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# • A long flexible strips of metal used by draftspersons to lay out the surfaces of

f airplanes, cars and ships • Ducks weights attached to the splines were used to pull the spline in differe nt directions • The metal splines had second order continuity 10/10/2008 Lecture 5 2 " id="pdf-obj-1-13" src="pdf-obj-1-13.jpg">

# • The metal splines had second order continuity

f airplanes, cars and ships • Ducks weights attached to the splines were used to pull the spline in differe nt directions • The metal splines had second order continuity 10/10/2008 Lecture 5 2 " id="pdf-obj-1-27" src="pdf-obj-1-27.jpg">

12
4
8
t

X(t)‏
t
t
Lecture 5
10/10/2008

# • Cubic B-splines with uniform knot-vector is the most commonly used form of B-splines

 ( )  X t t T MQ (i) where : Q  (i) x ( i    1 3  3 1  3  6 3 M  t  T 6  (  3   1 t t i    ) , ( 4 0 t 3  t 3 1 2 ) i , t i : knots, 3  i

3

t

t
)
i
t
i
t
0
0
,
i  1
0
1
, ...,
for
,1
x
i
 
t
Lecture 5
7

# • t 9to t 10is the last interval

m
8
10/10/2008
Lecture 5
6
m+1
4
0
8
3
t
Computer Graphics
Domain of the function
• Order k, Degree k-1
• Control points Pi (i=0,…,m)
Knots : tj, (j=0,…, k + m)
• The domain of the function tk-1 ≦ t≦ tm+1
– Below, k = 4, m = 9,
domain, t3 ≦ t≦ t10
0
t
m+1
3

Lecture 5
10/10/2008

Q 3
P0
P2
P3
P1
Lecture 5
10/10/2008

# Second segment Q 4is defined by point P 1through P 4over the range t 4= 1 to t 5= 2.

P3
P4
Q 4
P2
P1
Lecture 5
10/10/2008

### 12

Computer Graphics
B-Spline :
A more general definition
A Bspline of order k is a parametric curve composed of a linear
combination of basis B-splines Bi,n
Pi (i=0,…,m) the control points
Knots: tj, j=0,…, k + m
The B-splines can be defined by
m
p t
( )
P B
( )
t
i
i n
,
i  0
1, t
 
t
t
i
i
1
B
( ) 
t
i ,1
0, otherwise
t
t
t
t
i
i
k
B
( )
t
B
( )
t
B
( )
t
i k
,
i
,
k 
1
i
1,
k
1
t
t
t
t
10/10/2008
i
  1
k
Lecture 5
i
i
  1
k
i
13

P2
P0
P3
P1

P0
P2
P4
P3
P1

P0
P1=P2
P4
P3
Lecture 5
10/10/2008

# Triple control point.

P0
P1=P2=P3
P4
Lecture 5
10/10/2008

## convex hulls.

### 23

Computer Graphics
Controlling the shape through knots
• Smoothness increases with order k in B i,k
Quadratic, k = 3, gives up to C 1 continuity.
– Cubic, k = 4 gives up to C 2 continuity.
However, we can lower continuity order too with Multiple
Knots,
ie.
Knots are coincident and so
t i = t i+1 = t i+2 = …
now we have non-uniform knot intervals.
• A knot with multiplicity p is continuous to the
(k-1-p)th derivative.
• A knot with multiplicity k has no continuity at all, i.e. the
curve is broken at that knot.
 1, t
 
t
t
i
i
1
B
( ) 
t
i ,1
0, otherwise
t
t
t
t
i
i
k
10/10/2008
Lecture 5
B
( )
t
B
( )
t
B
( )
t
24
i k
,
i
,
k 
1
i
1,
k
1
t
t
t
t
i
  1
k
i
i
  1
k
i