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# Exercise 4.

14:
HES2155 Geomechanics
For the soil block shown, determine:
(a) The minor and major principle stresses.
(b) The angle of the major and minor principle planes.
(c) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the pole method.
(d) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the formulas.

Shear Stress, t (kPa)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
Normal Stress (kPa)
For your chart, use a scale of 1 mm = 1 kPa
80 kPa
80 kPa
20 kPa
20 kPa
o
normal

t
t
o
normal

20 kPa
36
Exercise 4.14:
HES2155 Geomechanics
For the soil block shown, determine:
(a) The minor and major principle stresses.
(b) The angle of the major and minor principle planes.
(c) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the pole method.
(d) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the formulas.

80 kPa
80 kPa
20 kPa
20 kPa
o
normal

t
t
o
normal

20 kPa
36
20 kPa
Shear Stress, t (kPa)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
Normal Stress (kPa)
First, plot the resultant external forces.
Exercise 4.14:
HES2155 Geomechanics
For the soil block shown, determine:
(a) The minor and major principle stresses.
(b) The angle of the major and minor principle planes.
(c) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the pole method.
(d) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the formulas.

Shear Stress, t (kPa)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
Normal Stress (kPa)
Second, draw a line joining the two plotted
points to locate the center of the Mohr circle .
Center
80 kPa
80 kPa
20 kPa
20 kPa
o
normal

t
t
o
normal

20 kPa
36
Exercise 4.14:
HES2155 Geomechanics
For the soil block shown, determine:
(a) The minor and major principle stresses.
(b) The angle of the major and minor principle planes.
(c) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the pole method.
(d) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the formulas.

Shear Stress, t (kPa)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
Normal Stress (kPa)
Third, draw the Mohr Circle.
Center
80 kPa
80 kPa
20 kPa
20 kPa
o
normal

t
t
o
normal

20 kPa
36
Exercise 4.14:
HES2155 Geomechanics
For the soil block shown, determine:
(a) The minor and major principle stresses.
(b) The angle of the major and minor principle planes.
(c) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the pole method.
(d) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the formulas.

Shear Stress, t (kPa)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
Normal Stress (kPa)
Calculate the minor principle stress
Center
3
= o
kPa 4 94 . 13 056 . 36 50 Therefore,
3
= = o
056 . 36 30 20
2
2 2
2
2
= + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
h v
o o
t
o
3
= 13.9 kPa
80 kPa
80 kPa
20 kPa
20 kPa
o
normal

t
t
o
normal

20 kPa
36
Exercise 4.14:
HES2155 Geomechanics
For the soil block shown, determine:
(a) The minor and major principle stresses.
(b) The angle of the major and minor principle planes.
(c) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the pole method.
(d) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the formulas.

Shear Stress, t (kPa)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
Normal Stress (kPa)
Calculate the major principle stress
Center
1
+ = o
kPa 056 . 86 056 . 36 50 Therefore,
1
= + = o
o
3
= 13.9 kPa
o
1
= 86.1 kPa
80 kPa
80 kPa
20 kPa
20 kPa
o
normal

t
t
o
normal

20 kPa
36
Exercise 4.14:
HES2155 Geomechanics
For the soil block shown, determine:
(a) The minor and major principle stresses.
(b) The angle of the major and minor principle planes.
(c) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the pole method.
(d) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the formulas.

Apply the Pole Method:
Shear Stress, t (kPa)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
Normal Stress (kPa)
Center
o
3
= 13.9 kPa
o
1
= 86.1 kPa
1. Choose one of the external planes on
the soil block and replicate it on the
Mohr circle to locate the origin of poles.
Origin of Poles
80 kPa
80 kPa
20 kPa
20 kPa
o
normal

t
t
o
normal

20 kPa
36
Exercise 4.14:
HES2155 Geomechanics
For the soil block shown, determine:
(a) The minor and major principle stresses.
(b) The angle of the major and minor principle planes.
(c) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the pole method.
(d) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the formulas.

Shear Stress, t (kPa)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
Normal Stress (kPa)
Center
o
3
= 13.9 kPa
o
1
= 86.1 kPa
Origin of Poles
2. The minor and major principle planes
always intersect between the origin of
poles and the relevant principle stress.
The angle of the principle planes is often
measured from the normal stress axis.
Minor Principle Plane
Major Principle Plane
80 kPa
80 kPa
20 kPa
20 kPa
o
normal

t
t
o
normal

20 kPa
36
Exercise 4.14:
HES2155 Geomechanics
For the soil block shown, determine:
(a) The minor and major principle stresses.
(b) The angle of the major and minor principle planes.
(c) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the pole method.
(d) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the formulas.

Shear Stress, t (kPa)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
Normal Stress (kPa)
Center
o
3
= 13.9 kPa
o
1
= 86.1 kPa
Origin of Poles
3. Now replicate the inclined plane
on the Mohr circle to determine
the normal and shear stress
acting on the inclined plane.
36
t = 35 kPa
o
normal
= 40.3 kPa
80 kPa
80 kPa
20 kPa
20 kPa
o
normal

t
t
o
normal

20 kPa
36
Exercise 4.14:
HES2155 Geomechanics
For the soil block shown, determine:
(a) The minor and major principle stresses (o
1
= 86.1 kPa and o
3
= 13.9 kPa).
(b) The angle of the major and minor principle planes.
(c) The normal and shear stress on the inclined plane (o
n
= 40.3 kPa and t = 35 kPa).
(d) The normal and shear stress acting on the inclined plane using the formulas.

Checking answers by formulas (part d)
kPa .1 86 056 . 36 50
2 2
2
2
1
= + =
|
.
|

\
|

+ +
+
=
hori zontal verti cal verti cal hori zontal
o o
t
o o
o
kPa 44 9 . 13 056 . 36 50
2 2
2
2
3
= =
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
=
hori zontal verti cal verti cal hori zontal
o o
t
o o
o
u t u
o o o o
o 2 sin 2 cos
2 2
: Plane inclined On +
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
h v h v
normal
kPa 5 2 . 40 36 2 sin ) 20 ( 36 2 cos
2
20 80
2
20 80
= +
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
normal
o
u t u
o o
t 2 cos 2 sin
2
and
|
.
|

\
|

=
h v
kPa 4.71 3 36 2 cos ) 20 ( 36 2 sin
2
20 80
=
|
.
|

\
|

= t
Note: the external shear
stress is considered ve.
80 kPa
80 kPa
20 kPa
20 kPa
o
normal

t
t
o
normal

20 kPa
36