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Mahmoona Nawaz Khan

Any nourishing substance that is eaten,


drunk, or otherwise taken into the body
to sustain life, provide energy, promote
growth, etc.



Humans and animals alike need food to
survive because food contains several
life-supporting substances that are
necessary for them to survive and
sustain their bodies.

Nutrients are the essential substances that we
get from our food. They are what the body
needs to perform its daily functions properly.
All foods contain different nutrients, and you will
need to eat a variety of nutrients to be able to
get enough of all the nutrients your body needs
There are two types of nutrients,
Macro nutrients
Micro nutrient

Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals
are needed only in small amounts.

Macronutrients such as carbohydrates, protein
and fat are nutrients that we need to eat in
relatively large amounts in the diet as they
provide our bodies with energy and also the
building blocks for growth and maintenance of a
healthy body.


Diet is the kinds of food that a person, animal,
or community habitually eats.

A balanced diet that contains the proper
proportion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
vitamins, minerals and water necessary to
maintain good health
It's important to make sure that the diet is well balanced
in order to achieve good health and avoid long term
diseases and illnesses. Balanced diet means a diet that
provides the correct amount of nutrients for the needs of
the individuals.

It can be attained by choosing a wide variety of foods
and drinks from all the food groups.

Majority of the daily calories should come from fresh
fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.

A balanced diet is attained when an individual is eating
a diet that enables him to grow, mature, reproduce and
function in a healthy and normal manner. There are five
ways to maintain a balanced diet

The proportion of calories you take in
through the different macronutrients is as
important as the absolute number of calories
you consume.
However, all food is not equal in calories.
Fat, for example, has more than twice the
calories, gram for gram, as equal amounts of
carbohydrates or protein.
Fat = 9 calories per gram
Carbohydrate = 4 calories per gram
Protein = 4 calories per gram

There is no one perfect balance of
carbohydrate, protein and fat.
Choosing the right balance depends on
your calorie goals, body weight, lipid
profile, and your personal preferences.
Your registered dietitian can help design
a meal plan that is right for you.

Carbohydrates 45 to 65% of your daily
calories
Protein 10 to 35% of your daily
calories
Fat- 25 to 35% of your daily calories
This is the case whether you have or
dont have diabetes.

A persons daily calorie intake should be based
on age, gender, and physical activity level. Men
generally need more calories than women, and
active people need more calories than inactive
people.
children ages 2 to 8 need 1,000 to
1,400kcal/day
active women ages 14 to 30 need
2,400kcal/day
active men ages 14 to 30 need 2,800 to
3,000kcal/day.

The emergence of low-carbohydrate diets has resulted in
confusion over whether carbohydrates are good or bad.
Carbohydrates are one of the six essential nutrients. This
means that they are essential for your health, so there is
no way that omitting them from your diet would be
beneficial. An excess intake of any nutrient will cause
weight gain. The key is to consume the appropriate
sources and amounts of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates are the primary source of fuel for your
body. Your red blood cells and most parts of your brain
derive all of their energy from carbohydrates. An
adequate consumption of carbohydrates also allows your
body to use protein and fat for their necessary
requirements, it provides fiber, and it's the source of
sweetness in your foods.

Protein is one nutrient that fad diets have never dared to
recommend omitting from your diet. A deficiency of this nutrient can
result in death. As with the other essential nutrients, we need a set
amount of protein for optimal health, and going above that can
cause problems.
Protein has numerous functions in the body
Regulates and maintains body functions: blood clotting, fluid
balance, and enzyme and hormone production
Supports growth and maintenance: hair, skin, nails, and cells
Builds antibodies necessary for your immune system
Provides energy
Protein deficiencies are referred to as protein-energy malnutrition
(PEM).



Dietary fat does not equal body fat. There is a huge
misconception that fat in the diet will always lead to
weight gain. Excess calories are responsible for weight
gain, not any one nutrient. Dietary fat is essential for our
health and should be a part of everyone's diet.
Dietary fat is required for
energy: Fat is the most concentrated source of calories in
the diet, providing 9 calories per gram compared with 4
calories per gram from either carbohydrates or protein;
Transport of fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K
Maintenance of healthy skin;
Regulation of cholesterol metabolism; and
Precursor of prostaglandins (hormone-like substances
that regulate many body functions).

Vitamins are needed in small quantities to
perform invaluable functions. They are
required for normal function, growth, and
maintenance of body tissues. Without a
sufficient quantity of any vitamin, a deficiency
will occur with a subsequent decline in
health.
Vitamins fall into two classes:
fat-soluble (A,D,E,K)
water-soluble (B & C)

Minerals are another component in a healthy
diet. There are two categories of minerals:
major minerals (calcium, phosphorus,
magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride,
and sulfur)
trace minerals (iodine, iron, zinc, selenium,
flouride, chromium, and copper

Water is important for life and is necessary every
day. A person needs about eight cups of fluid per
day. When it is very hot, while working, sweating or
suffering from diarrhoea, vomiting or fever, a
person needs to drink even more to replace the
water that has been lost. In addition to drinking
clean water, fluid can also come from juices,
soups, vegetables and fruit as well as meals that
have gravy or sauces. However, avoid drinking tea
or coffee with a meal, as this can reduce the
absorption of iron from the food.

Exchange list refers to a grouping of foods to assist people on special
diets. In each group, foods are listed in serving sizes that are
interchangeable with respect to carbohydrates, fats, protein, and
calories.

A food exchange list is a system of determining a daily food plan based
on units, or exchanges, of various food types. The nutrient content of
each item on the list is calculated according to its serving size, so that
items in the same category have approximately the same nutritional
value. One serving size of a food in a category can be exchanged for
one serving size of any other food in the same category, which is why a
serving is called an exchange.

Exchange systems are flexible and easy to follow for most people. The
key to following an exchange system is to observe portion sizes, and not
go over the recommended number of exchanges.


We can use the American Dietetic Association food
exchange lists to check out serving sizes for each
group of foods and to see what other food choices
are available for each group of foods.

Vegetables
Fat-Free and Very Low-Fat Milk
Very Lean Protein
Fruits
Lean Protein
Medium-Fat Proteins
Starches
Fats
Contain 25 calories and 5 grams of
carbohydrate. One serving equals:
C Cooked vegetables (carrots, broccoli,
zucchini, cabbage, etc.)
1 C Raw vegetables or salad greens
C Vegetable juice

If youre hungry, eat more fresh or steamed
vegetables.

Contain 90 calories per serving. One
serving equals:
1 C Milk, fat-free or 1% fat
C Yogurt, plain nonfat or low-fat
1 C Yogurt, artificially sweetened
Choices have 35 calories and 1 gram of fat per
serving. One serving equals:
1 oz Turkey breast or chicken breast, skin removed
1 oz Fish fillet (flounder, sole, scrod, cod, etc.)
1 oz Canned tuna in water
1 oz Shellfish (clams, lobster, scallop, shrimp)
C Cottage cheese, nonfat or low-fat
2 Egg whites
C Egg substitute
1 oz Fat-free cheese
C Beans, cooked (black beans, kidney, chick
peas or lentils): count as 1 starch/bread and 1
very lean protein
Contain 15 grams of carbohydrate and 60
calories. One serving equals:
1 small Apple, banana, orange, nectarine
1 med Fresh peach
1 Kiwi
Grapefruit
Mango
1 C Fresh berries (strawberries, raspberries, or
blueberries)
1 C Fresh melon cubes

8
th
Honeydew melon
4 oz Unsweetened juice
4 tsp Jelly or jam
Choices have 55 calories and 23 grams of fat
per serving. One serving equals:
1 oz Chickendark meat, skin removed
1 oz Turkeydark meat, skin removed
1 oz Salmon, swordfish, herring
1 oz Lean beef ( steak, broil, tenderloin )*
1 oz Veal, roast or lean chop*
1 oz Lamb, roast or lean chop*
1 oz Tenderloin or fresh ham*
1 oz Low-fat cheese (with 3 g or less of fat per
ounce)
C 4.5% cottage cheese

* Limit to 12 times per week
These have 75 calories and 5 grams of fat
per serving. One serving equals:
1 oz Beef (any prime cut), corned beef,
ground beef**
1 Whole egg (medium)**
1 oz Mozzarella cheese
C Ricotta cheese
4 oz Tofu (note this is a heart healthy
choice)**
** Choose these very infrequently
Contain 15 grams of carbohydrate and 80 calories
per serving. One serving equals:
1 slice Bread (white, whole wheat, rye)
2 slices Reduced-calorie or "lite" bread
English muffin
Hamburger bun
C Cold cereal

3
C Rice, brown or white, cooked

3
C Barley , cooked

3
C Legumes (dried beans, peas or lentils), cooked
C Pasta, cooked
C Corn, sweet potato, or green peas
3 oz Baked sweet or white potato
3 C Popcorn, hot air popped or microwave (80% light)
Contain 45 calories and 5 grams of fat per
serving. One serving equals:
1 tsp Oil (vegetable, corn, canola, olive, etc.)
1 tsp Butter
1 tsp Stick margarine
1 tsp Mayonnaise
1 Tbsp Reduced-fat margarine or mayonnaise
1 Tbsp Salad dressing
1 Tbsp Cream cheese
2 Tbsp Lite cream cheese
1/8
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Avocado
8 large Black olives
10 large Stuffed green olives

I want to conclude with a very important point. The
goal isn't to go for "perfection" with your diet. The
goal is to make some changes to what you are
currently doing and continue to add and remove
things as you go. There are not "good" and "bad"
foods. Each food can fit into your diet, but the
frequency and quantity may need to be altered.
Think of foods as "everyday" foods and
"sometimes" foods, and go for lots of color and a
balance of foods from each of the food groups.
Remember, eating is a social, enjoyable activity
that can be both fun and healthy.