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FIELDBUS

What is a Fieldbus?
A Fieldbus is an industrial computer network for
real-time distributed control.
A complex automated industrial system usually
needs an organized hierarchy of controller
systems to function.
Human Machine Interface (HMI) at the top,
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) in the
middle, and the Fieldbus at the bottom.
The Fieldbus links the PLCs to the components
which actually do the work such as sensors,
actuators, electric motors, console lights,
switches, valves, and contactors.
What is a Fieldbus?
Fieldbus is a generic term that describes a new digital
communications network that is being used in industry to
replace the existing 4-20 mA analog signal standard.
The network is a digital, bi-directional, multi-drop,
serial-bus communication network used to link
isolated field devices, such as controllers, transducers,
actuators and sensors.
Bi-directional means it is a duplex port; the data can
be transmitted in two directions at the same time.
Multi-drop is also referred to as multi-access and it
can be interpreted as a single bus with many nodes
connected to it.
Serial-bus means the data is transmitted serially
according to RS232 or RS485 protocol. Profibus uses
RS485 protocol.

What is a Fieldbus?
Fieldbus works on network structures such as daisy-
chain, star, ring, branch, and tree network topologies.
Previously computers were connected using RS-232 by
which only two devices could communicate.
This is the equivalent of the currently used 4-20 mA
communication scheme which requires that each device
has its own communication point at the controller level
The fieldbus is the equivalent of the current LAN-type
connections, which require only one communication at
the controller level and allow multiple (100's) of analog
and digital points to be connected at the same time.
This reduces both the length of the cable required and
the number of cables required.
History & Current State
In 1999 a committee formed the IEC 61158
standard with eight different protocol sets:
FOUNDATION
Fieldbus H1
ControlNet
PROFIBUS
P-Net

FOUNDATION
Fieldbus HSE
Interbus
SwiftNet
WorldFIP

History & Current State
Recent additions or planned additions to IEC
61158 include but are not limited to:
PROFINET IO
EtherCAT
Both FOUNDATION Fieldbus and Profibus
technologies are now commonly implemented
within the process control field, both for new
developments and major refits. In 2006, China
saw the largest FF systems installations at
NanHai and SECCO, each with around 15,000
fieldbus devices connected

Who uses Fieldbuses?
Those who plan
complex automated
industrial systems
Where are Fieldbuses Used?
In complex automated
industrial systems
where an organized
hierarchy of controller
systems is needed.
In manufacturing
plants where many
instruments need to
be connected.
What are Fieldbuses Used For?
When fieldbuses work in the factory, the purpose
has been to reduce installation cost by moving
the I/O interface from the programmable logic
controller (PLC) to a remote I/O unit mounted
close to the machine on the factory floor.
Factory automation fieldbuses are fast and
deterministic. (Deterministic means the
maximum worst-case time to obtain data across
the fieldbus is accurately predictable and is not
subject to chance.)
When are Fieldbuses Used?
When the advantages of Fieldbuses,
discussed on the next slide, are needed

When the disadvantages of Fieldbuses, on
the slide after that, do not hinder use
Advantages of Fieldbus
A major advantage of fieldbus is the capital
expenditure (CAPEX) savings associated with
cable elimination; multiple devices share wire-
pairs in order to communicate over the bus
network and savings are also available through
speedier commissioning.
Ongoing maintenance and process control
system performance are significantly enhanced
through fieldbus systems, which results in
operations expense savings (OPEX).
Disadvantages of Fieldbus
Disadvantages of fieldbus compared to the 4-20 mA
analog signal standard:
Fieldbus systems are complex, so more training
needed
The price of fieldbus components is higher
Fieldbus test devices are more complex
Device manufacturers have to offer different versions
of devices due to different fieldbus standards. This
can add to the cost of the devices and increases the
difficultly of device selection.
Standards may predominate or become obsolete,
increasing the investment risk.
Costs
(CAPEX) Savings
(OPEX) Savings
Cost of Devices
Investment Risks

Engineering costs
Equipment costs
Installation costs
Commissioning costs
Maintenance costs
Operating costs
Inventory costs
Retooling costs
Figure 1. Typical Modern Industrial System
Requires Supporting
Technology?
YES
Fieldbus Components:
Bus Terminal
EtherCAT
Fieldbus Box
Lightbus
PC Fieldbus Cards
Switches
And more
http://www.beckhoff.com/english.asp?embedded_pc/cx1000_2.htm
References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fieldbus
http://www.isa.org/InTechTemplate.cfm?Section=Article_
Index1&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.
cfm&ContentID=60680
http://www.us.profibus.com
http://www.easydeltav.com/video/product/foundation_fiel
dbus.asp
http://www.fieldbus.org/images/stories/newsroom/newsle
tter/200702/
http://www.beckhoff.com/english.asp?embedded_pc/cx1
000_2.htm
http://ethernet.industrial-networking.com/articles/
articledisplay.asp?id=79





Use in Industry
Fieldbus continues to be an important element
of the automation industry. InTech magazine
conducted a Market Study
80% of manufacturing facilities use fieldbus
Manufacturers use more than one fieldbus
protocol in their process
Fieldbus connected to the Internet?
No - 82%, Yes - 18%
Primary Vendors of Technology
Acromag, Inc.
RTD Embedded Technologies, Inc.
Contemporary Controls
RM Michaelides Software & Elektronik GmbH
Interface Concept
Steinhoff Automation & Fieldbus-Systems
Hilscher Gesellschaft fr Systemautomation mbH
PTO
Beckhoff

http://www.eg3.com/search411.cgi?query=
fieldbus&case=on&engine=VENDORS

Existing or Evolving Standards?
Ethernet-based industrial communication systems recently
established, and have extensions for real-time communication.
Will potentially replace traditional fieldbuses in the long run.
Currently the issue stopping most Ethernet fieldbus implementations
is the availability of device power. Measurement & control devices
need power from the bus and Power-Over-Ethernet (PoE) does not
deliver enough.
Here is a partial list of the new Ethernet-based industrial
communication systems:
EtherCAT
Ethernet Powerlink
SERCOS III
PROFINET IO
ETHERNET/IP
VARAN
SafetyNET
Industrial Ethernet
IEC 61158 is an evolving standard with a 5-year maintenance cycle.
Application Example
Quest Separation Technologies | Food & Beverage
Needed new facility
The typical timeline for design, construction, and
startup of a facility of this scale is 9 to 12 months.
Wanted plant to start production in less than five months.
Emerson Process Management's PlantWeb digital plant architecture, based on the
FOUNDATION fieldbus communications protocol, intelligent field devices, and the
DeltaV digital automation system met this project's daunting challenge.
Reduced capital and engineering expenditures
Reduced operations and maintenance effort
Reduced regulatory compliance effort
Reduced variability of plant and processes
Designed plant to be scaleable in future
Fieldbus technology, the DeltaV system, and PlantWeb architecture saved Quest
many man-hours in installation time. The breakthrough automation solution also
saved Quest 10 percent in installed material costs, and it reduced both space and
process control equipment by up to 43 percent. As a team, Quest and Emerson met
the deadline in record time.
Application Example
Valley Record Distributors - Woodland, CA
Automated conveyor system installed
By Dorner Manufacturing Corporation
Thousands of dollars were eliminated by not having to
hard wire the I/O devices back to the main computers.
The PLCs and PROFIBUS made that benefit possible.
The line operates very efficiently, increasing production
substantially. Less warehouse space is consumed by the
machine layout. If the machinery has to be moved to
another location, its modular design makes this much
easier than previous designs. Speed and efficiency of
the new sortation line exceeded that of the first-installed
system.
Summarize Technical Paper
Title: With 20 million nodes,
Profibus says it's mainstream.
Source: Control Engineering, 54 (9): 31,
September 01, 2007. ISSN: 0010-8049
Publisher: Reed Business Information
Document Type: Journal
Publication Country: United States,
Language: English

Summarize Technical Paper
The Profibus Trade Organization (PTO) commemorated
20 million installed nodes world-wide (as of April 2007).
Profibus digital industrial network and fieldbus
technology are mainstream for general applications.
Examining fieldbus platforms at the end of 2006,
Profibus claims a 46% market share by node count.
The organization projects the 30 million node milestone
could be passed as early as March, 2009.
PTO estimates that when all the instrumentation and
peripheral equipment to support those networks are
included, the total market value for those 20 million
nodes exceeds $50 billion.
These numbers should tell an end user that fieldbus
technology is mainstream. It is operating today in all
types of plant environments.
Profibus
Profibus is a vendor-independent, open fieldbus
standard for a wide range of applications in
manufacturing, and process automation. Devices
configured by different manufacturers can communicate
without special interface adjustments. Profibus can be
used for both high-speed, time-critical data transmission
and extensive complex communication tasks.
Profibus family consists of three compatible versions:
Profibus-FMS (Fieldbus Message Specification)
Profibus-DP (Decentralized Peripherals)
Profibus-PA (Process Automation)

PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus) is the most popular fieldbus today
How integrates?
Factory
Level
Cell
Level
Field
Level
Bus Cycle
Time
< 1000 ms
Bus Cycle
Time
< 100 ms
Bus Cycle
Time
< 10 ms
MMS, TCP/IP Backbone
Profibus-FMS
Profibus-DP Profibus-PA
I/O
Drive
Valves
Field
Device
Trans-
mitter
Field
Device
Area
Controller
Video
http://www.easydeltav.com/video/product/f
oundation_fieldbus.asp
http://www.easydeltav.com/video/product/i
ndex.asp