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Engineering Materials

Metals
Ceramics
and others
Plastics
Composites
Ferrous Nonferrous
Steels
Stainless
Steels
Tool and
Die Steels
Cast Irons
Oxides
Nitrides
Carbides
Glasses
Graphite
Diamond
Thermoplastic Thermoset
Polymer Matrix
Metal Matrix
Ceramic Matrix
Aluminum
Copper
Magnesium
Titanium
Polyethylene
Polypropylene
Nylon
ABS
PVC
Epoxy
Phenolic
Silicone
Properties of Engineering Materials
Density Mechanical
Strength
Ductility High Temp.
stability
Metals High Medium High Good
Plastics Low Low Very High
(thermoplastic)
Low (thermoset)
Not good
Ceramics Medium High Low Very good
Composites Low High Medium Not good
Introduction
Compounds of metallic and non metallic elements.
Ceramics comes from Greek word keramos means clay
products.
Earliest usage were pottery and bricks.
Recently in automotive parts, tools and dies, electrical
insulator and for high temperature uses.
Some examples:
Silica - silicon dioxide (SiO
2
), the main ingredient in most
glass products
Alumina - aluminum oxide (Al
2
O
3
), used in various
applications from abrasives to artificial bones
More complex compounds such as hydrous aluminum
silicate (Al
2
Si
2
O
5
(OH)
4
), the main ingredient in most clay
products
Three Basic Categories of
Ceramics
1. Traditional ceramics - clay products such as pottery and
bricks, common abrasives, & cement
2. New ceramics - more recently developed ceramics
based on oxides, carbides, etc., and generally
possessing mechanical or physical properties superior or
unique compared to traditional ceramics
3. Glasses - based primarily on silica and distinguished by
their noncrystalline structure
In addition, glass ceramics - glasses transformed into
a largely crystalline structure by heat treatment
Ceramic Products
(a) (b)
A variety of ceramic components. (a) High-strength
alumina for high-temperature applications. (b) Gas-
turbine rotors made of silicon nitride
Ceramic Products
Clay construction products - bricks, clay pipe,
and building tile
Refractory ceramics - ceramics capable of high
temperature applications such as furnace walls,
crucibles, and molds
Cement used in concrete - used for construction
and roads
Whiteware products - pottery, stoneware, fine
china, porcelain, and other tableware, based on
mixtures of clay and other minerals
Glass - bottles, glasses, lenses, window pane,
and light bulbs
Glass fibers - thermal insulating wool,
reinforced plastics (fiberglass), and fiber optics
communications lines
Abrasives - aluminum oxide and silicon carbide
Cutting tool materials - tungsten carbide,
aluminum oxide, and cubic boron nitride
Ceramic Products
Ceramic insulators - applications include
electrical transmission components, spark plugs,
and microelectronic chip substrates
Magnetic ceramics example: computer
memories
Nuclear fuels based on uranium oxide (UO
2
)
Bioceramics - artificial teeth and bones
Ceramic Products
Simple ceramic crystal structure
Containing various atoms of different size, most
complex materials
Bonded by covalent or/and ionic bonds which are
much more stronger than metallic bonds
Properties in terms of hardness, thermal and
electrical resistance are superior than metals.
Available in single crystals and polycrystalline
Grain size major influence on the strength and
properties of ceramics
Finer the grain size the higher strength and
toughness.
Silicate structure
1) Define a ceramic material.

Answer : Ceramic materials are inorganic, nonmetallic materials that
consist of metallic and nonmetallic elements bonded together primarily
by ionic and/or covalent bonds.

2) What are some of the properties common to most ceramic materials?

Answer : While the properties of ceramic materials vary greatly, most
ceramic materials are hard and brittle with low toughness and ductility
but good electrical and thermal insulating properties. Also, ceramic
materials typically have high melting temperatures and high chemical
stability.
Tutorial
Imperfections in
Crystal Structure of Ceramics
Ceramics contain the same imperfections in their
crystal structure as metals - vacancies, displaced
atoms, interstitialcies, and microscopic cracks
Internal flaws tend to concentrate stresses, especially
tensile, bending, or impact
Hence, ceramics fail by brittle fracture much more
readily than metals
Performance is much less predictable due to random
imperfections and processing variations
Traditional Ceramics
Based on mineral silicates, silica, and mineral oxides
found in nature
Primary products are fired clay (pottery, tableware,
brick, and tile), cement, and natural abrasives such
as alumina
Products and the processes to make them date back
thousands of years
Glass is also a silicate ceramic material and is
sometimes included among traditional ceramics
Raw Materials for Traditional
Ceramics
Mineral silicates, such as clays of various
compositions, and silica, such as quartz, are among
the most abundant substances in nature and
constitute the principal raw materials for traditional
ceramics.
Other important raw materials for traditional
ceramics are alumina, calcium, potassium, sodium.
These solid crystalline compounds have been formed
and mixed in the earths crust over billions of years
by complex geological processes.
New Ceramics
Ceramic materials developed synthetically over the last
several decades
The term also refers to improvements in processing
techniques that provide greater control over structures
and properties of ceramic materials
In general, new ceramics are based on compounds other
than variations of aluminum silicate, which form most of
the traditional ceramic materials
New ceramics are usually simpler chemically than
traditional ceramics; for example, oxides, carbides,
nitrides, and borides
Oxide Ceramics
Most important oxide new ceramic is alumina
Although also included as a traditional ceramic,
alumina is today produced synthetically from
bauxite, using an electric furnace method
Through control of particle size and impurities,
refinements in processing methods, and blending
with small amounts of other ceramic ingredients,
strength and toughness of alumina are improved
substantially compared to its natural
counterpart.
Alumina also has good hot hardness, low thermal
conductivity, and good corrosion resistance.
1) Distinguish between traditional and engineering ceramic materials and
give examples of each.

Traditional ceramic materials are typically made from three components
clay, feldspar and silica whereas engineering ceramics consist of pure or
nearly pure compounds such as aluminum oxide (Al2O3), silicon carbide
(SiC), and silicon nitride (Si3N4).

Examples of traditional ceramics include bricks, tiles and electrical
porcelain while applications of engineering ceramics include silicon
carbide parts for high temperature gas turbine engine components,
zirconium dioxide crucibles for melting superalloys, and high
performance ball bearing and races made of titanium and carbon nitride.
Tutorial
Products of Oxide Ceramics
Abrasives (grinding wheel grit)
Bioceramics (artificial bones and teeth)
Electrical insulators and electronic components
Refractory brick
Cutting tool inserts
Spark plug barrels
Engineering components
Alumina ceramic components
(photo courtesy of Insaco Inc.)
Carbides
Silicon carbide (SiC), tungsten carbide (WC), titanium
carbide (TiC), tantalum carbide (TaC), and chromium
carbide (Cr
3
C
2
)
Although SiC is a man-made ceramic, its production
methods were developed a century ago, and it is
generally included in traditional ceramics group
WC, TiC, and TaC are valued for their hardness and wear
resistance in cutting tools and other applications
requiring these properties
WC, TiC, and TaC must be combined with a metallic
binder such as cobalt or nickel in order to fabricate a
useful solid product
Nitrides
The important nitride ceramics are silicon nitride
(Si
3
N
4
), boron nitride (BN), and titanium nitride
(TiN)
Properties: hard, brittle, high melting
temperatures, usually electrically insulating, TiN
being an exception
Applications:
Silicon nitride: components for gas turbines, rocket
engines, and melting crucibles
Boron nitride and titanium nitride: cutting tool
material and coatings
Glass
A state of matter as well as a type of ceramic
As a state of matter, the term refers to an
amorphous (noncrystalline) structure of a solid
material
The glassy state occurs in a material when
insufficient time is allowed during cooling from the
molten state for the crystalline structure to form
As a type of ceramic, glass is an inorganic,
nonmetallic compound (or mixture of
compounds) that cools to a rigid condition
without crystallizing
Why So Much SiO
2
in Glass?
Because SiO
2
is the best glass former
Silica is the main component in glass products,
usually comprising 50% to 75% of total chemistry
It naturally transforms into a glassy state upon
cooling from the liquid, whereas most ceramics
crystallize upon solidification
Other Ingredients in Glass
Sodium oxide (Na
2
O), calcium oxide (CaO),
aluminum oxide (Al
2
O
3
), magnesium oxide (MgO),
potassium oxide (K
2
O), lead oxide (PbO), and
boron oxide (B
2
O
3
)
Functions:
Act as flux (promoting fusion) during heating
Increase fluidity in molten glass for processing
Improve chemical resistance against attack by acids,
basic substances, or water
Add color to the glass
Alter index of refraction for optical applications
Glass Products
Window glass
Containers cups, jars, bottles
Light bulbs
Laboratory glassware flasks, beakers, glass
tubing
Glass fibers insulation, fiber optics
Optical glasses - lenses
Glass-Ceramics
A ceramic material produced by conversion of glass into
a polycrystalline structure through heat treatment
Proportion of crystalline phase range = 90% to 98%,
remainder being unconverted vitreous material
Grain size - usually between 0.1 - 1.0 m (4 and 40 -
in), significantly smaller than the grain size of
conventional ceramics
This fine crystal structure makes glass-ceramics
much stronger than the glasses from which they
are derived
Also, due to their crystal structure, glass-ceramics
are opaque (usually grey or white) rather than clear
Elements Related to Ceramics
Carbon
Two alternative forms of engineering and
commercial importance: graphite and diamond
Silicon
Boron
Carbon, silicon, and boron are not ceramic
materials, but they sometimes
Compete for applications with ceramics
Have important applications of their own
Graphite
Form of carbon with a high content of crystalline C
in the form of layers
Bonding between atoms in the layers is covalent and
therefore strong, but the parallel layers are bonded to
each other by weak van der Waals forces
This structure makes graphite anisotropic; strength and
other properties vary significantly with direction
As a powder it is a lubricant, but in traditional solid form it is a
refractory
When formed into graphite fibers, it is a high strength structural
material
Structure of crystalline graphite
Diamond
Carbon with a cubic crystalline structure with
covalent bonding between atoms
This accounts for high hardness
Industrial applications: cutting tools and grinding
wheels for machining hard, brittle materials, or
materials that are very abrasive; also used in
dressing tools to sharpen grinding wheels that
consist of other abrasives
Industrial or synthetic diamonds date back to 1950s
and are fabricated by heating graphite to around
3000C (5400F) under very high pressures
Synthetically produced diamond powders
(photo courtesy GE Superabrasives, General Electric Company)
Physical Properties of Ceramics
Density in general, ceramics are lighter than metals and
heavier than polymers
Some ceramics are translucent, window glass (based on
silica) being the clearest example.
Melting temperatures - higher than for most metals
Some ceramics decompose rather than melt
Electrical conductivities - lower than for metals; but the
range of values is greater, so some ceramics are
insulators while others are conductors
Thermal Properties of Ceramics
Thermal Conductivities (refer to Figure 11.42 pg 618):
lower than for metals; but the range of values is
greater, most ceramics are thermal insulators while
others are conductors.
Due to their strong ionic-covalent bonding.
Ceramics materials are used as refractories which
resist the action of hot environment, both liquid and
gaseous.
Thermal expansion - somewhat less than for metals,
but effects are more damaging because of brittleness
Mechanical Properties of Ceramic
Materials
Theoretically, the strength of ceramics should be
higher than metals because their covalent and ionic
bonding types are stronger than metallic bonding
However, metallic bonding allows for slip, the basic
mechanism by which metals deform plastically when
subjected to high stresses
Bonding in ceramics is more rigid and does not permit
slip under stress
The inability to slip makes it much more difficult for
ceramics to absorb stresses
Methods to Strengthen Ceramics
Decrease grain size in polycrystalline ceramic
products
Make starting materials more uniform
Minimize porosity
Introduce compressive surface stresses
Use fiber reinforcement
Heat treat
Tutorial (Quiz8)
1. Define ceramic materials.
Answer : Ceramic materials are inorganic, non-metallic materials
that consist of metallic and non-metallic elements bonded
together primarily by ionic and/or covalent bonds.

2. List three properties common to most ceramics.
Answer :
Most ceramic materials are hard and brittle with low
toughness and low ductility
Good electrical and thermal insulating properties.
High melting temperatures and high chemical stability.

3. Define amorphous alloys (or metallic glasses).
Answer :
A class of metal alloys formed through rapid-solidification. It does
not have long-range crystalline structure. Atoms are randomly
and tightly arranged and no grain boundaries
Tutorial (Quiz8)
Thank You
Properties of Engineering Materials
Density Mechanical
Strength
Ductility High Temp.
stability
Metals High Medium High Good
Plastics Low Low Very High
(thermoplastic)
Low (thermoset)
Not good
Ceramics Medium High Low Very good
Composites Low High Medium Not good
Composites
A materials system composed of two or more physically
distinct phases whose combination produces aggregate
properties that are different from those of its constituents
Properties depend on amount and distribution of each
type of material
Examples:
Cemented carbides (WC with Co binder)
Plastic molding compounds containing fillers
Rubber mixed with carbon black
Wood (a natural composite as distinguished from a
synthesized composite)
Why Composites are Important
Composites can be very strong and stiff, yet very
light in weight, so ratios of strength-to-weight and
stiffness-to-weight are several times greater than
steel or aluminum
Fatigue properties are generally better than for
common engineering metals
Toughness is often greater too
Composites can be designed that do not corrode
like steel
Possible to achieve combinations of properties not
attainable with metals, ceramics, or polymers alone


Applications Examples
Sports equipment (golf
club shafts, tennis
rackets, bicycle frames)
Aerospace materials
Thermal insulation
Concrete
"Smart" materials
(sensing and
responding)
Brake materials
Fiberglass (glass fibers
in a polymer)
Space shuttle heat
shields (interwoven
ceramic fibers)
Paints (ceramic
particles in latex)
Tank armor (ceramic
particles in metal)
Application of advanced composite materials in Boeing
757-200 commercial aircraft.
Components in a Composite
Material
Nearly all composite materials consist of two
phases:
1. Primary phase - forms the matrix within which
the secondary phase is imbedded
2. Secondary phase - imbedded phase
sometimes referred to as a reinforcing agent,
because it usually serves to strengthen the
composite
The reinforcing phase may be in the form of
fibers, particles, or various other geometries
Our Classification Scheme for
Composite Materials
1. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) - mixtures of
ceramics and metals, such as cemented carbides and
other cermets
2. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) - Al
2
O
3
and SiC
imbedded with fibers to improve properties, especially in
high temperature applications
The least common composite matrix
3. Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs)
- thermosetting resins are widely used in PMCs
Examples: epoxy and polyester with fiber
reinforcement, and phenolic with powders
Properties of Composite Materials
In selecting a composite material, an optimum
combination of properties is usually sought,
rather than one particular property
Example: fuselage and wings of an aircraft
must be lightweight and be strong, stiff, and
tough
Several fiber-reinforced polymers possess
this combination of properties
Example: natural rubber alone is relatively
weak
Adding significant amounts of carbon black
to NR increases its strength dramatically
Properties are Determined by
Three Factors:
1.The materials used as component
phases in the composite
2.The geometric shapes of the
constituents and resulting structure of
the composite system
3.The manner in which the phases
interact with one another
Reinforcing Fibers
Reinforcing fiber for PMC are generally glass,
graphite, aramids or boron.

Glass fibers are widely used and less expensive
This composite materials called GFRP
Type of glass fibers are E type, S-type and E-CR
type.

Graphite fibers more expensive but low density,
high strength and high stiffness. Called CFRP.
Different carbon and graphite;- carbon 80-90% ,
graphite;- 99% carbon
Reinforcing Fibers
Aramids: toughest fibers; high specific strength,
common aramids name Kevlar. Can undergo
plastic deformation before fracture.

Boron: consist of boron deposited onto carbon
fibers or tungsten fibers.
These fibers high strength, and stiffness, both in
tension and in compression and resistance to
high temperatures.
High density and expensive
Other fibers; nylon, silicon carbide, silicon
nitride, aluminum oxide, steel tungsten and etc
Fiber size and length
Size less than 0.01mm.
Strong and stiff in tension, due to molecule in the
fibers are oriented longitudinal direction, and
their cross-section are so small that the
probability is low in defects.
Classified as long and short, or continuous and
discontinuous. Short fibers aspect ratio 20 and
60, long fibers are 200 and 500.
Reinforcement elements may also in the form of
chopped, particles, or flakes, continuous roving,
woven fabric and mats.
Typical Properties of Reinforcing
Fibers
Type Tensile strength
(MPa)
Elastic
modulus (GPa)
Density
( kg/m
3
)
Relative
cost
Boron 3500 380 2600 Highest
Carbon
High strength 3000 275 1900 Low
High modulus 2000 415 1900 Low
Glass
E type 3500 73 2480 Lowest
S type 4600 85 2540 Lowest
Kevlar
29 2800 62 1440 High
49 2800 117 1440 High
Note: These properties vary significantly depending on the material and
method of preparation.
Types and General Characteristics
of Composite Materials
Material Characteristics
Fibers
Glass
High strength, low stiffness, high density; lowest
cost; E (calcium aluminoborosilicate) and S
(magnesia-aluminosilicate) types commonly used.
Graphite
Available as high-modulus or high-strength; low
cost; less dense than glass.
Boron
High strength and stiffness; highest density;
highest cost; has tungsten filament at its center.
Aramids
(Kevlar)
Highest strength-to-weight ratio of all fibers; high
cost.
Other fibers
Nylon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum
oxide, boron carbide, boron nitride, tantalum
carbide, steel, tungsten, molybdenum.
Matrix Material
Has 3 functions:
To support the fibers in place and
transfer the stresses to them, while they
carry most of the load
To protect the fibers against physical
damage and the environment
To reduce the propagation of cracks in
the composite, by virtue of the greater
ductility and toughness of the plastic
matrix
Strength and Stiffness of
Reinforced Plastics
Specific tensile strength (tensile strength-to-density ratio)
and specific tensile modulus (modulus of elasticity-to-
density ratio) for various fibers used in reinforced plastics.
Fracture Surfaces of Fiber-Reinforced
Epoxy Composites
(a) (b)
(a) Fracture surface of glass-fiber reinforced epoxy composite. The
fibers are 10 m (400 in.) in diameter and have random
orientation. (b) Fracture surface of a graphite-fiber reinforced epoxy
composite. The fibers, 9 m-11 m in diameter, are in bundles and
are all aligned in the same direction.
Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)
Higher elastic modulus, its resistance to
elevated temperature, and its higher
toughness and ductility.
But higher density and difficulty in
production
High specific stiffness, light weight, and
high thermal conductivity.
Metal-Matrix Composite Materials and
Applications
Fiber Matrix Applications
Graphite Aluminum
Magnesium
Lead
Copper
Satellite, missile, and helicopter
structures
Space and satellite structures
Storage-battery plates
Electrical contacts and bearings
Boron Aluminum
Magnesium
Titanium
Compressor blades and structural
supports
Antenna structures
Jet-engine fan blades
Alumina Aluminum
Lead
Magnesium
Superconductor restraints in
fission power reactors
Storage-battery plates
Helicopter transmission structures
Silicon carbide Aluminum, titanium
Superalloy (cobalt-
base)
High-temperature structures
High-temperature engine
components
Molybdenum,
tungsten
Superalloy High-temperature engine
components
Tutorial
1. Provide 2 functions of the matrix materials in composite.
Answer :
To support the fibers in place and transfer the stresses to them,
while they carry most of the load
To protect the fibers against physical damage and the environment
To reduce the propagation of cracks in the composite, by virtue of
the greater ductility and toughness of the plastic matrix
Tutorial
2. Define Metal-Matrix Composites (MMCs) materials.
Answer :
MMC is composites materials of metal matrix and fibre
materials. Metal matrix used are aluminium, aluminium-
lithium, magnesium, copper, titanium (Any one
example). Fibre materials such as graphite, aluminium
oxide, silicon carbide, boron. (Any one correct answer)
Tutorial
2. Describe the hysteresis loss in load-elongation curve of rubber and provide one
(1) example of hysteresis importance for a typical elastomer in machinery or
automotive application.
Answer :



Rubbers experienced hysteresis loss in stretching or compression.
They do not instantly follow the forces applied to them, or do not return
completely to their original state (2 marks)
Examples:
Hysteresis gives rubbers the capacity to dissipate energy, damp vibration, and
absorb shock loading, as is necessary in automobile tires and in vibration
dampers placed under machinery.
Thank You
Thank You