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GENERAL AWARENESS IN

THE MANUFACTURING OF
A STEAM TURBINE
At BHEL-Haridwar
PRESENTED BY:-
ADITYA GUPTA
A12405411013
7MAE-ASE
AMITY UNIVERSITY

FACULTY GUIDE
Mr. MAHENDRA KUMAR VERMA
(HOD-Mechanical and Automation Engineering Department
Amity School of Engineering
Amity University, Uttar Pradesh)

INDUSTRIAL GUIDE
Mr. JAIKESH KUMAR
(ENGR-TUM-Plg, BL-3, BHEL-Haridwar)
ABOUT
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited was established in 1964 and is one of the major
manufacturing and engineering enterprise in INDIA.
BHEL has its hands spread in telecommunication, renewable energy, power
generation, etc.
BHEL has been certified with ISO-9000 and ISO-14001 for quality management
and environment management.
BHEL manufactures products like
steam turbines
gas turbines
hydro power plants, etc.
BHEL has also won many INTERNATIONAL AWARDS and NATIONAL AWARDS:-
BHEL, in the world, is the 7th largest power equipment manufacturer.
The company received the National Intellectual Property Award 2014
and Award for Innovative Enterprises 2014.
The company has also won the DSIJ Award 2013 for the Most Efficient
Maharatna PSU.
BHEL also won the Golden Peacock Award 2013 for Innovation
Management.
BHEL received the India Pride Award 2013 for Excellence in Heavy
Industries.
In 2013, the company won ICAI National Award for Excellence in Cost
Management for the eighth consecutive year.
The company received two Sustainability Award from the President of
India in 2012.
In 2011, BHEL was ranked 9
th
most innovative company in the world by
US business magazine Forbes.
The company was also placed at 4th place in Forbes Asia's Fabulous 50
List of 2010.
BHEL-HARIDWAR
BHELs unit in Haridwar is situated in the foot hills of Shivalik range.
There are two units in BHEL Haridwar as followed
1) Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP)
2) Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP)

CLASSIFICATION OF BLOCK - 3
BAY-1
HEAVY MACHINE SHOP: work is done on different CNC machines
such as centre lathe, boring and milling machines. Asias largest
vertical boring machine is installed here.
ASSEMBLY SECTION: here assembly of hydro turbine is done.
OVERSPEED BALANCE TUNNEL: here balancing of rotors of steam
turbine, gas turbines etc., are done.
BAY-2
HEAVY MACHINE SHOP: manufacturing of only internal and
external casings is done.
ASSEMBLY SECTION: here assembly of steam turbines up to
1000MW is done.


OVERSPEED AND
VACUUM BALANCING
TUNNEL
STEAM TURBINE CASING
AND ROTORS IN
ASSEMBLY AREA
BAY-3
BEARING SECTION: here JOURNAL bearings are manufactured- used to
overcome the vibrations.
TURNING SECTION: here CNC lathes, turning, milling, boring and drilling
machines are installed.
GOVERNING SECTION: governors used in turbines for controlling the speed
of rotor are manufactured.
BAY-4
TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING SHOP: here blades of steam turbines
are made. There is also a copying machine.
TURNING SECTION: here CNC lathes, turning, milling, boring and drilling
machines are installed.
HEAT TREATMENT SHOP: here HARDNESS tests are performed on large
sized UTMs.
CLASSIFICATION OF BLOCK - 3
CNC ROTOR TURNING LATHE
STEAM TURBINES
A device that converts chemical energy into mechanical energy is called a
turbine.
A device that converts the chemical energy of steam into mechanical
energy is known as steam turbine.
High pressure fluid at the inlet of the turbine (having high energy state)
exits as lower pressure and temperature fluid (having low energy state).
The difference in energy is converted into mechanical rotational energy.
ANOTHER USE OF
STEAM TURBINE
Industries such as the gas processing industry use turbines as a source of
refrigeration, dropping the temperature of the gas going through the
turbine.
In other words, turbines can be used to reduce the temperature of the
working fluid even while providing power.
Higher the pressure ratio across a turbine means greater expansion and
greater temperature drop.
TURBINE v/s GAS TURBINE
The word gas turbine is one common, and somewhat misleading, use of
the word turbine.
A device that converts chemical energy into mechanical energy,
specifically when a rotor of multiple blades is driven by the movement of
fluid or gas, is called a turbine.
A gas turbine engine is more than just a turbine. It typically includes a
compressor, combustor and turbine combination which is used to provide
shaft or thrust power.
ADVANTAGES OF STEAM TURBINES
Ability to utilize the energy of high pressure and high temperature steam
High efficiency
High rotational speed
High capacity/weight ratio

DISADVANTAGES OF STEAM TURBINES
For slow speed applications reduction gears are required.
The efficiency of small steam turbines is poor.
IMPULSE TURBINE
The impulse turbine work on the principle that- if steam at high pressure is
allowed to expand through stationary nozzles, it will result in the drop in
the steam pressure and an increase in steam velocity.
The steam passes through the stationary nozzles and the high speed steam
when applied to a turbine blade, will cause in the direction of steam to
change due to blades.
This will create an impulse force on the blades causing them to move, which
will rotate the attached rotor.
REACTION TURBINE
A reaction turbine has alternating rows of fixed blades and rows of rotating
blades.
Initially the steam expands in the fixed blades and gains some velocity with some
drop in its pressure.
It then enters the moving blades where its direction of flow is changed producing
an impulse force on the moving blades.
However, as the steam passes through the moving blades it expands again and
further drop in pressure gives a reaction force to the blades.
This process is repeated as the steam passes through alternating rows of fixed and
moving blades.
PARTS OF A BLADE
A blade can be divided into 3 parts for its constructional features. These parts
are as follows:
The profile: the thermal energy of the steam is converted into kinetic
energy.
The root: it fixes the blades to turbine rotor, giving a proper anchor to
the blades, and transmitting the kinetic energy of the blade to the rotor.
The damping element: the vibrations which occur in the blades, are
reduced by the dampers, due to the steam flowing through the blades.
BLADES PROFILE
HP BLADE PROFILE
Camber line
Chord
Bitangent line
Pitch of a blade is the circumferential distance between
any point on the profile and an identical point on the
next blade.

LP BLADE PROFILE
These blades are twisted and tapered in the
case of the L.P. blade profiles.

BLADE ROOTS
A part of the blade that fixes to the
rotor or stator is called root of the
blade.
There are two types of roots, namely T-
root and Fork-root.
The T-root has a lower load carrying
capacity than the Fork-root.
Machining the sides of a T-root with
side grip is one more of a problem.
BLADING MATERIAL
There are various materials used for making the turbine blades. Some of
these are: 403-stainless steel, 422-stainless steel, A-286, etc.
The 403 stainless steel is probably found over 90% of all the stages on
impulse steam turbine. The 403 stainless steel is used because it has the
following properties of the high yield strength, endurance limit, ductility,
toughness, corrosion resistance and damping.
At higher temperatures (between 700 and 900
o
F or 371 and 482
o
C) the 422
stainless steel material is used.
The A-286 material is a nickel-based alloy that is generally used in hot gas
expanders with stage temperatures between 900 and 1150
o
F (482 and
621
o
C).
CONCLUSION
Thus we have studied about the various parts, types and uses of a steam
turbine. I would like to thank my industry guide Mr. Jaikesh Kumar and my
faculty guide Mr. Mahendra Kumar Verma for their guidance and support in
completing this project.
THANK YOU