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#1



MODELLING FOR SYSTEM STUDIES







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#2
P U Calculation

Power base : MVA

Voltage base : V
LL
(kV)


Current base =



Impedance base =


LL
V
x MVA
3
1000
( )
MVA
kV
Z
base
2
=
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#3
Transmission line modelling :

1. Equivalent t Circuit.

2. Balanced operation
No zero sequence.
No mutual.
Perfectly transposed.

3. Series compensation
Series compensation factor Xc/X
L


4. Shunt compensation
Shunt compensation factor B
L
/Bc

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#4
Positive sequence impedance = Negative
sequence impedance
Zero sequence impedance depends upon :
Return path, Ground wires and Earth
resistively.
Zero sequence reactance is approximately 2
- 2.5 times positive sequence reactance.
R
0
is usually large. May be 5 to 10 times
also.
B
0
is 65 to 80 % of B positive sequence
Transmission line :
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#5
Transformer modelling :
p q
a:1

1/a(1/a-1).Y
pq

p
q
Y
pq/a

(1-1/a).Y
pq

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#6
Transformer modelling :
With R=0, a=1.05, X
t
= 10%

(-j) (-0.4535)
p q
p q
(-j) (-9.52381)
(-j) (0.476190)
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#7
For a = 0.95,


(-j)(0.554) (-j) (-0.526315)
(-j) 10.5263
p q
q
p
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#8
Transformer impedance
Reactive power loss
Voltage drop
Fault level

100 MVA transformer, 10% Z, fully loaded.
1. Reactive power loss : 10 MVAR
2. Voltage drop with 100 MW load : negligible
3. Voltage drop with 100 MVAR load : 10%
4. Maximum fault level on secondary : 1000 MVA
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#9
Points to note :
- Usual impedance range.
- R considered or not.
- Number of units in parallel.
- Tap position.
- Tap reference.

Typical Transformer data

Transformer impedance on its own MVA rating :
Generating unit : 14-15%
Interconnecting unit : 12.5%
Power transformers : 9-10%
Distribution transformers : 4.0-4.5% or even less
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#10
Points to note :

- Magnetizing branch is neglected in all studies,
except in distribution system load flow and EMTP
simulation.

- In case of EMTP simulation, the magnetizing
branch is modelled, including the saturation
effect.

- Zero sequence impedance of the transformer is
almost equal to or 90% of positive sequence
impedance.

- The path for zero sequence current depends on
the vector group.
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#11
Transformer Sequence impedance diagram
Star - Delta
+ve and -ve Zero
Star grounded-Delta
+ve and -ve Zero
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#12

p
s
t
p-s - t
H - M - L
Three winding transformers :
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#13
Three winding transformers :

Z
p
Z
t
Z
s
p

s

t

Z
ps
= Z
p
+Z
s
-----------(1)
Z
st
= Z
s
+Z
t
------------(2)
Z
pt
= Z
p
+Z
t
-----------(3)
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#14
Example 1

220/11/11 kV ; 10%; 10%; 15% on 50 MVA rating
Zps = 10% Zpt = 10% Zst = 15%
Zp = 2.5% Zs = 7.5% Zt = 7.5%

2.5%
7.5% 7.5%
P
S
t
220 kV
11 kV 11 kV
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#15
Example 2

220/132/11kV,
Primary-80 MVA, Secondary-60 MVA, Tertiary 20 MVA.
Zps = 9.5% on primary rating, Zpt = 11.5% on primary rating,
Zst = 16.5% on secondary rating
Z
st
= = 16 5
80
60
22% .
( )
| |
( )
Z
Z
Z
on primary rating
p
s
t
= + =
= + =
= + =
1
2
9 5 115 22 05%
1
2
22 9 5 115 10%
1
2
115 22 9 5 12%
. . .
. .
. .
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#16
-0.5%
12% 10%
P
S
t
220 kV
132 kV 11 kV
Example 2 : Equivalent circuit
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#17
Generator Modelling


Load flow analysis :

Slack bus: V and angle fixed, P and Q un-known quantities

Other generators: V is specified, P is specified. Q and angle are un-
known. Q to be within the capability limit.


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#18
Capability Curve
Rotor heating
limit
Stator heating
limit
Stability limit
Lagging
Q +ve
Over excited
Leading
Q -ve
Under excited
P- active
Q- Reactive
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#19
Rated
P
52
50
48
Generator Droop :
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#20
( )
P P
f
R
f f f
All units in per unit
R
f
P
f Hz f Hz
P P
R implies f f H f H
al power changes by rated MW
For Hz change
P
P
P
P
P
G Gset
p u
p u MW rate MW
Z Z
MW
rate MW
MW
rateMW rate MW
= =
= =
= = =
= = =

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0
0
0 0
4% 2 50
1
004
1
50
1
50
0 04 2
.
.
Re .
;
.
.
.
. .
.
4% droop implies 4% change in frequency, power
Changes by 100%.
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#21
R
fHz
f Hz
P
P
R
P
f pu
Ppu NewbaseMVA
R
New base MVA
P MW
f pu
Ppu
R
R New base MVA
P MW
MW
rated MW
rated MW
rated
rated
=
=

=
=

A
A
A
A
A
A
0
.
'
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#22
Generator Cost Curve

C
Rs
= C
0
+C
1
P+C
2
P
2

C
0
=Constant cost in Rs
C
1
= cost proportional to MW power in Rs/MW
C
2
= Cost proportional to MW
2
(Power
2
) in Rs/MW
2

C0 Capital investment (Hydro, Thermal, Nuclear)
C1 & C2 Running cost
Used in economic despatch.


P operating
C
0

C
1
P
C
2
P
2

P
Cost
Rs
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#23
Generator impedance for fault study :
1. Transient (xd) or sub-transient ( xd) is
considered for positive sequence.
2. x
2
i.e. Negative sequence which is close to
xd. (Approximately).
3. x
0
is small 0.1 to 0.7 times xd
Typical values on own
rating :

Xd 100 to 200 %
X
q
60 to 200 %
X
d
21 to 41 %
X
d
13 to 30 %
X
2
~ X
d

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#24
radians electrical in If
Equation Swing pu P P
dt
d
f
H
e m
deg
2
2
o
o
t
=
Generator modelling for stability study:
Typical values of H
Unit Type

H Constant

Hydro unit

2 to 4

Thermal unit



2 pole - 3600 RPM

2.5 to 6

4 pole - 1800 RPM

4 to 10

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#25
Machine Parameters
Synchronous : Steady state, sustained.
Transient : Slowly decaying
Sub-transient : Rapidly decaying

E=?
X=?
X X X X X
T T
T T
d q q q d
d do
qo qo
> > > >
>
>
' " "
' "
' "
0
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#26
Parameter

Hydro (pu)

Thermal (pu)

x
d


0.6 - 1.5

1.0 - 2.3

x
q


0.4 - 1.0

1.0 - 2.3

x
d



0.2 - 0.5

0.15 - 0.4

x
q



-------

0.3 - 1.0

x
d



0.15 - 0.35

0.12 -0.25

x
q



0.2 - 0.45

0.12 -0.25

T
d0



1.5 - 9.0 s

3.0 -10.0 s

T
q0



-------

0.5 - 2.0 s

T
d0



0.01 - 0.05 s

0.02 - 0.05 s

T
q0



0.01 - 0.09 s

0.02 - 0.05 s

R
a


0.002 - 0.02

0.0015 - 0.005

Typical values
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#27
Transducer
Regulator
Exciter Generator
Limiter + relay
PSS
Excitation System Components
Ref.
Controller
Regulator
Power
amplifier
(Exciter)
Plant
Feedback elements
Block Schematic

E
t E
fd
V
tr
V
er
V
ref
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#28
Speed governor systems :
AGC
Speed
changer
Speed
Governor
Valve
/gate
Electrical
System
Energy Supply
steam or water
Turbine
Generator
Speed
Tie line Power
Frequencies
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#29
Types of Control :
Primary Control : Governor action
Secondary Control : AGC, load frequency control (For selected generators)

1/R 1
1

+
T
T
ws
ws
1
T K
ms D
+
speed
Turbine
Droop(Goveror)
Generator
+
-
Speed
Ref.

Under Frequency operation :


- Vibratory stress on the long low pressure turbine blades
- Degradation in the performance of plant auxiliaries say, induction
motor
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#30










Load Modelling
Static Dynamic
Induction Motor
Synchronous Motor
This model expresses the characteristic of the load at
any instant of time as algebraic functions of the bus
voltage magnitude & frequency

C
p

C
I
V
C
z
V
2

Voltage
Power
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#31
Load Modelling :
Loads are modelled as a function of Voltage and
Frequency
| || |
| || |
P P C C V C V f C
Q Q C C V C V f C
P
p
I
p
Z
p
f
p
P
q
I
q
Z
q
f
q
= + + +
= + + +
0
2
0
2
1
1
. . .
. . .
A
A
C
P
=1

C
I
= 0.0

C
Z
= 0.0

Constant power load

C
P
=0.0

C
I
= 1

C
Z
= 0.0

Constant current load

C
P
=0.0

C
I
= 0.0

C
Z
= 1

Constant impedance load




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#32
User defined filters
At fundamental frequency capacitive in nature.
1. HVDC converters
2. Harmonic elimination
3. Industrial plants
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1
10
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
AC Bus
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#33
1
0 R j +
|
\

|
.
|
1
0 2 +
|
\

|
.
|
j fL t
( ) 0 2 + j fC t
Branch

Expression - Y

R

L

C

R = 1, L = 2, C = 3
X
L
= 2tfL and X
C
= 1/2t fC
f : system frequency :
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#34
Filter
R +jX
G+jB
B +ve for C
B -ve for L
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#35
Frequency relay (Load shedding) :
Hz
P/Q
25%
50%
75%
100%
47 48 49 50
f - Hz

Shedding (S)

Actual load

49

0.25

0.75P

48

0.50

0.50P

47

0.75

0.25P

f f f f frequency
S S S S shedding
3 2 1
3 2 1
s s
> >
:
:
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#36
Tie line scheduling :
Area -1
Area -2
Area -x
Area -n
Tie-line
P
Tn
P
T2
P
T1
P P P P
PT
P P P P Tolerance
T scheduled T T Tn
i
i n
T actual T scheduled T T
= + + +
=
= +
=

1 2
1

,
: A A
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#37
R
dc
R
dc
No. of poles = 2
No. of bridges = 2
HVDC

1:a
R
dc
Equivalent
V
dc
I
ac
q
I
dc
Firing angle o
V
ac

R
X
c
C
=
3
t
Xc = Transformer reactance on
own MVA rating
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#38
Base quantities :

P
ac

base
: 3 phase power
V
ac

base
: line to line rms value of AC voltage
I
P
V
acbase
acbase
acbase
=
3
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#39
In DC system :
P
dc base
= P
ac

base

V
dc base
= K
b
.V
ac

base
K
b
= (3\2/t)nb .np
I
dc

base
= P
dc

base
/V
dc

base

Z
dc

base
= V
dc

base
/I
dc base

( )
R X
base MVA
T MVA
x
nb np
C C
r
=

|
\

|
.
|
t
6
1
.
.
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#40
Types of of controls :
- Constant voltage control - V
dc

- Constant current control - I
dc

- Constant power control - P
dc



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#41

Current is controlled and voltage is regulated in the
DC link - why?
Why voltage is maintained at designed value?

V
dc2

V
dc1
I
dc

P
dc
= V
dc
* I
dc
,When V
dc
is less I
dc
has to be more for same P
dc
.
I
dc
2
R
dc
is the loss


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#42
Current control - Rectifier

1. P
increase
- o
r
is reduced Q decreases
2. Inverter can operate with minimum
(extinction angle) Q decreases.

Voltage control - Inverter
1 2
3
V
1
V
3
V
2
I
1
I
2
I
3
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#43
With voltage control bus as reference,
V
bus
= R
bus
I
bus
+V
m

V
m
: voltage control bus V
dc

V
dc
= M (a . V
ac
cos o - R
c
.I
dc
)
Vdc : DC bus voltage
a : Tap
o : Control angle (firing angle, extinction angle)
R
c
: commutation reactance
I
dc
: DC current
M : Constant = 0.97 for 3% voltage margin
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#44
( )
aV
V
M
R I
aV
V
M
R I
P P V I
V aV aV
V
aV
Q Q P
ac
dc
c dc
ac
dc
c dc
ac dc dc dc
dc ac ac
dc
ac
ac dc ac
= +
=
+
= =
= =
=
= =
cos
cos
cos cos
cos
tan
o
o
|
|
|
Note Q
ac
is always positive:
Rectifier
P
ac
Q
ac
Inverter
P
ac
Q
ac
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#45
Modelling of DC link
V
dc1
V
dc2
1 2
Steady state operation : R alone L & C not considered
( )
ve always V inverter f or ve rectif ier f or ve I P approach our
I V P
I V P
R
V V
I
dc dc dc
dc dc dc
dc dc dc
dc
dc dc
dc
+ +
=
=

=
: , , ,
*
*
2 2
1 1
2 1
R is accepted in ohms
R
R
Z
dc
dc pu
dc ohm
dc base
=

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#46



Thank You