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Properties & Applications of ceramics-

Part 1

Yiming Hu, Yaswanth,Yao Ma and Giridharan- Group 3

Properties & Applications of ceramics- Part 1 Yiming Hu, Yaswanth,Yao Ma and Giridharan- Group 3 Challenge

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What are ceramics?

They are compounds between metallic and non-metallic elements. Example- Alumina(Al 2 O 3 ), Silicon Carbide(SiC), Silicon Nitride(Si 3 N 4 ).

Properties? Their Stiffness and Strength are comparable to that of metals

They are hard and highly Brittle.

They are very good Insulators of heat and elctricity.

What are ceramics? • They are compounds between metallic and non-metallic elements. Example- Alumina(Al O ),

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Structure of Ceramics

The Interatomic bonding in ceramics is either completely ionic or predominantly ionic(combination of ionic and covalent).

Factors which influence the Crystal Structure:

  • Magnitude of electrical charge on each ion, Charge balance dictates chemical formula (Ca 2+ and F - form CaF 2 ).

  • Relative sizes of cations and anions:Cations want maximum possible number of anion nearest neighbors and vice-versa.

- - + - - unstable
-
-
+
-
-
unstable
Structure of Ceramics • The Interatomic bonding in ceramics is either completely ionic or predominantly ionic(combination
- - + - -
-
-
+
-
-

stable

- - + - -
-
-
+
-
-

stable

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Coordination number and radius ratio

The coordination number is related to the cation-anion radius ratio.

r cation

r anion

< 0.155

ZnS

(zinc blende)

NaCl
NaCl

(sodium

chloride)

  • 0.155 - 0.225

  • 0.225 - 0.414

Coordination number and radius ratio • The coordination number is related to the cation-anion radius ratio.

Coord

no

2

3

4

CsCl

0.414 - 0.732

6

(cesium

chloride)

0.732

- 1.0

Coordination number and radius ratio • The coordination number is related to the cation-anion radius ratio.

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Coordination number and radius ratio • The coordination number is related to the cation-anion radius ratio.
Coordination number and radius ratio • The coordination number is related to the cation-anion radius ratio.
Coordination number and radius ratio • The coordination number is related to the cation-anion radius ratio.

ION LOCATIONS

Coordination number and radius ratio • The coordination number is related to the cation-anion radius ratio.

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Al 2 O 3 - Cr 2 O 3 Ceramic Phase Diagram

Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 have the same crystal structure.

They also have same charge and similar radii.

Al O - Cr O Ceramic Phase Diagram • Al O and Cr O have the
Al O - Cr O Ceramic Phase Diagram • Al O and Cr O have the
Al O - Cr O Ceramic Phase Diagram • Al O and Cr O have the

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MgO-Al 2 O 3

MgO-Al O Challenge the future
MgO-Al O Challenge the future

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Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 Phase Diagram

Al O -SiO Phase Diagram Challenge the future
Al O -SiO Phase Diagram Challenge the future

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ZrO 2 - CaO System

ZrO - CaO System Challenge the future
ZrO - CaO System Challenge the future

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Mechanical Properties of Ceramics

Brittle fracture Stress-Strain Behaviour Transverse Bending test

Mechanical Properties of Ceramics  Brittle fracture  Stress-Strain Behaviour  Transverse Bending test Challenge the

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Brittle Fracture of Ceramics:

Fracture = formation+propagation of cracks

Brittle Fracture of Ceramics: Fracture = formation+propagation of cracks Intergranular Transgranular ASM Handbook, Vol. 12, Fractography,
Brittle Fracture of Ceramics: Fracture = formation+propagation of cracks Intergranular Transgranular ASM Handbook, Vol. 12, Fractography,
Brittle Fracture of Ceramics: Fracture = formation+propagation of cracks Intergranular Transgranular ASM Handbook, Vol. 12, Fractography,

Intergranular

Transgranular

ASM Handbook, Vol. 12, Fractography, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1987

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Fracture Toughness

Used to measure ceramic material’s ability to resist fracture when a crack is present.

Defined as

a dimensionless parameter or function depending on specimen and crack geometries. applied stress length of a surface crack or half of an internal crack

------- critical fracture toughness

Fracture Toughness • Used to measure ceramic material’s ability to resist fracture when a crack is

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Fracture Toughness

When , crack propagation will not occur.

When , and stresses are static, fracture of ceramic will occur by the slow propagation of cracks,

----------static fatigue (or delayed fracture)

sensitive to environmental conditions, specifically moisture

Fracture Toughness • When , crack propagation will not occur. • When , and stresses are

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Fractography of ceramics

Involves examining the path of crack propagation and microscopic features.

Fractography of ceramics • Involves examining the path of crack propagation and microscopic features. representations of

representations of crack origins and configurations

Fractography of ceramics • Involves examining the path of crack propagation and microscopic features. representations of

D. W. Richerson, Modern Ceramic Engineering, 2 nd edition, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York,

1992.

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Fractography of ceramics

After reaching critical velocity

Fractography of ceramics After reaching critical velocity Initial acceleration Schematic diagram that shows typical features observed

Initial acceleration

Schematic diagram that shows typical features observed on the fracture surface of a brittle ceramic.

Fractography of ceramics After reaching critical velocity Initial acceleration Schematic diagram that shows typical features observed

J. J. Mecholsky, R. W. Rice, and S. W. Freiman, “Prediction of Fracture Energy and Flaw Size

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in Glasses from Measurements of Mirror Size,”J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 57[10] 440 (1974)

StressStrain Behaviour

  • Tensile Test

  • 3 Reasons for the failure of Tensile test

    • Transverse Bending test

Stress – Strain Behaviour  Tensile Test  3 Reasons for the failure of Tensile test

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Flexural Strength

Definition :

The Stress at fracture using this flexure test is known as Flexural Strength, Modulus of rupture, Fracture strength, or Bend strength.

Flexural Strength • Definition : The Stress at fracture using this flexure test is known as

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3 point loading scheme for Stress-Strain Behaviour

3 point loading scheme for Stress-Strain Behaviour Challenge the future
3 point loading scheme for Stress-Strain Behaviour Challenge the future

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Elastic Behaviour

Elastic Behaviour Typical Stress-Strain Behaviour to fracture For aluminium oxide And glass Challenge the future
Elastic Behaviour Typical Stress-Strain Behaviour to fracture For aluminium oxide And glass Challenge the future

Typical Stress-Strain Behaviour to fracture For aluminium oxide And glass

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Mechanisms of plastic deformation

Crystalline Ceramics

Ionic bonds

Mechanisms of plastic deformation • Crystalline Ceramics Ionic bonds  Very few slip system Electrically charged

Very few slip system Electrically charged nature of the ions

Mode of slip is restrically Electrostatic repulsion

Covalent bonds

Mechanisms of plastic deformation • Crystalline Ceramics Ionic bonds  Very few slip system Electrically charged

Covalent bonds are relatively strong

Limited numbers of slip system Dislocation structures are complex

Mechanisms of plastic deformation • Crystalline Ceramics Ionic bonds  Very few slip system Electrically charged

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Mechanisms of plastic deformation

Noncrystalline Ceramics

viscous flow

Mechanisms of plastic deformation • Noncrystalline Ceramics viscous flow Challenge the future
Mechanisms of plastic deformation • Noncrystalline Ceramics viscous flow Challenge the future

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Miscellaneous mechanical considerations

Influence of Porosity

powder particles

Miscellaneous mechanical considerations Influence of Porosity powder particles desired shape pores void spaces Pore elimination process

desired shape

Miscellaneous mechanical considerations Influence of Porosity powder particles desired shape pores void spaces Pore elimination process

pores

void spaces

Pore elimination process

Residual porosity remain

Miscellaneous mechanical considerations Influence of Porosity powder particles desired shape pores void spaces Pore elimination process
Miscellaneous mechanical considerations Influence of Porosity powder particles desired shape pores void spaces Pore elimination process

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Miscellaneous mechanical considerations

Influence of Porosity ---Elastic properties

Miscellaneous mechanical considerations Influence of Porosity ---Elastic properties Elastic properties E -Modulus of elasticity E0 -modulus

Elastic properties

E

-Modulus of elasticity

E0 -modulus of elasticity of

the nonporous material

Decrease

Miscellaneous mechanical considerations Influence of Porosity ---Elastic properties Elastic properties E -Modulus of elasticity E0 -modulus
Miscellaneous mechanical considerations Influence of Porosity ---Elastic properties Elastic properties E -Modulus of elasticity E0 -modulus

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Miscellaneous mechanical considerations

Influence of Porosity ---Flexural strength

Miscellaneous mechanical considerations Influence of Porosity ---Flexural strength Flexural strength -pores reduce the cross -sectional area
Miscellaneous mechanical considerations Influence of Porosity ---Flexural strength Flexural strength -pores reduce the cross -sectional area

Flexural strength

-pores reduce the cross -sectional area across which a load is applied

-act as stress concentrators

Miscellaneous mechanical considerations Influence of Porosity ---Flexural strength Flexural strength -pores reduce the cross -sectional area

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Hardness

Abrasives

Requirements:

Hardness / wear resistance High degree of toughness Refractoriness is desirable

Hardness • Abrasives • Requirements: • Hardness / wear resistance • High degree of toughness •

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Hardness

Hardness Challenge the future
Hardness Challenge the future

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Creep

Materials are often placed in service at elevated temperatures and exposed to static mechanical stresses

Creep Materials are often placed in service at elevated temperatures and exposed to static mechanical stresses
Creep Materials are often placed in service at elevated temperatures and exposed to static mechanical stresses

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