Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

INDIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE

Devanshu .D. Veshviker


Roll no. 65
Submitted to- Bharti Teacher
Class- 10
th
- C

Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho
Parts of a Hindu temple
Garbha-griha, which contains the main deity of the
temple. It has a tower called a vimana over it.
The ardha-mandapa and maha-mandapa are in front of
the garbha-griha (inner sanctum).
The gopurams are entrance towers.
The veranda next to the inside walls of the pradakshina
path.
Tanks and wells, which are either sacred or for bathing
purposes.
Subsidiary deities and shrines dedicated to minor gods.

Temple Architecture of
India
The Hindu temple
architecture developed
over two thousand
years.
The architectural
evolution of the
indian temples took
place within the rigid
frameworks derived
entirely from religious
thoughtfulness.
Therefore the architect
was bound to keep to
the ancient primary
dimensions and strict
configurations, which
remained unaltered
over the period of time.


The architect and
sculptor were given a
plenty of freedom in
the ornamentation
and decoration of the
temples.
This resulted in an
overwhelming riches
of architectural
elements, sculptural
forms and decorative
ebullience that is the
characteristic feature
of Indian temple
architecture has few
analogues in the
aesthetic
manifestation of the
whole world.

North-Central Indian temples of
Khajuraho

The temples at
Khajuraho, built by
the Chandella rulers
circa 1000 AD are at
the pinnacle of the
Nagari architectural
style.
900 AD to 1100 AD
The Nagari style has
several distinct
features, all of which
are clearly manifested
in the temples at
Khajuraho.

Khajuraho group of temples
The temples have
been built from
granite or
sandstone, the two
chief rocks found
in this area upon
raised platforms.
The platforms
themselves stand
on solid rock
masses that are one
of the oldest rocks
on this earth.
The sculptures are
exquisite.
They show the daily
lives of the kings
(hunting etc), the
deities in their
various forms, the
beautiful apsarases
in their elegant and
enticing postures
and other royal
motifs like lions and
elephants.
Eastern Indian temples of Orissa

Under the ancient name of Kalinga, Orissa was
the seat of great empires as far back as 300 B.C.
as the most remarkable examples of architectural
achievement in all of Asia.
Although Orissa presents a fairly large variety of
styles in temple building, it has nevertheless a
characteristic architectural genius.
Its temples have been described as one of the
most compact and homogeneous architectural
groups in India.
In these the Indo-Aryan style of architecture may
be seen at its best and purest.

Bhubaneswar has the richest
profusion of temples and is known
as the temple town of Orissa, not
only because of the large number
of temples found there, but also
because it is the home of the
famous Lingaraja temple.
The city of Bhubaneswar is
believed to have been created by
Yayati, founder of the Kesari
dynasty of Orissa.
The striking concentration of
temples in Bhubaneswar is partly
accounted for by the fact that the
city was the seat of powerful
religions.
The sacred lake of Bhubaneswar
was once encircled by 7,000
shrines, of which only 500 now
survive in different stages of
dilapidation.

Sun Temple, Konark
Sun God in ruins today
Greatest achievement in Orissan architecture
Temple conceived as the eternal sun god travelling in a
ratha (chariot) the chariot of time.
High plinth
12 no; of 10ft diameter wheels (6 on either side)
Drawn by a team of 7 horses
Upper part of the ratha Deul and Jagmohan
Path on the plinth for parikarma
3 subsidiary shrines on S, W and N




Sun Temple, Konark
Sun Temple, Konark
The natmandir and the bhogmandir were
detached structures, all enclosed within a
courtyard measuring 865 ft. by 540 ft.
The sculptures executed in hard stone to ensure
their preservation, display an exuberance of
mood and appearance rarely encountered
elsewhere.
The technique also varies from designs carved
with minute precision to vigorous groups
modeled on a massive scale.
Much of the relief work on the outer walls of the
temple at Konark --as of certain other temples in
Orissa --has an obviously erotic import.
Papanath temple, Pattadakkal
7
th
century temple
Last example of a
Southern shrine
adorned with a
shikhara

The Lad Khan temple in Aihole, which was built around the 7th century A.D.
The Lad Khan temple in Aihole, which was built around the 7th century A.D.
The Durga temple in Aihole.
Dravidian culture - Rock cut productions
under Pallavas

The Pallavas were instrumental in the transition
from rock-cut architecture to stone temples.
The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are
rock-cut temples dating from 610690 CE and
structural temples between 690900 CE.
The greatest accomplishments of the Pallava
architecture are the rock-cut temples
at Mahabalipuram.



Dravidian culture
There are excavated pillared
halls and monolithic shrines
known as rathas in
Mahabalipuram.
Early temples were mostly
dedicated to Shiva.
The Kailasanatha temple
inKanchipuram and the Shore
Temple built
by Narasimhavarman II, rock cut
temple in Mahendravadi by
Mahendravarman are fine
examples of the Pallava style
temples.




Dravidian culture
The five ratha temples commonly known as the
Pancha Rathas or five chariots stand
majestically on the southernmost extreme of
Mahabalipuram.
Built by the Pallava ruler Narsimha Varman 1
(AD 630- 68) alias Mamalla in the 7th and 8th
centuries, each temple is a monolith, carved out
of a single rock.
The temples which are different icautiously cut
out from a huge rock, sloping from south to
northn forms, plans and elevations were.
These individual 'rathas' are named after the
Pandava brothers Yudhistara (Dharmaraja),
Arjuna, Bhima, Nakula & Sahadeva of the Epic
Mahabharata and their wife Draupadi.

Dravidian culture

Besides these rathas, the sculpture of an
elephant (the vehicle of Indra), lion (the vehicle
of Durga) and Nandi bull (the vehicle of Shiva)
are structurally displayed.
Though these temples are named after the
Pandava brothers, they are not in any way
related to Mahabharata.
While the Dharmaraja, Arjuna and Draupadi
rathas are square on plan, the Bhima ratha is
rectangular and Nakula Sahadeva ratha apsidal.


Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram

The Shore Temple is a five-storeyed
structural Hindu temple rather
than rock-cut as are the other
monuments at the site.
It is the earliest important structural
temple in Southern India.
Its pyramidal structure is 60 ft high
and sits on a 50 ft square
platform.
There is a small temple in front
which was the original porch
It is made out of finely cut local
granite.

Recent excavations have revealed
new structures here under the
sand
The temple is a combination of three shrines.
The main shrine is dedicated to Shiva as is the smaller
second shrine.
A small third shrine, between the two, is dedicated to a
reclining Vishnu and may have had water channeled into the
temple, entering the Vishnu shrine.
The two Shiva shrines are orthogonal in configuration.
The entrance is through a transverse barrel vault gopuram.
The two shikharas have a pyramidal outline, each individual
tier is distinct with overhanging eaves that cast dark
shadows.
The outer wall of the shrine to Vishnu and the inner side of
the boundary wall are extensively sculptured and topped by
large sculptures of Nandi

The temple's outer walls are divided by plasters into bays,
the lower part being carved into a series of rearing lions
Dravidian culture
Dravidian Order - Brihadishwara Temple, Tanjore
Brihaeshwara temple - through the gate to the courtyard
where dthe 60 meter tower, a feast of Dravidian
architecture towers into the sky dwarfing the landscape
offers a glimpse into the mind of the once invincible
imperial Cholas.
Built in 11th century by Rajaraja I, it established the
power of the Cholas.
Granite blocks were brought for the temple from a
distance of 50 km.
The tower or vimana soars to height of 60.96 metres and
the stone cupola at the top weighs 81.284 tonnes.
Long plinths were used to put the stones in place.


Hall of thousand pillars 985 pillars, 240ft X250ft
Soaring gopurams 150ft (48m) high gopuram