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when the listener does not know which person or

thing we are talking about.

when we refer to something for the first time.

when we describe something.

when we describe a job or the character of a

when a / an mean one.
with plurals and uncountable nouns when we are talking

with most countries, states and cities.

with geographical areas, lakes, mountains and islands.

common expressions relating to particular places.
to, in out of: bed, church, hospital, prison
to, at, from: college, school, university, work

names of buildings with a place name before.

names or before Mr, Mrs, Ms, Miss, Dr, Professor, etc
and the persons name.

general historic references.

with methods of transport. We use by instead.

with certain buildings, where the purpose of the
building is more important than the place itself.

before school subjects / languages

before meals, days, months, holidays and festivals
and special days
The kids love Christmas.
when it is clear which thing or person we are talking

when we refer to something that we mentioned before,
using a / an.

with phrases including of

when there is only one of something.
I love watching the sun go down

for nationalities and other groups:
the disabled, the poor, the blind

with musical instruments


fixed phrases
names of ships
oceans, rivers, seas, groups of mountains
hotels, cinemas, theatres, museums
with the points of the compass
when you are talking about a system or
service: on the radio, on the telephone
I need to buy ________new shirt.
We ate two sandwiches and _____ large cake. ______
cake was filled with cream.
Theres some hot water in _____ kettle. Can you make
_____ cup of tea?
Look! Theres _____ big kite in _____ sky.
Paul McCartney plays _____ guitar.
______ Tajo is the longest river in Spain.
There was _____ garden for ______ blind.
It was _____ best book I had ever read.
Its much colder in ____ north of Spain than in _____
______ Trafalgar Square is _____ most famous square in
_____ London.

We didnt have _______ breakfast at the hotel.
_____ Mount Everest is ______ mountain in _____
_____ Women live longer than _____ men.
She writes about ______ love and ______ death.
He is _______ Italian businessman.
I love both _____ sea and _____ mountains.
What time is _____ lunch?
I must go to _____ post office.
She made _____ angry speech against _____
Susan drove from _____ Heathrow Airport to _____
Stansted Airport.