Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

Evolution of Warfare

Warfighting MCDP-1
Learning Objectives
Be familiar with the concepts of
Friction
Uncertainty
Fluidity
The Human Dimension
Understand the spectrum of conflict and levels of war
Understand the difference between maneuver and
attrition warfare
Understand critical vulnerability vs. center of gravity
Understand the concept of exploitation
Readings
Warfighting, MCDP-1
Warfighting
Very simply, this publication describes the philosophy which
distinguishes the U.S. Marine Corps. The thoughts contained here
are not merely guidance for action in combat but a way of thinking.
This publication provides the authoritative basis for how we fight
and how we prepare to fight. This book contains no specific
techniques or procedures for conduct. Rather, it provides broad
guidance in the form of concepts and values. It requires judgment in
application.
Gen A. M. Gray
Definition of War
WHAT IS IT?
War is a violent clash of interests between or
among organized groups characterized by the
use of military force. p. 3
The imposition of one will on another.
Friction
The force that makes the apparently easy so
difficult. Clausewitz
The inherent difficulty encountered by two sides
who have differing aims.
indecision
obstacles
weather/terrain
lack of defined goal
Cant eliminate it; we must learn to deal with and
overcome it. Human will.

Uncertanity
Fog of War
Unknowns about:
Enemy
Environment
Friendly
Unpredictability & Judgment
What is possible and what is not?
What is probable and what is not? Enemy estimate!
One of the main reasons we study military history.
LEARN TO USE IT/MINIMIZE ITS IMPACT
Simple plans w/ contingencies
Foster initiative
Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)

Fluidity
Tempo of operations will fluctuate
The constant flow of actions and counter-actions
created by unique combination of circumstances
Requires flexibility & adaptability on our part.

Combat is characterized by brief periods of utter
chaos followed by long stretches of complete
boredom

Disorder
Friction, uncertainty, and fluidity create disorder
CHAOS
@*!$ happens
Chaos favors opportunistic will
Influence the flow of action
Do not try to control each event
Complexity
Tempo often too fast for one central commander to control.
Information overload
Even the most simple of plans has many, many moving
parts (usually called Marines or Soldiers).
We will not centralize decision making
Call higher for permission or guidance when action must
be taken
Its why we have Commanders Intent
Beirut & unloaded weapons

Human Dimension
Encompasses all of the failings and
achievements of man.
Violence, Danger, Fear
Physical and Moral forces
Stamina
Fires
Human will, instilled through leadership, is the
driving force of all action in war.

Human Dimension
Any doctrine which attempts to reduce warfare to
ratios of forces, weapons, and equipment neglects
the impact of the human will on the conduct of
war and is therefore inherently flawed.
Robert McNamara

Evolution of Warfare
Nature of war remains
Technology
Weapons
Communications
Tactics/Operations/Strategy


War as Policy
Warfare will reflect (serve) policy
Extreme Policy Motive: Wars tendency toward
destruction will be less hindered by political
restrictions. (Japan & the Big One)
Limited Policy Motive: Political considerations will
restrict force application. (Beirut)
Two approaches
strategy of annihilation
WWII
strategy of erosion
Iraq

Spectrum of Conflict
HIGH
MEDIUM
LOW
MOOTW
The Three Block War

Levels of War
Strategic
National strategy
Military strategy

Operational

Tactical

Initiative vs. Response
Initiative is not the same as OFFENSE
Taking the initiative may mean digging in.
Response is not the same as DEFENSE
Your response to an act may be to attack.
Which of the two concepts is stronger?
Offense vs. Defense
Offense = striking power
Defense = resisting power
Components of one another

Culminating Point point where the offense
runs out of gas and we assume a defensive
posture.

Styles of Warfare
MANEUVER
Blitzkrieg
Inchon

ATTRITION
WW I
Maginot Line
USSR
Combat Power
Total force that can be brought to bear.
Tangibles and intangibles
Speed and Focus
Speed is rapidity of action.
Tempo is speed averaged over time
Only RELATIVE speed matters
Focus is the convergence of effects in time
and space on an objective.
Can achieve decisive local superiority for a
numerically inferior force
Involves risk
Focus by all elements on the OBJECTIVE
Surprise and Boldness
Surprise (disorientation)
Enemy awareness
comes too late
Adds to Combat Power
because of psych
effect
Its not what we do; its
enemys reaction to
what we do
Boldness
Unhesitating
exploitation
Must not be reckless
use of assets

Center of Gravity
The whole enchilada, the big deal, the heart.
An enemys source of strength.

Which factors are critical to the enemy? Which
can the enemy not do without? Which, if
eliminated,will bend him most quickly to our will?
Critical Vunerability
An enemy source of weakness. A pathway to
attacking a Center of Gravity.
we should focus our efforts against a critical
vulnerability, a vulnerability that, if exploited,will
do the most significant damage to the enemys
ability to resist us.

Exploitation
Taking advantage of any given situation, or
better yet, taking advantage of the situation
which YOU created.

Review
What is war?
Concepts:
Friction
Uncertainty
Fluidity
Human Dimension
Spectrum of conflict and levels of war
Maneuver vs attrition
Critical vulnerability vs. center of gravity