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In the basic studies of Statics, we find that any
structure will have, at the most, six equilibrium
=0 , F
=0 , F
=0 , M
=0 , M
=0 , and M
For Statically Determinate structures, these six
equations can be used to find all unknown
forces. But Statically Indeterminate structures,
which have six or more unknown forces, require
more equations for the structure to be fully
analyzed. More equations can be generated by
taking into account deformation conditions at
the points of support. These equations involve
the physical properties of the body, including the
strength and stiffness of the materials.

-Statically Indeterminate Structures
vs. Statically Determinate Structures
Advantages & Disadvantages
Methods of Analysis
Force Method
Slope Deflection Method
Example of Force Method
Conclusion & List of Resources
Statical Determinancy
A statically determinate structure can be fully
analyzed using only equations of equilibrium. The
internal and external forces can be determined
independently of the physical properties and
geometry of the structure.

Statical Indeterminacy
A structure is statically indeterminate when it is subjected to more
unknown reactions than there are available equilibrium equations.
There are two types of indeterminacy:
Internally Indeterminate structures are structures in which the
internal forces cannot be determined by statics alone. It should be
noted that it is possible for a structure to be both externally
determinate and internally indeterminate.
Externally Indeterminate structures are structures that have too
many, or redundant, support reactions. Because external forces
are required to find internal ones, externally indeterminate
systems are always internally indeterminate as well.

Lighter and more rigid structure
Added redundancy in structural system brings increase in
overall safety
Maximum stresses are generally less than comparable
statically determinate structures
Greater stiffness than determinate structures which leads
to smaller deformations
Redundancies have ability to redistribute loads to other
members that have been overstressed or collapsed due to
earthquakes, tornadoes, etc.
More economical
Majority of tall buildings or concrete bridges are made
statically indeterminate

Analysis requires the calculation of displacements so that
their cross sectional dimensions are required at the outset
Therefore design of such structures becomes a matter of
trail and error, whereas the forces in the members of a
statically determinate structure are independent of a
member size.
Support settlements may induce significant stresses
compared to the determinate ones where support
settlements do not cause stresses.
Stresses due to temperature changes and fabrication errors
are also created
An engineer must design accordingly to account for these
side affects of indeterminate structures

Force Method
Method of Consistent Deformations
The force method of solving statically indeterminate
objects involves engineers working with the structure to
identify a redundant force. The procedure works as a
method for analyzing externally indeterminate structures
with single or double degrees of indeterminacy.
Force Method
The choice of the redundants will vary since
any of the unknown reactions can be utilized
as a redundant. Then by calculating the
deformation equations you end up with a
Statically determinate structure.

Force Method
Method of Consistent Deformations
Free Body diagram
showing a total of 8
unknowns, an indeterminate
frame structure with hinge h,
which by using ordinary ridged
body equations would not
be solvable.
This diagram shows the
deflection of the structure
under the loads p and 2p.
This diagram is used in finding where
your redundants occur.
Force Method
Method of Consistent Deformations
Calculate the deformations
corresponding to the redundants,
i.e., the rotation at Support A,
and the translation,
, at Support

Then remove the support reactions
(restraints) corresponding to the selected
redundants from the indeterminate
structure to obtain a primary determinate
structure, or sometimes referred to as a
released structure.
Slope Deflection Method
The basic idea of the slope deflection
method is to consider the deflection as the
primary unknowns, unlike the force method
which considers the redundant forces to be
the primary unknowns. In the slope
deflection method a relationship is
established between the moments at the
ends of the members, and the corresponding
displacements and rotations.