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Quantum Entanglement A

Jurisprudential View

Prof. Shreya Matilal

By: Debashish Dash

What is it?
Is it so enigmatic
that even Einstein
fails to fathom?
Quantum entanglement

Concept : This is one integral
phenomenon of quantum physics,
which means that multiple particles are
linked together in a way such that the
measurement of one particle's
quantum state determines the possible
quantum states of the other particles.

We can say that in quantum world the
entangled particles are so connected
that the action performed by one
affects the other, even when separated
by long distances.

Does it mean they have consciousness
and can communicate with each other
Can we rely on
big scientists
when they
dont agree to
disagree ??
Scientific Explanation

The EPR Paradox (or the Einstein-Podolsky-
Rosen Paradox) is a thought experiment
intended to demonstrate an inherent paradox
in the early formulations of quantum theory.
Consider a particle with quantum spin 0 that
decays into two new particles, Particle A and
Particle B. Particle A and Particle B head off in
opposite directions. However, the original
particle had a quantum spin of 0. Each of the
new particles has a quantum spin of 1/2, but
because they have to add up to 0, one is +1/2
and one is -1/2. (Bells theorem proved)

This relationship means that the two particles
are entangled.
The reason that this is classified as a paradox is that it seemingly
involves communication between the two particles at speeds greater
than the speed of light, which is a conflict with Einstein's theory of

The paradox was the focal point of a heated debate between Albert
Einstein and Niels Bohr . Einstein was never comfortable with the
quantum mechanics.

Principle of locality states that an object is influenced directly only by
its immediate surroundings, which was proposed by Einstein. To
disprove Bohr, Einstein conducted EPR paradox.

At the time, there was no real way to carry out the experiment, so it
was just a thought experiment, or gedankenexperiment.

If you measure Particle A, it seems like Particle A's quantum spin gets
"set" by the measurement ... but somehow Particle B also instantly
"knows" what spin it is supposed to take on. To Einstein, this was a clear
violation of the theory of relativity.

Quantum Superimposition:

The rules of quantum physics states that an unobserved photon
exists in all possible states simultaneously, but when observed or
measured gives only one state.

This is a fundamental property of quantum theory that prior to the
act of measurement, the particle really doesn't have a definite state,
but is in a superposition of all possible states.

Entanglement: Entanglement occurs when a pair of particles,
such as photons, interact physically.
A laser beam fired through a certain type of crystal can
cause individual photons to split into pairs of entangled
The photons can be separated by a large distance, hundreds of
miles or even more.

When observed, Photon A takes on an up-spin state. Entangled
Photon B, though now far away, takes up a state relative to that
of Photon A (in this case, a down-spin state). The transfer of state
between Photon A and Photon B takes place at a speed of at
least 10,000 times the speed of light, possibly even
instantaneously, regardless of distance.
Einstein's Explanation: Einstein told that this is a spooky action
at a distance". Probably he was very angry at the behaviors of
these photons, which was meddling into his old day peace.

Neil Bohrs Explanation:
The wave function which describes the superposition of possible
quantum states exists at all points simultaneously. The spin of
Particle A and spin of Particle B are not independent quantities,
but are represented by the same term within the quantum
physics equations. The instant the measurement on Particle A is
made, the entire wave function collapses into a single state. In
this way, there's no distant communication taking place.

How can we render this concept to Jurisprudence ???

Thank YOU