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By

Prof.B.Ashok
Data acquisition is simply the gathering of information
about a system or process
Information may be gathered for various reasons
knowledge
research and development
systems or process monitoring
systems or process control
Data acquisition requires one or more transducers
(sensors) to sense the system or process, and a signal
conditioning instrument, Transmitting element, interfacing,
processing, storage and output.
Real Time Data Acquisition relates to data being
acquired and used in the same time frame, such as
when monitoring or controlling a system or process

Data Logging is when acquired data is stored or logged
for later use or analysis. Involves some form of memory.
Data acquisition and data logging is not a complex or
mysterious science as viewed by some one

Data acquisition in its simplest form could be to
measure the length of a piece of string with a ruler

Data logging in its simplest form could be to write that
measured length down on a sheet of paper
A data acquisition or data logging system generally includes the
following components:
sensors or transducers which provide the fundamental
information of the parameters to be measured
a device to convert the primary signal from the sensors
into a form compatible with information processing systems
a computer or other controller which supervises the overall
system, and manages the generated data
There are many different parameters for which sensors or
transducers are commonly available:
temperature
pressure, force, mass, weight
velocity, acceleration, vibration
strain, stress, distortion, fatigue
flow, volume, level
length, width, depth, thickness, displacement
state, pulse, counter
composition, concentration
The purpose of a Data Acquisition system is to measure a
physical phenomenon such as light, temperature, pressure,
sound, etc. The building blocks of a Data Acquisition system
are as follows:
Transducer
Signal
Signal Conditioning eXtensions for Instrumentation (SCXI)
Data Acquisition (DAQ) device
Driver level and application level software
These five building blocks allow you to bring the physical
phenomena you want to measure into your computer for
analysis and presentation.
System
Overview(Conti)
The purpose of a transducer is to convert a physical
phenomena (light, temperature, pressure, sound, etc.) into a
measurable electrical signal, such as voltage or current.
Types
Temperature
Light
Sound
Force
Pressure
Position
Fluid flow
pH levels
Transducer Overview(Conti)
Signal
Physical
Phenomena
A transducer converts a
physical phenomena
into a measurable
signal
Types of Signals
Information in a Signal
State, Rate, Level, Shape, and
Frequency
Signal Overview
With the help of a transducer we have converted a physical
phenomena (light, temperature, pressure, sound, etc.) into a
signal.
Not all signals are measured in the same manner, so we will
need to learn how to categorize our signal as one of two types:
Digital
Analog
Once we have categorized our signal we need to figure out what
type of information we want out of that signal. The possible
types of information we can obtain from a signal are:

State
Rate
Level
Shape
Frequency
Your Signal
Analog Digital
Two possible levels:
High/On (2 - 5 Volts)
Low/Off (0 - 0.8 Volts)
Two types of
information:
State
Rate

Digital
Your Signal
Digital
State
A digital signal only has two possible
states: ON or OFF.
Rate
A digital signal also changes state with
respect to time. how the digital signal
changes states with respect to time.
Your Signal
Analog
Unlike a digital signal, an analog signal
can be at any voltage level with respect
to time.
Since an analog signal can be at any
state at any time, the physical
quantities we want to measure differ
from those of a digital signal.
We can measure the level, shape, or
frequency of an analog signal.
Continuous signal
Can be at any value with respect
to time
Three types of information:
Level
Shape
Frequency (Analysis required)
Your Signal
Analog
Analysis
Required
Topics
Purpose of Signal Conditioning
Types of Signal Conditioning
Signal conditioning circuits improve the quality of signals
generated by transducers before they are converted into
digital signals by the PC's data-acquisition hardware.

Examples of signal conditioning are signal scaling,
amplification, linearization, cold-junction compensation,
filtering, attenuation, excitation, common-mode rejection,
and so on.

Noisy, Low-Level Signal Filtered, Amplified Signal
Signal Conditioning takes a signal that is difficult for your
DAQ device to measure and makes it easier to measure
Signal Conditioning is not always required
Depends on the signal being measured
Low-Level Signal
External
Amplifier
DAQ Device
Lead Wires
Instrumentation
Amplifier
Noise
ADC
+
_
Used on low-level signals (i.e. thermocouples)
Maximizes use of Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) range
and increases accuracy
Increases Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
DAQ Hardware turns your PC into a
measurement and automation
system
Computer
Your Signal
DAQ Device
Terminal Block
Cable
Terminal Block and Cable route your signal
to specific pins on your DAQ device
Terminal Block and Cable can be a
combination of 68 pin or 50 pin
Your Signal
Terminal Block
Cable
50 pin connector
Most DAQ devices have:
Analog Input
Analog Output
Digital I/O
Counters
Specialty devices exist for specific applications
High speed digital I/O
High speed waveform generation
Dynamic Signal Acquisition (vibration, sonar)
Connect to the bus of your computer
Compatible with a variety of bus protocols
PCI, PXI/CompactPCI, ISA/AT, PCMCIA, USB,
1394/Firewire
Computer
DAQ Device
Does not require programming.
Enables developers to design the
custom instrument best suited to their
application.
Examples: TestPoint,SnapMaster,
LabView, DADISP, DASYLAB, etc.

Testing of internal combustion engine with measurement of
various parameters using software.

Speed, load, temperature, and pressure, and vibration, flow
of air, water and fuel by suitable sensors.

Essential components of the data acquisition system are
sensors, signal conditioner, ADC card and computer.

Display forms on the computer monitor can be made by
using software like LabVIEW.

1. Temperature measurement
2. Load measurement
3. Flow measurement
4.Sound and vibration
measurement
5. Data Logging

1. For temperature measurement- RTDs.
2. For load measurement- S-type load cell.
3. For speed measurement- proximity sensor.
4. For water flow measurement- mini turbine flow sensor.
5. For fuel flow measurement- ultrasonic fuel flow sensor.
Field Wiring

Signal Conditioning

Data Acquisition Hardware

PC (operating system)

Data acquisition software



1. Temperature
2. Force
3. Speed
4. Water flow
5. Fuel consumption
6. Air consumption
PARAMETERS TO BE MEASURED
SENSORS
AMPLIFIERS
PARAMETERS TO BE CONTROLLED
RELAYS
SOLENOID VALVES
DC, STEP,SERVO MOTORS
USE A VISUAL PROGRAM
DELPHI
VISUAL BASIC
VISUAL C
MATLAB
PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM
(eg LABVIEW,DASYLAB)

First the engine is started thus air & fuel is consumed.
To measure fuel flow sensor is inserted in between fuel
tank & engine.
To measure cooling water flow, Mini Turbine Flow Sensor
is incorporated.
To measure air flow a fan & proximity sensor arrangement
is used
RTD sensors are used to record the temperatures.
Load on the system is varied by using hydraulic
dynamometer.
Load is measured by strain gauge connected to the
dynamometer.
Proximity sensor is used to calculate speed of engine.
The output of all the sensors is given to the DAQ modules.
According to different parameters obtained performance
characteristics are plotted using LABVIEW interface.

THANK
YOU