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Introduction to Human

Anatomy
Tutor:Musa Makongoro.
MUHIMBILI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED
SCIENCES.
Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion.
Anatomy
Anatomy study of structure(Greek a
cutting up).
Physiology study of function (Greek
relationship to nature)




Structure dictates
function,
LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION.
Definition of anatomy
Study of structure.
The study of anatomy is divided into
(i)Macroscopic anatomy-gross
(ii)Microscopic anatomy
Definition of anatomy.
Gross anatomy is the study of structures that
can, when suitably presented or dissected, be
seen by unaided vision with the naked eye.

Microscopic anatomy is the study of
structures on a microscopic scale, including
histology (the study of tissues) and cytology
(the study of cells).
Cytology ?
Cytology ?
Cytology, the study of cells as
fundamental units of living
things. The earliest phase of
cytology began with the English
scientist Robert Hookes
microscopic investigations of cork
in 1665.




Histology
Is the study of the microscopic anatomy of
cells and tissues of plants and animals.

It is commonly performed by examining cells
and tissues by sectioning and staining,
followed by examination under a light
microscope or electron microscope.
Cell biology
Is a scientific discipline that studies cells
their physiological properties, their structure,
the organelles they contain, interactions with
their environment, their life cycle, division and
death.
This is done both on a microscopic and
molecular level.
Cell biology
Cell biology research encompasses both the
great diversity of single-celled organisms like
bacteria and protozoa, as well as the many
specialized cells in multicellular organisms
such as humans, plants, and sponges.
The cell is the basic structural, functional and
biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cells are the smallest unit of life that is
classified as a living things.


Summary
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Systems
Organism

ANATOMY+PHYSIOLOGY
ORGAN SYSTEM
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Integumentary system
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Components
skin
hair
glands
Functions
protection
regulates body temperature
eliminates waste
vitamin D
sensations

Organ Systems

15
Skeletal system
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Components
Bones
Joints
Cartilage
Functions
Support
Protection
Body movement
Produces blood cells
Stores minerals & fats
16
Organ Systems

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Muscular system
Components
skeletal muscles
Functions
body movement
posture
generates heat
Organ Systems

17
Nervous system
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Components
brain
spinal cord
nerves
special sense organs
Functions
action potentials (nerve
impulses)
detects, interprets, and
responds to changes in
environment

18
Organ Systems

Endocrine system
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Components
hormone-producing glands
and cells
Functions
regulates body activities
Organ Systems

19
Cardiovascular system
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Components
blood
heart
blood vessels
Functions
pumps blood
carries O
2
and nutrients to
cells and wastes away
regulates temperature,
acid-base balance, and
H
2
O
20
Organ Systems

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Lymphatic system
Components
lymph fluid & vessels
spleen
thymus
lymph nodes
tonsils
Functions
transports dietary lipids
protection
Organ Systems

21
Respiratory system
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Components
lungs
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchial tree
Functions
exchange of gases
acid-base balance
sound production
22
Organ Systems

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Digestive system
Components
mouth
pharynx
esophagus
stomach
small intestines
large intestines
salivary glands
liver
gallbladder
pancreas
Functions
breakdown of food
absorption of food
eliminates wastes
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Organ Systems

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Urinary system
Components
kidneys
ureters
urinary bladder
urethra
Functions
eliminates waste
regulates blood composition &
volume
acid-base balance
Organ Systems

24
Reproductive system
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Components
ovaries
testes
associated structures
Functions
produce gametes
hormone regulation of
reproduction
NEXT SAGA
DIGESTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Digestive system(alimentary tract and
accessory organs)
Basic structures of the elementary canal
(mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus,
stomach, small intestine, large
intestine(colon),rectum and anal cal).