ?

Recombination
It is the ability of a dielectric to hold or store an
electric charge.

Capacitance
It is a transformer made of one continuous coil
with a tapped connection between the end
terminals.

Autotransformer
It is a term used to describe the effect of an
induced voltage in opposing a change in current.

Counter emf
(cemf)
It is any magnetic field lines that do not link two
coils that are close to each other.

Leakage flux
It is the ability of a conductor to produce an
induced voltage in itself when the current
changes.

Inductance
It is the process of adding impurity atoms to a
pure semiconductor material such as silicon.

Doping