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Discourse Analysis and Grammar

Pragmatics and The Language Teachers
Group 4
1. Destia D. Mulyani
2. Mariska Tiara Sari
3. Ummu Hani
Discourse Analysis and Grammar
Grammatical Cohesion and Textuality
Reference (co-reference)
Ellipsis/ Substitution
Include pronouns (e.g. he, she, it, him, they ,etc.)
Demonstratives (this, that, these, those)
Article the, items like such a
In Indonesia means ACUAN

Looking Outward : Exophoric
Referring to something outside the text
Did the gardener water those plants?
those refers to the environment in which the
dialogue is taking place. The interpretation would be
those plants there, in front of us
Looking Backward :
Anaphoric Reference
Referring upward to previously mentioned words
For many years, East German people devised creative ways to
sneak out of East Germany. Some people dug tunnels; others
tried crashing through checkpoints with cars, trucks, or busses;
still others flew out in small airplanes or balloons, one woman
tied herself to the bottom of a car and passed through a
checkpoint unnoticed. And one family sewed fake Russian
uniform for themselves; then they pretended to be Russian
soldiers and simply drove through a checkpoint. Some
desperate people tried scrambling over a barbed-wire fence or
a wall. These people were often shot.
Looking Forward:
Cataphoric Reference
Referring downward to subsequent words, which has
not introduced before
When he arrived home, John went to sleep.
If you want some, heres some parmesan cheese
A Little girl, Jessica, was playing on the swings.
Pragmatics is the study of how language is used and
the effect of context on language.
Pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation of
linguistic meaning in context. (Emmie Lie, 2008)
The example in Palembang Language:
Father: Adi, pacak kau bukake pintu gerbang?
(Adi, bisakah kamu membuka pintu gerbang?)

Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis is the study of the ways in
which language is used in texts and contexts.

Developed in the 1970s, discourse analysis "concerns itself
with the use of language in a running discourse, continued
over a number of sentences, and involving the interaction of
speaker (or writer) and listener (or reader) in a specific
situational context, and within a framework of social and
cultural conventions" (M.H. Abrams and G.G. Harpham, A
Glossary of Literary Terms, 2005).
The Similarities between pragmatics
and discourse analysis
The study of context, text, and function of the
The differences between Pragmatics
and Discourse Analysis

Pragmatics Discourse Analysis
Focus on the principles
of the discourse, such
as cooperative
principles (cooperation
between the speaker),
and the principles of
Focus on the structure
of the text, such as the
structure of
exchanging role in
conversation analysis,
and sociolinguistic
Man : The Professor spoke one hundred
miles per hour.
Woman : What does the man mean?
Example of TOEFL Question in the Listening
Why do the language teachers
need to learn Pragmatics?
In the Classroom Outside of Classroom
Limited Unlimited
Form Function
Formal Informal
The Differences between Oral Language in the
Classroom and Outside of Classroom
Language ability
Level of closeness
Non-linguistic factors that influence
NNS1 : I have something for you and your wife.
NS : Wow, thank you.
NNS1 : But, Im not sure whether it will fit your wife.
NNS2 : I didnt know that she is
NS : a four size lady.